is generally well tolerated; the most common adverse effects include gastro intestinal tract, central
nervous system and hematological system effects. Recently rising cases of
Ciprofloxacin associated toxicity have been reported. Experiment using animal models and clinical experience showed that Ciprofloxacin induced cardiotoxicity is marked by increase QT and
QTC interval and prolonged action potential duration. This increases the risk of
arrhythmia (tosarde de pointes). Ciprofloxacin induced cardiotoxic effect could
be associated with blocking cardiac voltage—gated
potassium channels particularly the rapid component (IKr) of the delayed
rectifier potassium current. Drug interaction with inhibitors of Cytochrome
P450 (CYP) mediated metabolism could be one of the
underlying mechanisms. Several cases of Ciprofloxacin induced hepatoxicity have
been also reported. These were characterized by extensive
hepatocellular necrosis, mixed inflammatory infiltrate and abundant esinophils in the liver. Elevated liver enzymes
which include serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase,
alkaline phosphatase, and gramma-glutamyltranferase
Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MoND) is an empirically motivated modification of Newtonian gravity at largest scales, to explain rotation curves of galaxies, as an alternative to nonbaryonic dark matter. But MoND theories can hardly connect to the formalism of relativistic cosmology type Friedmann-Robertson-Walker. Presently work intends the existence of one scalar potential, with non gravitational origin, that would solve these problems. This potential Yukawa type inverse is build starting from a specular reflection of the potential of Yukawa: null in very near solar system, slightly attractiveness in ranges of interstellar distances, very attractiveness in distance ranges comparable to galaxies cluster and repulsive to cosmic scales. The consequences of this potential are discussed, through Cosmological Model Tipe Friedmann-Roberston-Walker with cosmological term in function of the distance (lambda like function of r). In the cosmological model so raised the critical density of matter is consistent with the observed density does not include dark matter, MoND theory is deduced for interstellar scales and consequently would explain rotation curves. Also it is shown that Yukawa type inverse does not alter the predictions of the Cosmic Microwave Background neither the primordial nucleosynthesis in early universe; and can be explain the large-scale structure formation.
Residential energy-efficiency measures, besides energy savings, provide opportunities for improvement of thermal comfort, air quality, lighting quality, and operation. However, all these benefits sometimes are not enough to convince a homeowner to pay the incremental cost associated with the energy-efficiency measure. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for the economic evaluation of residential energy-efficiency measures that can simplify the economic analysis for the homeowner while taking into consideration all factors associated with the purchase, ownership, and selling of the house with the energy-efficiency measure. The methodology accounts for direct and indirect economic parameters associated to an energy-efficiency measure; direct parameters such as the mortgage interest and fuel price escalation rate, and indirect parameters such as savings account interest and marginal income tax rate. The methodology also considers different cases based on the service life of the energy-efficiency measure and loss of efficiency through a derating factor. To estimate the market value, the methodology uses the future energy cost savings instead of the cost of the EEM. Results from the methodology offer to homeowner annual net savings and net assets. The annual net savings gives the homeowner a measure of the annual positive cash flow that can be obtained from an energy-efficiency project; but more important, the net assets offer a measure of the added net wealth. To simplify and increase the use of the methodology by homeowners, the methodology has been implemented in an Excel tool that can be downloaded from the TxAIRE’s website.
This paper examines
the dynamics of Hepatitis B via a Susceptible Exposed Infectious Recovered (SEIR)
type epidemic model. Previous studies have shown that Hepatitis B is
characterized by multiple endemic solutions, a matter which may be of concern
in developing control strategies. We identify the possible causes of multiple
endemic solutions in a Hepatitis B model and conclude that the dependance of
the probability of carriage development (q(Λ))
on the force of infection (Λ) is the main reason for multiple endemicity. Other
factors such as a large proportion of infants that are not vaccinated (ω) may
also enhance the possibility of multiple endemicity. The role of carriers may
also play a key role in the possibility of such complex dynamics, i.e., when infectiousness of carriers-(α) is high, the probability of existence of
multiple endemic equilibrium solutions is increased. In our arguments, the
traditional reproduction number R0< 1 which we define here by a function G(0)
< 1 does not imply stability of disease-free equilibrium.
Electrospun nanofibers present a new and rapidly growing research area due to their pronounced micro and nano characteristics associated with high surface area to volume ratio. Poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) and polystyrene polymers were synthesized by boiling temperature soap free emulsion polymerization in aqueous medium with potassium peroxosulphate as the initiator. The resulting polymers were dissolved in dimethylformamide and teterahydrofuran (DMF: THF) (4:1) to form polymer solutions that were electrospun into fiber mats with diameters ranging from 1.84 - 2.53 μm and 5.01 μm, respectively. The fibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) equipped with universal ATR sampling accessory (4000 - 400 cm-1). The morphology and size were examined by a scanning electron miscroscope (SEM) and the thermal properties by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FTIR spectra of the poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) revealed the presence of acrylamide on the polystyrene chain. Thus, surface modification of polystyrene with acrylamide is possible in a single step polymerization reaction prior to electrospinning.