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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 47010 matches for " Newton Robert U "
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Factors influencing overweight children's commencement of and continuation in a resistance training program
Melanie Pescud, Simone Pettigrew, Michael R McGuigan, Robert U Newton
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-709
Abstract: Parent-child pairs who participated in the trial program were invited to take part in a follow-up individual interview to discuss their program experiences. In total, 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 parent-child pairs.The factors found to be most relevant to program commencement among parents were a desire for their child to lose weight and gain confidence, the proximity of the venue, and no cost for participation. For children, the most relevant factors were the opportunity to build strength and improve fitness and having supportive parents who facilitated program initiation. The factors most relevant to continuation for parents were the quality of the program management, being able to stay for the sessions, the child's improved weight status, coordination, and confidence, and no cost for participation. Weight loss and improved confidence were also motivators for continuation among the children, along with pleasant social interaction with peers and trainers and ongoing parental support.Different factors variably influence program commencement and program continuation in both parents and children. This has important implications for future interventions that aim to successfully recruit and retain intervention participants.Overweight and obesity in Australia constitute a widespread health problem that has been named a national priority by the National Preventative Health Taskforce [1]. Child overweight and obesity are particularly concerning because weight problems in childhood typically continue into adulthood [2,3]. One in four Australian children are currently overweight or obese [4], representing a substantial increase over the 1985 figures of 9% of boys and 10% of girls [5].Overweight and obese children can experience numerous problems as a result of their weight status. These include neurological [6], gastroenterological [7,8], and orthopaedic complications [9]. Emotional problems are also common because overweight and obese children are mo
Can exercise ameliorate treatment toxicity during the initial phase of testosterone deprivation in prostate cancer patients? Is this more effective than delayed rehabilitation?
Newton Robert U,Taaffe Dennis R,Spry Nigel,Cormie Prue
BMC Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-432
Abstract: Background There has been substantial increase in use of androgen deprivation therapy as adjuvant management of prostate cancer. However, this leads to a range of musculoskeletal toxicities including reduced bone mass and increased skeletal fractures compounded with rapid metabolic alterations, including increased body fat, reduced lean mass, insulin resistance and negative lipoprotein profile, increased incidence of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity, greater distress and reduced quality of life. Numerous research studies have demonstrated certain exercise prescriptions to be effective at preventing or even reversing these treatment toxicities. However, all interventions to date have been of rehabilitative intent being implemented after a minimum of 3 months since initiation of androgen deprivation, by which time considerable physical and psychological health problems have manifested. The pressing question is whether it is more efficacious to commence exercise therapy at the same time as initiating androgen deprivation, so treatment induced adverse effects can be immediately attenuated or indeed prevented. Methods/design We are proposing a multi-site randomized controlled trial with partial crossover to examine the effects of timing of exercise implementation (immediate or delayed) on preserving long-term skeletal health, reversing short- and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, and supporting mental health in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy. 124 men who are about to initiate androgen deprivation for prostate cancer will be randomized to immediate or delayed groups. Immediate will commence a 6-month exercise program within 7–10 days of their first dose. Delayed will receive usual care for 6 months and then commence the exercise program for 6 months (partial cross-over). Immediate will be free to adopt the lifestyle of their choosing following the initial 6-month intervention. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Discussion This project is unique as it explores a fundamental question of when exercise implementation will be of most benefit and addresses both physical and psychological consequences of androgen deprivation initiation. The final outcome may be adjunct treatment which will reduce if not prevent the toxicities of androgen deprivation, ultimately resulting in reduced morbidity and mortality for men with prostate cancer. Trial registration ACTRN12612000097842
Discriminating between elderly and young using a fractal dimension analysis of centre of pressure
Doyle Tim L. A.,Dugan Eric L.,Humphries Brendan,Newton Robert U.
International Journal of Medical Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: The aim of this project was to evaluate the use of a new analysis technique, fractal dimension analysis, for quantification of quiet stance centre of pressure (COP). By using a fractal dimension analysis of COP, it might be possible to gain more information about control during quiet stance than traditional analyses have previously allowed. The current project considered a group of young healthy participants and a group of elderly healthy participants to compare traditional measures of COP against a fractal dimension analysis of COP. Results indicated that both types of analyses are able to distinguish between eyes open and eyes closed in the elderly group. However, the fractal dimension analysis more accurately detected differences between the participant groups when standing with their eyes closed. Based on these results it is suggested that fractal dimension analysis is more informative about posture control than traditional measures. It is suggested that a fractal dimension type of analysis can be incorporated into clinical testing to identify patients with pathologies.
On Lusternik-Schnirelmann Category of Connected Sums
Robert Newton
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper we estimate the Lusternik-Schnirelmann category of the connected sum of two manifolds through their categories. We achieve a more general result regarding the category of a quotient space X/A where A is a suitable subspace of X.
A phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer
Robert U Newton, Dennis R Taaffe, Nigel Spry, Robert A Gardiner, Gregory Levin, Bradley Wall, David Joseph, Suzanne K Chambers, Daniel A Galv?o
BMC Cancer , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-210
Abstract: Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 195 men (65 subjects per arm) undergoing treatment for prostate cancer involving ADT in the cities of Perth and Brisbane in Australia. Participants will be randomized to (1) resistance/impact loading exercise, (2) resistance/cardiovascular exercise groups and (3) usual care/delayed exercise. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 12 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months (end of the intervention).The principal outcome of this project will be the determination of the strength of effect of exercise on the well established musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and insulin metabolism side effects of androgen deprivation in prostate cancer patients. As this project is much longer term than previous investigations in the area of exercise and cancer, we will gain knowledge as to the continuing effects of exercise in this patient population specifically targeting bone density, cardiovascular function, lean and fat mass, physical function and falls risk as primary study endpoints. In terms of advancement of prostate cancer care, we expect dissemination of the knowledge gained from this project to reduce fracture risk, improve physical and functional ability, quality of life and ultimately survival rate in this population.A Phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer; ACTRN12609000200280Worldwide prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men representing 19% of cancers among men in developed countries [1]. With the aging of the population in developed and developing countries the incidence of all cancers, which are normally higher in those aged > 65 years, is predicted to substantially rise, particularly for colon and prostate cancer which are well established aging-related cancers [2]. Advancing age not only increases the vulnerability to cancer but also the risk for other como
Living with prostate cancer: randomised controlled trial of a multimodal supportive care intervention for men with prostate cancer
Suzanne K Chambers, Robert U Newton, Afaf Girgis, Lisa Nielsen, Stephen Lepore, Cathrine Mihalopoulos, RA Gardiner, Daniel A Galv?o, Stefano Occhipinti
BMC Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-317
Abstract: A two arm randomised controlled trial will compare usual care to a multimodal supportive care intervention "Living with Prostate Cancer" that will combine self-management with tele-based group peer support. A series of previously validated and reliable self-report measures will be administered to men at four time points: baseline/recruitment (when men are approximately 3-6 months post-diagnosis) and at 3, 6, and 12 months after recruitment and intervention commencement. Social constraints, social support, self-efficacy, group cohesion and therapeutic alliance will be included as potential moderators/mediators of intervention effect. Primary outcomes are unmet supportive care needs and physical activity levels. Secondary outcomes are domain-specific and health-related quality of life (QoL); psychological distress; benefit finding; body mass index and waist circumference. Disease variables (e.g. cancer grade, stage) will be assessed through medical and cancer registry records. An economic evaluation will be conducted alongside the randomised trial.This study will address a critical but as yet unanswered research question: to identify a population-based way to reduce unmet supportive care needs; promote regular physical activity; and improve disease-specific and health-related QoL for prostate cancer survivors. The study will also determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention.ACTRN12611000392965Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in developed countries (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) [1]. In 2004 nearly 100,000 Australian men were living with a diagnosis [2]; and in Australian men aged 60 years and over, prostate cancer accounted for 4.9% of total disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and 17.8% of cancer-related DALYs as at 2003 [3]. With increasing incidence and 10-year survival currently around 77% [2] the large cohort of men in our community living with the sequelae of diagnosis is increasing. Therefore, the well-being of men with prostate ca
A randomized controlled trial of an exercise intervention targeting cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors for prostate cancer patients from the RADAR trial
Daniel A Galv?o, Nigel Spry, Dennis R Taaffe, James Denham, David Joseph, David S Lamb, Greg Levin, Gillian Duchesne, Robert U Newton
BMC Cancer , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-419
Abstract: Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 370 men from the RADAR study cohort undergoing treatment or previously treated for prostate cancer involving androgen deprivation therapy in the cities of Perth and Newcastle (Australia), and Wellington (New Zealand). Participants will be randomized to (1) supervised resistance/aerobic exercise or (2) printed material comprising general physical activity recommendations. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 6 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 months (end of intervention), and at 6 months follow-up.This study uses a large existent cohort of patients and will generate valuable information as to the continuing effects of exercise specifically targeting cardiovascular function and disease risk, insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, physical function, quality of life and psychological distress. We expect dissemination of the knowledge gained from this project to reduce risk factors for the development of co-morbid diseases commonly associated with androgen deprivation therapy such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, metabolic disease and diabetes, as well as improvements in physical and functional ability, and quality of life.ACTRN12609000729224Advancing age increases the vulnerability to cancer and the risk for other comorbid conditions (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, arthritis and sarcopenia) [1] that can compromise physical function and independent living, ultimately culminating in death. The high prevalence of cancer and comorbidity-related conditions, apart from exacting a high personal, family and community cost, places a heavy burden on the health care system. Lifestyle interventions that can ameliorate toxicities of treatment, and improve ability to self care are seen as highly desirable.Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) leads to a number of adverse effects including deterioration of the musculoskeletal system and increased ri
Lifestyle Factors, Medication Use and Risk for Ischaemic Heart Disease Hospitalisation: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study
Anthony S. Gunnell, Kristjana Einarsdóttir, Daniel A. Galv?o, Sarah Joyce, Stephania Tomlin, Vicki Graham, Caroline McIntyre, Robert U. Newton, Tom Briffa
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077833
Abstract: Background Lifestyle factors have been implicated in ischaemic heart disease (IHD) development however a limited number of longitudinal studies report results stratified by cardio-protective medication use. Purpose This study investigated the influence of self-reported lifestyle factors on hospitalisation for IHD, stratified by blood pressure and/or lipid-lowering therapy. Methods A population-based cohort of 14,890 participants aged 45+ years and IHD-free was identified from the Western Australian Health and wellbeing Surveillance System (2004 to 2010 inclusive), and linked with hospital administrative data. Adjusted hazard ratios for future IHD-hospitalisation were estimated using Cox regression. Results Current smokers remained at higher risk for IHD-hospitalisation (adjusted HR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.22-2.03) after adjustment for medication use, as did those considered overweight (BMI=25-29 kg/m2; adjusted HR=1.28; 95% CI: 1.04-1.57) or obese (BMI of ≥30kg/m2; adjusted HR=1.31; 95% CI: 1.03-1.66). Weekly leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) of 150 minutes or more and daily intake of 3 or more fruit/vegetable servings reduced risk by 21% (95% CI: 0.64-0.97) and 26% (95% CI: 0.58-0.96) respectively. Benefits of LTPA appeared greatest in those on blood pressure lowering medication (adjusted HR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.31-0.82 [for LTPA<150 mins], adjusted HR=0.64; 95% CI: 0.42-0.96 [for LTPA>=150 mins]). IHD risk in smokers was most pronounced in those taking neither medication (adjusted HR=2.00; 95% CI: 1.41-2.83). Conclusion This study confirms the contribution of previously reported lifestyle factors towards IHD hospitalisation, even after adjustment for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medication use. Medication stratified results suggest that IHD risks related to LTPA and smoking may differ according to medication use.
A Review of Preventative Methods against Human Leishmaniasis Infection
Lisa Stockdale ,Robert Newton
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002278
Abstract: Background Leishmaniasis is an intracellular parasitic infection transmitted to humans via the sandfly. Approximately 350 million people are at risk of contracting the disease and an estimated 1.6 million new cases occur annually. Of the two main forms, visceral and cutaneous, the visceral form is fatal in 85–90% of untreated cases. Aims This literature review aims to identify and evaluate the current evidence base for the use of various preventative methods against human leishmaniasis. Methods A literature search was performed of the relevant database repositories for primary research conforming to a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 84 controlled studies investigating 12 outcome measures were identified, implementing four broad categories of preventative interventions: animal reservoir control, vector population control, human reservoir control and a category for multiple concurrently implemented interventions. The primary studies investigated a heterogeneous mix of outcome measures using a range of different methods. Conclusions This review highlights an absence of research measuring human-specific outcomes (35% of the total) across all intervention categories. The apparent inability of study findings to be generalizable across different geographic locations, points towards gaps in knowledge regarding the biology of transmission of Leishmania in different settings. More research is needed which investigates human infection as the primary outcome measure as opposed to intermediate surrogate markers, with a focus on developing a human vaccine.
Efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal exercise program in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases: a randomized controlled trial
Daniel A Galv?o, Dennis R Taaffe, Prue Cormie, Nigel Spry, Suzanne K Chambers, Carolyn Peddle-McIntyre, Michael Baker, James Denham, David Joseph, Geoff Groom, Robert U Newton
BMC Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-517
Abstract: Multi-site randomized controlled trial in Western Australia and New South Wales to examine the efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal physical exercise program in 90 prostate cancer survivors with bone metastases. Participants will be randomized to (1) modular multi-modal exercise intervention group or (2) usual medical care group. The modular multi-modal exercise group will receive a 3-month supervised exercise program based on bone lesion location/extent. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 3 months (end of the intervention) and 6 months follow-up.Delaying or preventing skeletal complication and improving physical function for men with bone metastases would provide clinically meaningful benefits to patients. However, exercise programs must be designed and executed with careful consideration of the skeletal complications associated with bone metastatic disease and cumulative toxicities from androgen deprivation such as osteoporosis and increased risk of fractures. The results from this study will form the basis for the development of a specific exercise prescription in this patient group in order to alleviate disease burden, counteract the adverse treatment related side-effects and enhance quality of life.ACTRN: ACTRN12611001158954Metastases to bone occurs in approximately 80% of men with advanced prostate cancer [1] and the majority of these patients are at risk of developing pathological fractures, hypercalcemia, bone marrow suppression and nerve compressions or spinal cord compressions that result in significant morbidity, limited function and decreased quality of life [2-4]. The clinical course of metastatic bone disease in prostate cancer survivors is relatively long, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 30% [5]. Prostate cancer causes predominately sclerotic lesions and commonly metastasize to the pelvis and axial skeleton [6]. Therefore, patients with bone metastases experience considerable morbidity re
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