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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 150645 matches for " Nelson B. Colauto "
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Carbon-to-nitrogen ratios for Agaricus brasiliensis on the axenic method
Zaghi Junior, Lienine Luiz;Linde, Giani Andrea;Colauto, Nelson Barros;
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy , 2010, DOI: 10.4025/actasciagron.v32i1.508610.4025/actasciagron.v32i1.5086
Abstract: cultivation techniques for agaricus brasiliensis (composting method) and substratum formulations are the same ones used for agaricus bisporus. most of the carbon-to-nitrogen (c:n) ratios reported for a. brasiliensis are similar to those used for a. bisporus on the composting method and there are few studies about the variation of c:n ratios for a. brasilienses on the axenic method. the objective of this study was to verify the mycelial growth of a . brasiliensis on different c:n ratios using regional by-products as substrate formulation on the axenic method. studied c:n ratios of substrate (mixture of soybean and cassava fibers) ranged from 11:1 to 248:1, with nitrogen content ranging from 4.25 to 0.20%, respectively. it was concluded that substrate with only soybean fiber generates higher mycelial growth than any formulation with cassava fiber; the highest mycelial growth on substrate is with c:n ratio of 11:1 (n = 4.25%); the intermediate growth is with c:n ratio range from 15:1 to 50:1 (n from 3.31 to 0.98%); and the lowest growth is with c:n ratio of 100:1 or higher (n < 0.50%).
Carbon-to-nitrogen ratios for Agaricus brasiliensis on the axenic method = Rela o carbono/nitrogênio do substrato pelo método de cultivo axênico para Agaricus brasiliensis
Lienine Luiz Zaghi Junior,Giani Andrea Linde,Nelson Barros Colauto
Acta Scientiarum : Agronomy , 2010,
Abstract: Cultivation techniques for Agaricus brasiliensis (composting method) and substratum formulations are the same ones used for Agaricus bisporus. Most of the carbon-tonitrogen (C:N) ratios reported for A. brasiliensis are similar to those used for A. bisporus on the composting method and there are few studies about the variation of C:N ratios for A. brasilienses on the axenic method. The objective of this study was to verify the mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on different C:N ratios using regional by-products as substrate formulation on the axenic method. Studied C:N ratios of substrate (mixture of soybean and cassava fibers) ranged from 11:1 to 248:1, with nitrogen content ranging from 4.25 to 0.20%, respectively. It was concluded that substrate with only soybean fiber generates higher mycelial growth than any formulation with cassava fiber; the highest mycelial growth on substrate is with C:N ratio of 11:1 (N = 4.25%); the intermediate growth is with C:N ratio range from 15:1 to 50:1 (N from 3.31 to 0.98%); and the lowest growth is with C:N ratio of 100:1 or higher (N ≤ 0.50%). As técnicas de cultivo do Agaricus brasiliensis (método de compostagem) e formula o de substrato s o as mesmas utilizadas para o Agaricus bisporus. A maioria das rela es carbono/nitrogênio (C/N) relatadas para A. brasiliensis s o similares às usadas para A. bisporus no método de compostagem. Há poucos estudos sobre a varia o da rela o C/N para A. brasilienses para o método axênico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes rela es C/N no crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis utilizando subprodutos regionais como substrato pelo método axênico. As rela es C/N no substrato (misturas de fibra de soja e de mandioca) estudadas variaram de 11 a 248 com consequentes concentra es de nitrogênio de 4,25 a 0,20%, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que os substratos somente com fibra de soja propiciam maior crescimento micelial que qualquermistura com fibra de mandioca; o crescimento micelial é maior no substrato com rela o C/N de 11 (N = 4,25%), intermediário na faixa de rela o C/N entre 15 e 50 (N = 3,31 e 0,98%) e menor na rela o C/N de 100 ou superior (N ≤ 0,50%).
Oxidative enzymes activities from Lentinula edodes on agribusiness substrate / Atividade de enzimas oxidativas do Lentinula edodes em substratos agroindustriais
Magali Regina,Fernando Broetto,Nelson Barros Colauto,Giani Linde
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2009,
Abstract: Basidyomycete Lentinula edodes has its related enzymatic activity mainly on the agribusiness waste kind used as a substrate. The objective of this work was to verify the activity of oxidative enzymes lacase (Lac), lignina peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) of three L. edodes strains, in stationary system, cultivated the 25 oC, in the absence of light, in substrates wtih 20% of bran of rice, 1% of CaCO3 and 79% of rice husk (CA), eucalyptus sawdust (SE), cassava bagasse (BM) and sugarcane bagasse (BC), adjusted to 60% of humidity. The Lac and MnP activities were bigger in eucalyptus sawdust (SE) and sugarcane bagasse (BC). The LiP activity was not induced for tested substrates. The rice husk (CA) and cassava bagasse (BM) substrates, although are not adequate to produce Lac or MnP, can be used as additives to increase the porosity, air availability and easy metabolism polysaccharides. O basidiomiceto Lentinula edodes tem sua atividade enzimática relacionada, principalmente, ao tipo de resíduo agroindustrial utilizado como substrato. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a atividade das enzimas oxidativas lacase (Lac), lignina peroxidase (LiP) e manganês peroxidase (MnP) de três linhagens de L. edodes, em sistema estacionário, cultivadas a 25 oC, na ausência de luz, em substratos compostos de 20% de farelo de arroz, 1% de CaCO3 e 79% de casca de arroz (CA), serragem de eucalipto (SE), baga o de mandioca (BM) e baga o de cana-de-a úcar (BC), ajustados à 60% de umidade. As atividades de Lac e MnP foram maiores nos substratos a base de serragem de eucalipto (SE) e baga o de cana-de-a úcar (BC). A atividade de LiP n o foi induzida pelos substratos testados. Os substratos à base de casca de arroz (CA) e baga o de mandioca (BM), n o se mostraram adequados na indu o da produ o de Lac ou MnP, mas podem ser utilizados como aditivos para aumentar a porosidade, disponibilidade de ar e fornecer polissacarídeos de fácil metaboliza o.
Oceans, Ice & Snow and CO2 Rise, Swing and Seasonal Fluctuation  [PDF]
Michael D. Nelson, David B. Nelson
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.710092
Abstract: Carbon dioxide rise, swing and spread (seasonal fluctuations) are addressed in this study. Actual CO2 concentrations were used rather than dry values. The dry values are artificially higher because water vapor must be removed in order for the NDIR instrument to work and is not factored back into the reported numbers. Articles addressing these observations express opinions that are divergent and often conflicting. This investigation resolves many of those inconsistencies. The data were obtained from many measuring stations at various latitudes since 1972 and then graphical compared to changes in sea temperatures, fossil fuel emissions, humidity, and seasonal ice and snow changes. In analyzing the data, various parameters were addressed including: variability, R squared curve values, correlations between curves, residence times, absorption percentages, and Troposphere effects. Mass balance calculations were also made to corroborate viability. The CO2 “rise” over a 33-year period from a slight ocean temperature increase (0.7°F) contributed 2.3 percent of the total rise while fossil fuel emissions contributed 1.5 percent. The overwhelming majority (60 ppmv, 96%+) was caused by other factors including ocean and land biology as well potential errors in fundamental hypotheses. With respect to “spread” (seasonal CO2 fluctuations) at the Polar Circles, graphical analysis with high correlations supported by mass balance calculations confirm that ice and snow are the primary cause and explain why the concentrations are the highest at these cold locations. The global variations in “swing” remain uncertain.
Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds
Glamo?lija, Jasmina;Sokovi?, Marina;Teševi?, Vele;Linde, Giani Andrea;Colauto, Nelson Barros;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822011000400041
Abstract: the essential oil of lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. the objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of l. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. essential oil was extracted by clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by gc-ms analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1h and 13c-nmr spectroscopy. microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) and minimum fungicidal concentration (mfc). commercial fungicides ketoconazole and bifonazole were used as control. essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). the l. alba essential oil has mic of 0.300-1.250 mg/ml and mfc of 0.600-1.250 mg/ml. ketoconazole and bifonazole show mic ranging from 0.025-0.500 to 0.100-0.200 mg/ml, and mfc ranging from 0.250-0.100 to 0.200-0.250 mg/ml, respectively. l. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides.
Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases
Mour?o, Francielly;Umeo, Suzana Harue;Takemura, Orlando Seiko;Linde, Giani Andrea;Colauto, Nelson Barros;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822011000100024
Abstract: different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. a. brasiliensis wasser et al.(a. blazei murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. however there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. the objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of a. brasiliensis strains on different basidiocarp maturation phases. the best condition for extraction of a. brasiliensis antioxidants is with methanol as solvent at 60 oc for 60 min. strains with closed basidiocarp have higher antioxidant activity than with opened basidiocarp. antioxidant activity varies in each strain. it was concluded that a. brasiliensis is a natural source of antioxidant compounds. also there is higher antioxidant activity in closed than opened caps and consequently higher functional activity. it reinforces the synergic action among different a. brasiliensis compounds as a functional food and the importance of further investigation for isolation and characterization of antioxidant substances of a. brasiliensis. it also determines the best harvest period in order to obtain the highest antioxidant activity from basidiocarp.
Production flush of Agaricus blazei on Brazilian casing layers
Colauto, Nelson Barros;Silveira, Adriano Reis da;Eira, Augusto Ferreira da;Linde, Giani Andrea;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822011000200026
Abstract: this study aimed to verify the biological efficiency and production flushes of agaricus blazei strains on different casing layers during 90 cultivation days. four casing layers were used: mixture of subsoil and charcoal (vcs), lime schist (lsc), s?o paulo peat (spp) and santa catarina peat (scp); and two genetically distant a. blazei strains. the fungus was grown in composted substratum and, after total colonization, a pasteurized casing layer was added over the substratum, and fructification was induced. mushrooms were picked up daily when the basidiocarp veil was stretched, but before the lamella were exposed. the biological efficiency (be) was determined by the fresh basidiocarp mass divided by the substratum dry mass, expressed in percentage. the production flushes were also determined over time production. the be and production flushes during 90 days were affected by the strains as well as by the casing layers. the abl26 and lsc produced the best be of 60.4%. although vcs is the most used casing layer in brazil, it is inferior to other casing layers, for all strains, throughout cultivation time. the strain, not the casing layer, is responsible for eventual variations of the average mushroom mass. in average, circa 50% of the mushroom production occurs around the first month, 30% in the second month, and 20% in third month. the casing layer water management depends on the casing layer type and the strain. production flush responds better to water reposition, mainly with abl26, and better porosity to lsc and scp casing layers.
Column bioreactor use for optimization of pectinase production in solid substrate cultivation
Linde, Giani Andrea;Magagnin, Glênio;Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira;Bertolin, Telma Elita;Colauto, Nelson Barros;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822007000300033
Abstract: this study aimed to determine the influence of process variables and production, of polygalacturonase (pg) and polymetylgalacturonase (pmg) by solid substrate cultivation using a fixed bed column bioreactor. a fractional factorial design (ffd) was used to study the effect of the following variables: microorganism (aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus niger), substratum (wheat bran and defatted rice bran), aeration (40 and 60 ml h-1g-1), pectin (5 and 10 g g-1) and nitrogen (urea and ammonium sulfate). microorganism, aeration and initial pectin were identified in ffd as significant variables (p<0.05) on pg production. a central composed design to optimize pg and pmg productions indicated that aspergillus niger presents higher pg production; substratum and nitrogen do not affect pg production; the aeration rate affects positively the production of pg and negatively the production of pmg and the initial pectin concentration affects positively both pg and pmg production. the optimal point of aeration and initial pectin concentration for pg production are 66.13 ml h-1 g-1 and 12.8 g g-1, respectively and for pmg production are 40 ml h-1 g-1 and 15.0 g g-1, respectively.
Genetic characterization of isolates of the basidiomycete Agaricus blazei by RAPD
Colauto, Nelson Barros;Dias, Eustáquio Souza;Gimenes, Marcos Aparecido;Eira, Augusto Ferreira da;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822002000200006
Abstract: the genetic divergence of five isolates of agaricus blazei was determined based on rapd data. results indicate that there is little genetic variability among the commercialized strains and that rapd is a feasible and low cost technique that can be used to characterize this fungus.
Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis
Colauto, Nelson Barros;Silveira, Adriano Reis da;Eira, Augusto Ferreira da;Linde, Giani Andrea;
Ciência Rural , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782010005000106
Abstract: casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on a. brasiliensis cultivation. the fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. after substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. it was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. it was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. however pasteurized lime schist casing layer is the most efficient on a. brasiliensis cultivation.
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