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OALib Journal期刊

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Exercitium pietatis — Calvin’s interpretation of the Lord’s Prayer
WH Neuser
Acta Theologica , 2008,
Abstract: This article examines Calvin’s interpretation of the Lord’s Prayer by scrutinising it in the successive editions of his Institutes, the 1537 Catechism, the 1542 Geneva Catechism, the short paraphrase for the Geneva liturgy (1542), the exegesis of the Lord’s Prayer in the 1555 commentary or harmony of the Gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke), and his explanation of the questions and answers for the 43rd Sunday of the 1542 Geneva Catechism (c. 1563). These sources reveal that, in the texts prior to 1555, Calvin placed a dogmatic emphasis on the six petitions. Later he shifted his attention to the actual practice of prayer. Initially he tried to understand the correct theological meaning of the Lord’s Prayer; later he urged the person who prays to use it correctly. At the outset the theologian spoke, later he became the pastor of souls. A comparison of the various texts reveals that throughout his life Calvin endeavoured to enhance his understanding of the Lord’s Prayer and its meaning.
A forma o e o conceito de indivíduo na Renascen a =The education and the concept of the individual in the Renaissance
Neuser, Wolfgang
Educa??o , 2011,
Abstract: Este artigo discute o desenvolvimento do conceito de forma o na Renascen a. Com base na investiga o dos textos de Lutero, Erasmo e Pico della Mirandola, examina três diferentes modelos pedagógicos, que constituem a mentalidade renascentista. Desse modo, reconstrói o horizonte interpretativo no qual assume destaque o conceito de indivíduo.
Calvin's theologisches "Leitmotiv" cognitio dei et nostri“ in der "Institutio" von 1536
W.N Neuser
Acta Theologica , 2004,
Abstract: CALVIN’S THEOLOGICAL LEITMOTIF COGNITIO DEI ET NOSTRI“ IN THE INSTITUTES OF 1536 The first sentence and fundamental notion of Calvin’s 1536 Institutes cognitio Dei et nostri“ has, except for Gerhard Ebeling, not been a key feature investigation. Ebeling though, being Lutheran himself, interpreted this sentence in a Lutheran way. However, the summa sacrae doctrinae of which Calvin speaks in this context is a well defined doctrinal structure. Calvin thinks in gradual terms: The part De Deo includes statements about God in general and the part on cognitio nostri includes statements about man and God in particular. Calvin teaches a process of acknowledgement and knowledge: Creation, Fall of man, Law and Gospel follow one another; the Law also incorporates salvation. Calvin thinks in a pastoral way; knowledge of God and of ourselves (i.e. not self-knowledge nor knowledge of man) functions always in an alternating dynamic manner: God — we — God etc. This means that Calvin reflects on God and man in terms of a relationship, in which man is always addressed personally.
Die übersetzung des Genfer Katechismus (1542/1545) ins Deutsche durch Zacharias Ursinus im Jahr 1563
W.H. Neuser
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v74i4.143
Abstract: The translation of the Genevan Catechism (1542/1545) into German by Zacharias Ursinus in 1563 It is with considerable surprise that one finds in the “Opera Selecta Calvini” vol. 2 a German translation of Calvin’s Geneva Catechism (1542/1545). The translation dates from 1563, and originated in Heidelberg. Even more surprising is the translator – none other than Zacharias Ursinus, one of the chief com-posers of the Heidelberg Catechism, which was also penned in 1563. The impression could be created that Calvin’s Catechism was intended at the outset to achieve the position later attained by the Heidelberg Catechism. The title of the German translation of Calvin’s Catechism is also interesting: “Catechism of the protestant churches in France”. Olevianus explained in a letter to Calvin that the translation was titled thus for fear that the Germans would otherwise not read the catechism. Comparing the German translation with the Geneva Catechism, it is evident that Ursinus made use of the French edition of 1542 as well as the Latin edition of 1545 as the source text. While his translation is literal, a few alterations in meaning occur, giving rise to decisive theological adjustments. A comparison with the Heidelberg Catechism is complicated by the fact that Ursinus was only one of a committee of composers who worked on the latter document. The theological corrections made to Calvin’s Catechism in the German edition reveal Ursinus’ tendency to emphasise the soteriological meaning in his translation. Beza would eventually be the one who would irreversibly modify Calvin’s theology in the direction of the reformed orthodoxy.
The first outline of Calvin’s theology – the preface to the New Testament in the Olivétan Bible of 1535
W.H. Neuser
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 2001, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v66i1&2.385
Abstract: The prefaces which Calvin wrote for the Bible translation of Olivétan (1535) conform to the general custom during the Reformation to translate the Bible into the vernacular and to publish these translations simultaneously with interpretation aids. In the preface published in the Olivétan Bible and preceding the New Testament translation, Calvin wants to indicate to the reader (in this case the heathen) the correct way to approach the Bible. Although no captions or headings are included, the preface is structured very precisely, thus also presenting Calvin’s systematic kind of exposition. In order to show the heathen the way to salvation, Calvin indicates a way via prehistory (Gen. 1-11; Rom. 1-2; Acts 14 and 17), the Ten Commandments (Decalogue) to the New Testament witness about Christ. The focus and goal of this path are the fulfilment of the law. Clearly the most noticeable result of the analysis of this preface is the “system of corresponding doctrines” found between creation and salvation. This specific approach of Calvin is a key to understanding his later theology. In the second part of the preface Calvin explains the main Biblical concepts of “Testament”, “Evangelium” and “Messiah”. Regarding this his view corresponds to Luther’s writing, “De captivitate Babylonica ...” (1520), and is perhaps dependent on it. The third part of the preface contains admonitions to Christians who are persecuted to assure them of their salvation. Admonitions to kings, princes, rulers, bishops and pastors are also included.
Region-Specific Integration of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neuronal Precursors into a Pre-Existing Neuronal Circuit
Franziska Neuser, Martin Polack, Christine Annaheim, Kerry L. Tucker, Martin Korte
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066497
Abstract: Enduring reorganization is accepted as a fundamental process of adult neural plasticity. The most dramatic example of this reorganization is the birth and continuously occurring incorporation of new neurons into the pre-existing network of the adult mammalian hippocampus. Based on this phenomenon we transplanted murine embryonic stem (ES)-cell derived neuronal precursors (ESNPs) into murine organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHC) and examined their integration. Using a precise quantitative morphological analysis combined with a detailed electrophysiology, we show a region-specific morphological integration of transplanted ESNPs into different subfields of the hippocampal tissue, resulting in pyramidal neuron-like embryonic stem cell-derived neurons (ESNs) in the Cornu Ammonis (CA1 and CA3) and granule neuron-like ESNs in the dentate gyrus (DG), respectively. Subregion specific structural maturation was accompanied by the development of dendritic spines and the generation of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). This cell type specific development does not depend upon NMDA-receptor-dependent synaptic transmission. The presented integration approach was further used to determine the cell-autonomous function of the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75 (P75NTR), as a possible negative regulator of ESN integration. By this means we used p75NTR-deficient ESNPs to study their integration into a WT organotypic environment. We show here that p75NTR is not necessary for integration per se but plays a suppressing role in dendritic development.
Palmitoylation of Gephyrin Controls Receptor Clustering and Plasticity of GABAergic Synapses
Borislav Dejanovic,Marcus Semtner,Silvia Ebert,Tobias Lamkemeyer,Franziska Neuser,Bernhard Lüscher,Jochen C. Meier,Guenter Schwarz
PLOS Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001908
Abstract: Postsynaptic scaffolding proteins regulate coordinated neurotransmission by anchoring and clustering receptors and adhesion molecules. Gephyrin is the major instructive molecule at inhibitory synapses, where it clusters glycine as well as major subsets of GABA type A receptors (GABAARs). Here, we identified palmitoylation of gephyrin as an important mechanism of strengthening GABAergic synaptic transmission, which is regulated by GABAAR activity. We mapped palmitoylation to Cys212 and Cys284, which are critical for both association of gephyrin with the postsynaptic membrane and gephyrin clustering. We identified DHHC-12 as the principal palmitoyl acyltransferase that palmitoylates gephyrin. Furthermore, gephyrin pamitoylation potentiated GABAergic synaptic transmission, as evidenced by an increased amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Consistently, inhibiting gephyrin palmitoylation either pharmacologically or by expression of palmitoylation-deficient gephyrin reduced the gephyrin cluster size. In aggregate, our study reveals that palmitoylation of gephyrin by DHHC-12 contributes to dynamic and functional modulation of GABAergic synapses.
Influences of pre-, peri- and postoperative risk factors in neonatal cardiac surgery on neurodevelopmental status in preschool-age children
HH H?vels-Gürich, M-C Seghaye, M Sigler, A Bartl, F Kotlarek, J Neuser, BJ Messmer, G von Bernuth
Critical Care , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/cc676
Abstract: Thirty-three unselected children operated on as neonates with combined deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and low flow cardiopulmonary bypass were examined at an age of 3.0–4.6 years [3.6 ± 0.5 (mean ± standard deviation)]. The control group for developmental outcome consisted of 32 age-matched healthy children, who were 3.0–4.8 years [3.8 ± 0.6 (mean ± standard deviation)] of age. Evaluation of socioeconomic status and a standardised test comprising all areas of child development (Vienna developmental test), including scores of motor and cognitive functions, perception, language, learning and behaviour, were carried out in patients and controls, and clinical neurological status was assessed in patients. Results of patients were related to those of the control group and to pre-, peri-, and postoperative cerebral risk factors of the control group and to pre-, peri-, and postoperative cerebral risk factors as described in the context.Neurological impairment was more frequent (6.1%) than in the normal population. Compared with published norms, complete developmental score and the subtests for motor function, visual perception and visual motor integration, learning and memory, cognitive function, language, and socioemotional functions were not different. Compared with the control group, complete developmental score, cognitive score and language were reduced (P < 0.01), but socioeconomic status was significantly lower in the patient group (P = 0.0001). Motor function was weakly, but significantly inversely related to the duration of circulatory arrest (Pearson correlation coefficient -0.37; P = 0.049), but not to the duration of bypass. The other developmental parameters were not related to the duration of the support techniques. Serum levels of the biochemical marker neuron-specific enolase, although significantly elevated at the end of bypass (P = 0.0002) and 4 h after surgery (P = 0.0012) compared with preoperative values, were not correlated to developmental test re
Neurodevelopmental outcome related to cerebral risk factors in children after neonatal arterial switch operation
HH H?vels-Gürich, MC Seghaye, M Sigler, A Bartl, F Kotlarek, J Neuser, BJ Messmer, G von Bernuth
Critical Care , 1999, DOI: 10.1186/cc330
Abstract: Protracted birth (PB), perinatal asphyxia (PA), intraventricular cerebral haemorrhage (IVH) evaluated by pre/peri/postoperative cranial ultrasound, clinical seizures (CS) and high levels of the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) prior to as well as immediately after and 4 and 24 h after CPB in 25 neonates (mean age 7 days) were defined as cerebral risk factors. Correlation analyses (Fisher's Exact Test, Pearson Coefficient) were performed to the results of formalized clinical neurological (CNS) and complete developmental score (CDS) including 7 subtests (Vienna developmental test, standard values defined normal 100 ± 10, mean ± SD) at mean age 3.7 ± 0.5 years.PB was found in 16%, PA 0%, IVH 48%, residual IVH at discharge 24%, CS prior to surgery 16%, CS > 24 h after CPB 12%. NSE, elevated prior to surgery (11.3 ± 4.5 ng/ml, mean ± SD), increased to peak values 4 h after CPB (17.3 ± 6.0) and individual peak values within 24 h after CPB (19.9-7.0). CNS was normal in 84%, 16% had strabism. CDS was normal in 88% (100 ± 8), motor score 96% (99 ± 6), visual perception 88% (100 ± 9), learning and memory 96% (102 ± 7), cognitive score 100% (101 ± 8), language 100% (99 ± 5), socioemotional score 100% (103 ± 7). Developmental scores did not differ significantly from normal children. None of the considered risk factors had significant influence on any outcome parameter (P > 0.1 in all).In our study, neurodevelopmental outcome was not found dependent on cerebral risk factors as elevated NSE indicative of neuronal cell damage, intraventricular haemorrhage, seizures or pre-/perinatal asphyxia. Rare incidence of reduced test results might have masked significant correlations.
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