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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 425 matches for " Nepal "
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Nepal: From absolute monarchy to
Krishna B.Bhattachan
International Journal of Inclusive Democracy , 2005,
Abstract: This paper gives a picture of the forest of inclusive democracy in Nepal, which is in the preliminary process of making. The paper begins with an overview of what went wrong in the past and the present in a multi-caste/ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious and multi-cultural country, Nepal, as perceived by excluded groups/communities. It identifies that the main socio-cultural-political fault line in the past and the present, irrespective of political systems, is the ideology, policy and practice of Bahunbad (Brahmanism). The main playing fields of Bahunbad discussed in the paper include caste/ethnicity, language, religion, culture, gender and region. This paper analyzes demands made by different excluded groups/communities, including indigenous nationalities, Dalit, Madhesi Hindus and Muslims, women, mother tongue speakers and non-Hindu religious groups, to create a just, equitable and democratic Nepalese society and also to bring positive peace in Nepal. The paper analyzes in detail mechanisms to include excluded groups/communities with focus on interconnection of federalism, proportional representation, autonomy based on caste/ethnicity, language and region and special measures or affirmative action or positive discrimination—remedial and preferential. Grassroots democracy as practiced by some indigenous nationalities is also discussed. It is attempted to clarify that these mechanisms neither result in nor encourage disintegration of the country and communal violence, as perceived by Bahunbadis. On the contrary, these are indeed desperately needed to avoid any such misfortune in the days to come by maintaining minimal unity in highly diversified society. Also, the means to this end is also discussed with suggestion to trash reformist agenda by advocating for rights-based movement blended with revolutionary or radical transformation through roundtable conference, right to self-determination, public propositions and referendum and constituent assembly to rewrite the constitution and to practice inclusive democracy. This paper concludes with a message that any other model of democracy, except inclusive, in Nepal would continue to breed insurgency based on caste/ethnicity, language, religion and region and the best way to avoid them is inclusive democracy as suggested.
Life style of patient before and after diagnosis of hypertension in Kathmandu  [PDF]
Radha Acharya, Hom Nath Chalise
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.38081
Abstract: Hypertension is an important public health-challenge in the developing and the developed world alike. However, hospital-based studies on cardiovascular diseases including hypertension in a developing country like Nepal have been limited. Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the life style of patients before and after diagnosis of hypertension. Methods: A total of 100 adult hypertensive patients over 30 years of age who were attending in medical out patients department within 6 month to 2 years after first diagnosis of hypertension in Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre and Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, in Kathmandu, Nepal, in April 2009, using a descriptive research design. The data was collected by interview using a questionnaire consisting of a combination of structured and semistructured questions. The data was analyzed by using SPSS 11.5 version. Results: This study found the respondents’ knowledge regarding hypertension was poor. Regarding life style of hypertensive patients, majorities (90%) of them were non-vegetarian before diagnosis but after diagnosis of hypertension the percentage of non-vegetarian was reduced by 10%. Similarly, the reduction in consumption of meat, eggs, ghee and oil (mustard, sunflower) by hypertensive patients was statistically significant difference (p = 0.000) after the diagnosis of hypertension. Regarding soyabean oil consumption, additional salty food and amount of salt intake there was no statistical significant difference before and after the diagnosis of hypertension. Likewise, physical exercise and stress reduction activities performed by hypertensive patients and change in drinking alcohol and smoking was found to be statistically significant difference (p = 0.000) after the diagnosis of hypertension. Conclusion: The adverse consequences of hypertension can be reduced by modifying the life style. Therefore more focus should be given in increasing the awareness about hypertension by developing information, education and communication materials on hypertension and setting up hypertensive counseling clinic in each hospitals.
Disability: A Case Screening Program Approach  [PDF]
Sudarshan Paudel, Lilanath Bhandari, Dil Bahadur Bhandari
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.52002
Abstract: Disability is an accident waiting to happen in population. Large numbers of population in world are disabled and its prevalence is on the rise. Disabled people have to face two additional challenges namely, limitation in body and social stigmatization on top of other social happening to general public. The stipulation of disability will be subjective because social and physical condition is directly related to it. The study was also envisioned to develop a disability screening approach. The objective was to focus on how disabled has been included in the government’s health plans in Nepal. The study has presented data of 894 disabled people from randomly selected seven VDCs of Makwanpur district. The total population in studied VDCs was 87,502. The study was conducted in coordination with local governing bodies and health development partners during August-October in 2012. The study revealed 1.02 percent prevalence of disability among study population. The majority were suffering physical disability (60.6 percent) followed by deaf (19.7 percent). Based on age group, young adults (15 - 19 years) group was more (31 percent) vulnerable. Out of total, the number of male was higher due to their high exposure in external environment and risk taking behaviour.
Comparative prevalence of MRSA in two Nepalese tertiary care hospitals  [PDF]
Bidya Shrestha
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2013.32013
Abstract: This comparative study has been focused on the prevalence of MRSA types and their antibiotic resistance in two tertiary care hospitals of Nepal. During November 2007 to June 2009, clinical samples from patients with nosocomial infection from two Nepali hospitals, Kathmandu Based Hospital (KBH) and Lalitpur Based Hospital (LBH) were cultured and antibiotic susceptibility tests done following standard methodology in Microbiology laboratory, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. Occurrence of MRSA (52.9% of 304 Staphylococcus aureus isolates) in KBH and that of MSSA (62% of 100 S. aureus isolates) in LBH were significant. No association of age was observed with MRSA or MSSA. Among MSSA from both hospitals, the highest resistance was found against penicillin. KBH urinary isolates were resistant to norfloxacin (51.4%), while isolates from other sites were resistant to ciprofloxacin (30.6%), erythromycin (12%), gentamicin (10.3%). LBH isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole (22.6%), erythromycin (17.2%), ciprofloxacin (13.8%), gentamicin (12.9%). Among MRSA, most of the isolates from both hospitals were resistant to a wide array of antibiotics. A majority of the MSSA and MRSA isolates were susceptible to rifampicin and chloramphenicol. Most of KBH MRSA were homogeneous MRSA, 80.5% (significant), of which, 99.2% were multiresistant oxacillin resistant S. aureus (MORSA). And among the heterogeneous MRSA isolates from KBH, 71% were MORSA. On the other hand, among LBH MRSA isolates, 52.6% were homogeneous MRSA, cent percent of which were MORSA while 47.4% were heterogeneous MRSA of which 44.5% were MORSA. Since almost all of the homogeneous MRSA and most of the heterogeneous MRSA from both hospitals were MORSA, there is a possibility that a hospital acquired S. aureus could be MORSA. Hence, every infected patient should be considered as a potential source of MORSA.
Neurocysticercosis in Nepal and It’s Global Perspective
J P Agrawal
Kathmandu University Medical Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v9i2.6277
Abstract: No abstract available. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/kumj.v9i2.6277 Kathmandu Univ Med J 2011;9(2):1-2 ? ?
Tourism in Nepal: A Historical Perspective and Present Trend of Development
Hari Prasad Shrestha,Prami Shrestha
Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/hjsa.v5i0.7039
Abstract: Tourism is the movement or travel of people from one place to another; whether it is within their own country or to other countries, for pleasure, business, pilgrimage and other purpose. The evolution of tourism dates back to ancient times. In Nepal, tourism, despite having a long history was, developed since 1950s only. The recent trend of tourists' arrival in Nepal seems satisfactory. However, from the perspective of tourism based resources and its availability in the country seems rather pessimistic. To promote tourism sector and its contribution to socio-economic sector of the country, we need to utilize available resources properly and beneficially. For this, there is need of dynamic and tourism friendly policy and joint effort of the government and the private sector as well. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hjsa.v5i0.7039 Himalayan Journal of Sociology & Anthropology-Vol. V (2012) 54-75
Pattern of Acute Parasitic Diarrhea in Children Under Five Years of Age in Kathmandu, Nepal  [PDF]
Shamshul Ansari, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand, Keshab Parajuli, Bharat Mani Paudyal, Ram Prasad Adhikari, Shovita Shrestha, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Rajan Kumar Dahal, Sarmila Tandukar, Rama Khadka, Ranju Shreshta, Soma Kanta Baral, Bharat Mani Pokhrel
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2012.23014

Diarrheal diseases are major problem of developing countries. Though precise data on childhood mortality associated with diarrheal diseases in Nepal is not available, it has been estimated that approximately 25% of child death are associated with diarrheal disease, particularly acute diarrhea. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of parasitic pathogens causing acute diarrhea in children under 5 years of age. A total of 525 children with acute diarrhea in a children’s hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal were enrolled between April 2011 and September 2011. The higher prevalence of diarrhea was in the age group of less than 2 years. Out of total 525 enrolled cases, protozoal parasites were found in 10.7% (56/525) of cases and helminthic parasites were found in 1.3% (7/525) of cases. Highest prevalence of 60.3% (38/63) of parasitic infection was found in the age group of 6 - 24 months followed by 7.9% (5/63) in the age group of less than 6 months. Of the total enrolled cases E. histolytica were 6.7% (35/525) followed by Giardial lamblia 3.4% (18/525) and the least frequency was due to A. lumbricoides constituting 0.6% (3/525). The aim of this study was to know the parasitic agents causing acute diarrhea in children.

Depression among elderly living in Briddashram (old age home)  [PDF]
Hom Nath Chalise
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2014.31002

Introduction: Depression is a common public health issue with the increasing life expectancy worldwide and depression is associated with morbidity as well as disability among the elderly. There are very few studies related with depression among elderly from developing countries. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression and its correlates among the elderly living in Briddashram (old age home). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using short version of Geriatric Depression Scale. The data were analyzed using percentage, mean, simple correlation and regression. Results: The subjects (N = 185) were elderly aged 60 years and above living in Devghat area, Nepal. Mean age of the subjects was 73.67 (±3.23) years old and 51% were male. 94% elderly belong to Khas ethnicity. Nearly one third (31%) elderly were from nuclear family back ground, 25% were married, and only 18% elderly were literate. Majority of the elderly (93%) had health problems and self reported health shows 86% elderly reported their health fair. This study shows mean functional disability score was 2.53 (±2.05). Finding shows the prevalence of depression was 57.8%. Among them 46.7% had mild, 8.9% had moderate and 2.2% had severe depression. A statistically significant correlation was found between feelings of depression and age, sex, previous family type, ethnicity, feeling of loneliness and instrumental activities of daily living. Regression analysis shows that being women, feeling of loneliness and higher the dependency in IADL were predictors of depression. Conclusion: This study indicates that many elderly living in the Briddashram are suffering from depression. There should be some interruption from the concerned authorities so that depression can be reduced which will support to the well-being and quality of life of elderly.

Is Economic Transition One of the Proximate Determinants of Nutrition Transition in Nepal?  [PDF]
Yagya Prasad Subedi, Padam Simkhada, Bishwambher Pyakuryal
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2016.62016
Abstract: Background: Historically, the process of nutrition transition begins with changes in economic structures which move away from agrarian economies to successful industrialisation, with high economic growth, urbanisation and increased real per capita income. Objective: The objective is to identify where Nepal is in economic transition and whether economic transition is considered as one of the proximate determinants of nutrition transition in Nepal. Results: Nepal’s position in the economic transition has been identified by using Popkin’s framework which is scaled from Pattern I to Pattern V. The time series trends indicated that new patterns of economic transition had been observed during 1995-2010, which was similar to the pattern IV of the Nutrition Transition as described by Popkin. The national income of Nepal increased over the past four decades. The GDP of Nepal has shown an annual increase at a rate of 3.92 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Conclusion: Economic growth and agricultural trade liberalization have induced plant fats supply in Nepal. Tourism has also transferred the taste and preferences of western foods to tourist destinations and urban centres, including potential negative health consequences related to excess consumption of fat, sugar and process foods.
Ocular Manifestations in Thyroid Eye Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study from Nepal  [PDF]
Palikhe Sabita, Thakur Ajit, Shah Dev Narayan, Sharma Ananda Kumar, Acharya Niranjan
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2016.712088
Abstract: Background: Thyroid eye disease represents an organ-specific autoimmune process that is usually associated with thyroid disease. Graves’ disease is the most common thyroid abnormality associated with thyroid eye disease. Aim: This study was conducted for the profile of ocular manifestation in Thyroid Eye Disease (TED). Methodology: A cross-sectional study of 117 cases of thyroid dysfunction was carried out at BP Koirala Institute of Health System, out of which 84 (71.79%) cases had ocular manifestation. They were evaluated and analyzed in detail and the characteristics documented included patient’s demography, ocular and systemic history and as well as ocular examination and some of the systemic and laboratory findings. Results: In this study, mean age of presentation of TED was 39.7 years. 59 patients were female and 25 were male. The maximum patients of both sexes were in the fourth decade of their lives. The common lid signs were lid retraction and lid lag. Proptosis was seen in 33.3% of cases out of which 68% had bilateral proptosis. Corneal ulcer was seen in 7.1% and optic neuropathy in 1.2% of cases. In 27.3% of cases there was elevation of IOP. Dry eye was seen in 61.9% of cases and POAG seen in 8.3% of cases. In the study population 75% were hyperthyroiditic, 16.7% were hypothyroiditic and 8.3% were in euthyroid state. Conclusion: Female was more commonly affected. The maximum number of patients of both sexes was in the fourth decade of their lives. Hyperthyroidism patient had greater chance of ocular manifestation.
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