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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 53 matches for " Nethini Wijesinghe "
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Usefulness of Routine Terminal Ileoscopy and Biopsy during Colonoscopy in a Tropical Setting: A Retrospective Record-Based Study
Hasitha Srimal Wijewantha,Arjuna Priyadarsin de Silva,Madunil Anuk Niriella,Nethini Wijesinghe,Prabahvi Waraketiya,Ravindu Sujeewa Kumarasena,Anuradha Supun Dassanayake,Janaki de Silva Hewawisenthi,Hithanadura Janaka de Silva
Gastroenterology Research and Practice , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/343849
Abstract: Introduction. Available evidence for routine terminal ileoscopy during colonoscopy is equivocal. We investigated the place of routine terminal ileoscopy and biopsy during colonoscopy, in a tropical setting. Materials and Methods. All consenting adults undergoing colonoscopy had routine TI and biopsy. Patients with right iliac fossa (RIF) pain, diarrhoea, anaemia, suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and raised inflammatory markers were defined as Group A and all others undergoing colonoscopy as Group B. Results. Caecal intubation and TI were achieved in 988/1096 (90.15%) and 832/1096 (75.9%) cases, respectively. 764/832(91.8%) patients were included in final analysis. 81/764 (10.6%) patients had either macroscopic (34/81) or microscopic (47/81) abnormalities of terminal ileum; 20/81 had both. These were CD (28/47), tuberculosis (TB) (6/47), ileitis due to resolving infection (8/47), and drug-induced ileitis (5/47). 27/81 with macroscopically normal ileum had CD (18/27), ileitis due to resolving infection (5/27) and drug-induced ileitis (4/27) on histology. 12/764 (1.57%) patients with macroscopically normal colon had ileal CD (8/12), drug-induced ileitis (2/12), and resolving ileal infection (2/12) on histology. 47/764 (6.15%) patients had ileal pathology that influenced subsequent management. These were significantly higher in Group A (43/555 (8%)) than in Group B (4/209 (1.9%)) ( , ). Conclusion. TI and biopsy improve diagnostic yield of colonoscopy in patients with RIF pain, diarrhoea, anaemia, suspected IBD, and raised inflammatory markers. 1. Introduction Terminal ileoscopy (TI) is an integral part of colonoscopy [1]. It confirms completion of colonoscopy. Studies have shown that TI adds only three minutes to colonoscopy procedure time [2]. Furthermore there are no complications in addition to those of colonoscopy [3]. The available evidence for routine TI and biopsy during colonoscopy is equivocal. Some studies have demonstrated a benefit of TI and biopsy in selected patients. These include patients with diarrhoea, right lower quadrant pain, hematochezia, suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and ileocaecal tuberculosis (TB) [1, 3–6]. Most studies of routine TI during colonoscopy have been performed in Western populations. Only a few studies have been conducted in Asian or other tropical regions [3, 5]. These regions have a different spectrum of gastrointestinal diseases—a relatively low prevalence of Crohn’s disease (CD) and higher prevalence of gastrointestinal infections, including TB [5, 7]. Therefore, we investigated the place of
Was there a disparity in age appropriate infant immunization uptake in the theatre of war in the North of Sri Lanka at the height of the hostilities?: a cross-sectional study in resettled areas in the Kilinochchi district
Parameswaran Ananthan,Wijesinghe Pushpa
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-12-26
Abstract: Background It was long speculated that there could be under-immunized pockets in the war affected Northern part of Sri Lanka relative to other areas. With the cessation of hostilities following the military suppression of the rebellion, opportunities have arisen to appraise the immunization status of children in areas of re-settlement in former war ravaged districts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the coverage and age appropriateness of infant vaccinations in a former conflict district during the phase of re-settlement. The target population comprised all children of re-settled families in the age group of 12 – 23 months in the district. We selected a study sample of 300 children from among the target population using the WHO’s 30 cluster EPI survey method. Trained surveyors collected data using a structured checklist. The infant vaccination status was ascertained by reviewing vaccination records in the Child Health Development Record or any other alternative documentary evidence. Results The survey revealed that the proportion of fully vaccinated children in the district was 91%. For individual vaccines, it ranged from 92% (measles) to 100% (BCG, DPT/OPV1). However, the age appropriateness of vaccination was less than 50% for all antigens except for BCG (94%). The maximum number of days of delay of vaccinations ranged from 21 days for BCG to 253 days for measles. Age appropriate vaccination rates significantly differed for DPT/OPV1-3 and measles during the conflict and post-conflict stages while it did not for the BCG. Age appropriate vaccination rates were significantly higher for DPT/OPV1-3 during the conflict while for the measles it was higher in the post conflict stage. Conclusions Though the vaccination coverage for infant vaccines in the war affected Kilinochchi district was similar to other districts in the country, it masked a disparity in terms of low age-appropriateness of infant immunizations given in field settings. This finding underscores the need for investigation of underlying reasons and introduction of remedial measures in the stage of restoring Primary Health Care services in the ex-conflict zone.
Conservation Value of Forest Plantations: A Study of Four Timber Species in Sri Lanka
Mayuri R Wijesinghe,V. R. de Silva
Journal of Tropical Forestry and Environment , 2012,
Abstract: This paper assesses the potential of forest plantations in Sri Lanka consisting of teak, mahoganyand two species of eucalyptus, to facilitate the conservation of biodiversity using two taxonomic groups,the plants and birds. Their diversity in plantations at a harvestable age were compared with that of anatural forest. Enumerations of plants and dbh/height measurements were conducted in quadrates, whileavifauna was recorded along transects. Results show that plantation forests supported a reasonably richcommunity of both plants and birds, including natives and endemics. A large proportion of species werecommon to both plantations and natural forests indicating that plantations hold a subset of forest species.The presence of plants of various height and girth classes together with the high diversity and evennessvalues indicate that, although timber plantations are initially established as mono-cultivations, theyfacilitate the colonization of additional species. These findings thus demonstrate that forest plantationscould make a significant contribution towards biodiversity conservation.
Hybrid atomistic-continuum methods for multiscale hydrodynamics
Hettithanthrige S. Wijesinghe,Nicolas G. Hadjiconstantinou
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: We discuss hybrid atomistic-continuum methods for multiscale hydrodynamic applications. Both dense fluid and dilute gas formulations are considered. The choice of coupling method and its relation to the fluid physics is discussed. The differences in hybrid methods resulting from underlying compressible and incompressible continuum formulations as well as the importance of timescale decoupling are highlighted. We also discuss recently developed compressible and incompressible hybrid methods for dilute gases. The incompressible framework is based on the Schwarz alternating method whereas the compressible method is a multi-species, fully adaptive mesh and algorithm refinement approach which introduces the direct simulation Monte Carlo at the finest level of mesh refinement.
Magnetic Blockade Mechanism for Quantum Nucleation of Superconducting Vortex-Antivortex Pairs in Zero External Magnetic Field
J. H. Miller Jr.,A. I. Wijesinghe
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: We propose a magnetic dual of the Coulomb blockade effect for quantum nucleation of flux vortex pairs in high-Tc superconducting (HTS) films and grain boundaries in zero applied field. The magnetic blockade instability occurs at {\theta} = {\pi}, where {\theta} is the "vacuum" or theta angle. The {\theta} term has recently been discussed in the context of several other systems, including charge and spin density waves, topological insulators, the quantum Hall effect, and spontaneous CP violation. Our model predicts a sharp pair creation threshold current at {\theta} = {\pi}, analogous to the Coulomb blockade voltage of a tunnel junction, and explains the observed thickness dependence of critical currents in HTS coated conductors. We use the Schr\"odinger equation to compute the evolving macrostate amplitudes, coupled by a generalized tunneling matrix element. The simulations yield excellent quantitative agreement with measured voltage-current characteristics of bi-crystal and other HTS grain boundary junctions. The model also predicts non-sinusoidal behavior in the voltage oscillations resulting from time-correlated vortex tunneling.
WI-Alert : A Wireless Sensor Network Based Intrusion Alert Prototype for HEC
Ruwini Edirisinghe,Dileeka Dias,Rakhitha Chandrasekara,Lanka Wijesinghe
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems , 2013,
Abstract: A wired fence based intrusion detection and alerting mechanism for boundaries separating wildlife habitats and human settlements was implemented, particularly as a solution to the Human-Elephant Conflict (HEC). The objective of the research reported in this paper is to propose and verify an alternative technique for this wired fence based alerting mechanism to overcome its limitations and toimprove its effectiveness. This article presents a comprehensive study of alternative solutions with deliberate consideration of the practical constraints. Wi-Alert is a wireless sensor network based intrusion detection system proposed as the best alternative solution. This article reports the outcomes of the first two phases of ongoing developments of Wi-Alert. The first phase of experiments was conducted to investigate the multi-path effect reduction techniques at one site. In the next phase, experiments were conducted to verify the ability to detect elephants. Theresults obtained via the candidate techniques are compared. Both experiments confirm the feasibility of the prototype as a non-invasive method to detect elephants.
Iatrogenic aspergillus infection of the central nervous system in a pregnant woman
Lokuhetty Menaka,Wijesinghe Harshima,Weerasundera Buddhika,Dayapala A
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology , 2009,
Abstract: A healthy postnatal woman succumbed to fulminant iatrogenic Aspergillus infection of the central nervous system, following accidental inoculation into the subarachnoid space at spinal anesthesia, during an outbreak of Aspergillus meningitis in Sri Lanka. Autopsy revealed extensive Aspergillus meningitis and culture confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus. The thalamic parenchyma in the brain was invaded by fungal hyphae producing necrotizing angitis with thrombosis, thalamic infarcts and fungal abscesses. The directional growth of fungal hyphae from the extra-luminal side of blood vessels towards the lumen favored extension from the brain parenchyma over hematogenous spread. The spinal parenchyma was resistant to fungal invasion in spite of the heavy growth within the spinal meninges and initial inoculation at spinal level. Modulation of the immune response in pregnancy with depression of selective aspects of cell-mediated immunity probably contributed to rapid spread within the subarachnoid space, to involve the brain parenchyma leading to clinical deterioration and death.
Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats
Dissanayake DMAB,Wijesinghe P,Ratnasooriya W,Wimalasena S
Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset) of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively) for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47) vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66), P< 0.05 and an increase in number of penile thrusting; 52.80 (SEM 11.28) vs. 26.50 (SEM 6.17), P< 0.05, compared to controls. The same group had elevated prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) levels compared to controls at the end of treatment period; PRL- 7.22 ng/dl (SEM 3.68) vs. 2.90 ng/dl (SEM 0.34) and T- 8.21 ng/ml (SEM 6.09) vs. 2.39 ng/ml (SEM 1.79), P< 0.05. In contrast, reduction of libido was evident in the same group, but this effect was not statistically significant ( P> 0.05). However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.
Relationship between seminal plasma zinc and semen quality in a subfertile population
Dissanayake DMAB,Wijesinghe P,Ratnasooriya W,Wimalasena S
Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Rationale : Current knowledge on the relationship between seminal zinc levels and different parameters of human semen is inconsistent. Objectives : To assess the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and semen quality using two markers; zinc concentration (Zn-C) and total zinc per ejaculate (Zn-T). Design : The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods : Semen parameters of 152 healthy men undergoing evaluation for subfertility were assessed. Seminal plasma zinc levels were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Zn-C, expressed as μg/mL, was multiplied by ejaculated volume to calculate Zn-T. Mann Whitney U test and Chi-square test were used to compare the zinc levels between different seminal groups when appropriate. Correlations were observed with Pearson′s correlation of coefficient. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 10.0 for windows software. Results : Zn-C was low in 23 (15%) samples, while in 32 (21%) of the samples Zn-T was abnormal. The number of subnormal samples was high in the low-zinc groups compared with the normal-zinc groups, 15 vs. 8 (P > 0.05) for Zn-C and 28 vs. 4 (P < 0.001) for Zn-T. Zn-C was significantly high in the asthenozoospermics compared with the normal motile group; 138.11 μg/mL (83.92) vs. 110.69 11 μg/mL (54.59) (P < 0.05). Zn-T was significantly low in samples with hyperviscosity compared with samples with normal viscosity; 220.06 μg (144.09) vs. 336.34 μg (236.33) (P < 0.05). Conversely, Zn-T was high in samples with low viability compared with those with normal viability; 437.67 μg (283.88) vs. 305.15 μg (221.19) (P < 0.05). Weak correlations were found between Zn and some semen parameters. However, the correlation was negative between pH and Zn-C (r = -0.193, P < 0.05) as well as Zn-T (r = -0.280, P < 0.01). On the other hand, correlations were positive between Zn-T and sperm count (r = 0.211, P < 0.05). Conclusion : Count, motility, viability, pH and viscosity are affected by variations of seminal plasma zinc. Seminal plasma Zn-T is the better marker for assessing the relationship between zinc and semen quality.
Conservation Value of Forest Plantations: A Study of Four Timber Species in Sri Lanka
M. R. Wijesinghe,V. R.de Silva
Journal of Tropical Forestry and Environment , 2012,
Abstract: This paper assesses the potential of forest plantations in Sri Lanka consisting of teak, mahoganyand two species of eucalyptus, to facilitate the conservation of biodiversity using two taxonomic groups,the plants and birds. Their diversity in plantations at a harvestable age were compared with that of anatural forest. Enumerations of plants and dbh/height measurements were conducted in quadrates, whileavifauna was recorded along transects. Results show that plantation forests supported a reasonably richcommunity of both plants and birds, including natives and endemics. A large proportion of species werecommon to both plantations and natural forests indicating that plantations hold a subset of forest species.The presence of plants of various height and girth classes together with the high diversity and evennessvalues indicate that, although timber plantations are initially established as mono-cultivations, theyfacilitate the colonization of additional species. These findings thus demonstrate that forest plantationscould make a significant contribution towards biodiversity conservation.
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