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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3515 matches for " Neetu Jain "
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A Simple and Advantageous Synthesis of the Privileged 1,4-Benzodiazepine Nucleus
Neetu Jain,Dharma Kishore
Advances in Chemistry , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/628326
Abstract: A novel domino approach has been described for an easy access of the privileged nucleus of 5-carbomethoxy substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones 4(a–i) from an in situ methanolic hydrolysis of an incipient species formed from the interaction of 1-chloroacetylisatin 2(a–i), hexamethyldisilazane, and n-butyl lithium. The reaction is believed to take place through a consecutive series of intramolecular reactions in a cascade to first generate a highly reactive carbene intermediate 3(a–i) from 1-chloroacetylisatin and n-butyl lithium which is simultaneously trapped by hexamethyldisilazane before undergoing its in situ hydrolysis with methanol to initiate its concomitant cyclocondensation to produce 4(a–i) in high yield and purity. 1. Introduction Exploration of synthetic processes that lead to the development of small molecules of medicinal interest by telescoping the multicomponent operations into a single step or resorting to a process such as domino reactions is a rapidly emerging subject in medicinal chemistry. Ever since Koch et al. [1] carried out a quantitative analysis of physiologically active natural product scaffolds and showed that ones with two or three rings were most often found in bioactive natural products, the interest on various facets of the chemistry of small molecules has expanded exponentially thereafter. Benzodiazepines and their analogues have been recognized recently to belong to the class of privileged heterocyclic structures, [2–5] by virtue of their ability to form ligands to a number of functionally and structurally discrete biological receptors [6–13]. This property stimulated chemists to utilize their potential in the design and development of molecular probes for biological evaluations. Ubiquitous presence of this nucleus in the psychopharmacologically active agents and in molecules active against HIV infection, for example, TIBO (1) [14–17] and FDA approved dipyrido diazepine analogue nevirapine (2) [18–24] in Figure 1 provided an impetus for an enormous research effort to be directed towards the development of their structural analogues of medicinal importance [25, 26]. Figure 1 2. Results and Discussion This communication reports the application of a novel domino process for an easy access of the privileged nucleus of 5-carbomethoxy substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones 4(a–i) from the ring expansion of 1-chloroacetylisatins 2(a–i), initiated by hexamethyldisilazane under the influence of n-butyl lithium. N-Butyl lithium formed an obvious choice since it has been used as a catalyst in amination of active alkyl halides with
Clinico-mycological profile of dermatophytosis in Jaipur, Rajasthan
Jain Neetu,Sharma Meenakshi,Saxena V
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2008,
Coupled Fixed Point Theorems for ()-Contractive Mixed Monotone Mappings in Partially Ordered Metric Spaces and Applications
Manish Jain,Neetu Gupta,Sanjay Kumar
International Journal of Analysis , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/586096
Abstract: The object of this paper is to establish the existence and uniqueness of coupled fixed points under a ( , )-contractive condition for mixed monotone operators in the setup of partially ordered metric spaces. Presented work generalizes the recent results of Berinde (2011, 2012) and weakens the contractive conditions involved in the well-known results of Bhaskar and Lakshmikantham (2006), and Luong and Thuan (2011). The effectiveness of our work is validated with the help of a suitable example. As an application, we give a result of existence and uniqueness for the solutions of a class of nonlinear integral equations. 1. Introduction and Preliminaries Fixed point theory is an important tool for studying the phenomenon of nonlinear analysis and is a bridge bond between pure and applied mathematics. The theory has its wide applications in engineering, computer science, physical and life sciences, economics, and other fields. Banach [1] introduced the well-known classical and valuable theorem in nonlinear analysis, which is named after him, known as the Banach contraction principle. This celebrated principle has been extended and improved by various authors in many ways over the years (see for instance [2–17]). Nowadays, fixed point theory has been receiving much attention in partially ordered metric spaces, that is, metric spaces endowed with a partial ordering. Ran and Reurings [17] were the first to establish the results in this direction. The results were then extended by Nieto and Rodríguez-López [10] for nondecreasing mappings. Works noted in [18–24] are some examples in this direction. The work of Bhaskar and Lakshmikantham [25] is worth mentioning, as they introduced the new notion of fixed points for the mappings having domain the product space , which they called coupled fixed points, and thereby proved some coupled fixed point theorems for mappings satisfying the mixed monotone property in partially ordered metric spaces. As an application, they discussed the existence and uniqueness of a solution for a periodic boundary value problem. Definition 1 (see [25]). Let be a partially ordered set. The mapping is said to have the mixed monotone property if is monotone nondecreasing in and monotone nonincreasing in ; that is, for any , , Definition 2 (see [25]). An element is called a coupled fixed point of the mapping if and . Bhaskar and Lakshmikantham [25] gave the following result. Theorem 3 (see [25]). Let be a partially ordered set and suppose there exists a metric on such that is a complete metric space. Let be a continuous mapping having the mixed
The Generalized Inverse Generalized Weibull Distribution and Its Properties
Kanchan Jain,Neetu Singla,Suresh Kumar Sharma
Journal of Probability , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/736101
Abstract: The Inverse Weibull distribution has been applied to a wide range of situations including applications in medicine, reliability, and ecology. It can also be used to describe the degradation phenomenon of mechanical components. We introduce Inverse Generalized Weibull and Generalized Inverse Generalized Weibull (GIGW) distributions. GIGW distribution is a generalization of several distributions in literature. The mathematical properties of this distribution have been studied and the mixture model of two Generalized Inverse Generalized Weibull distributions is investigated. Estimates of parameters using method of maximum likelihood have been computed through simulations for complete and censored data. 1. Introduction The Generalized Weibull (GW) distribution possessing bathtub failure rate was introduced by Mudholkar and Srivastava [1]. Mudholkar et al. [2] and Mudholkar and Hutson [3] applied GW distribution for analysis of data relating to bus motor failure, head and neck cancer, and flood. Inverse distributions, namely, Inverse Gamma, Inverse Generalized Gamma, Inverse Weibull, and Inverse Rayleigh, have been studied in literature [4–8]. Keller et al. [9] studied shapes of density and failure rate function for the basic inverse model and Drapella [6] worked on Inverse Weibull (IW) distribution. Drapella [6] and Mudholkar and Kolia [10] suggested the names complementary Weibull and reciprocal Weibull. These distributions have applications in reliability engineering and medical sciences and are used for modelling infant mortality, wear-out periods, degradation of mechanical components [11], times of breakdown of an insulating fluid subject to the action of constant tension [5], and load-strength relationship for a component [12]. Aleem and Pasha [13] studied some distributional properties of IW. In this paper, we first introduce a three-parameter continuous probability distribution on the positive real line, known as Inverse Generalized Weibull (IGW) distribution. It is the distribution of reciprocal of a variable distributed according to the Generalized Weibull distribution. It can also be called Complementary or Reciprocal Generalized Weibull distribution. Using IGW distribution, a four-parameter distribution named as Generalized Inverse Generalized Weibull (GIGW) distribution is introduced and its properties are studied. The mixture of two GIGW distributions has been investigated. Empirical estimates of parameters have been found using maximum likelihood method for complete and censored data. An application to real data set has been provided to
Anterior Mediastinal Mass: A Rare Presentation of Tuberculosis
Gopi C. Khilnani,Neetu Jain,Vijay Hadda,Sudheer K. Arava
Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/635385
Abstract: We report a case of a 14-year-boy who presented to us with a low-grade fever with evening rise for 9 months. Along with this, the patient also reported a reduction in his appetite and body weight. He had a mild dry cough but no respiratory symptoms otherwise. There was no other localization for fever on history. He received antitubercular therapy, based on abnormal chest radiograph. However, there was no relief in his symptoms. General physical examination revealed mild fever. Systemic examination was unremarkable. Blood investigations done for fever were noncontributory. Computed tomographic (CT) scan of the chest revealed a mediastinal mass compressing the trachea. The possibilities of lymphoma or germ cell tumour were considered. A biopsy from the mass under CT guidance was performed. The histopathology revealed multiple epithelioid cell granulomas with necrosis, and the diagnosis of tuberculosis was made. The clinical course of this patient and the relevant literature is presented in this paper. 1. Introduction The anterior mediastinal space is almost a virtual space. However, the multiplicity of the structures it contains and the diversity of disease processes affecting them make it a region of great clinical interest. This cavity encloses muscle, ligaments, fat tissue, and parenchymatous organs such as thymus, thyroid, and ectopic parathyroid gland. Mediastinal masses are commonly encountered in clinical practice. However, they represent a challenging and urgent diagnostic problem because the differential diagnoses range from absolutely benign to highly malignant conditions, and delay in diagnosis may be fatal. The common anterior masses include thymoma, lymphoma, and germ cell tumours [1, 2]. An isolated mediastinal mass without lung parenchymal lesion is an uncommon presentation of tuberculosis [3, 4]. Here, we present a case of anterior mediastinal mass compressing the trachea which was histopathologically diagnosed as tubercular and treated successfully with antituberculosis therapy (ATT). 2. Case Summary A 14-year-old boy presented to us in July 2009 with low-grade, evening rise fever since March 2008. He also complained of reduction in appetite and weight loss of 8?kg during this period. He had a mild dry cough. However, there was no history of shortness of breath, chest pain, hemoptysis, hoarseness of voice, or dysphagia. There was no other significant history to localize the cause of fever. He received antituberculosis therapy (ATT) for these symptoms and abnormal chest radiograph. He was treated for the first time for 4 months from March
Coupled Fixed Point Theorems for a Pair of Weakly Compatible Maps along with CLRg Property in Fuzzy Metric Spaces
Manish Jain,Kenan Tas,Sanjay Kumar,Neetu Gupta
Journal of Applied Mathematics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/961210
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to extend the notions of E.A. property and CLRg property for coupled mappings and use these notions to generalize the recent results of Xin-Qi Hu (2011). The main result is supported by a suitable example.
Nanotoxicology : An Emerging Discipline
Sachin Kumar Jain,Y. P. Sahni,Neetu Rajput and Vidhi Gautam
Veterinary World , 2011,
Abstract: Nanotoxicology refers to the study of the interactions of nanostructures with biological systems with an emphasis on elucidating the relationship between the physical and chemical properties of nanostructures with induction of toxic biological responses. Nanotoxicology is aimed at providing information on the potential toxicological effects, risk assessment and safety evaluation of nanostructured materials on human health. Nanoparticles present possible dangers, both medically and environmentally. They are also able to pass through cell membranes in organisms and their interactions with biological systems are relatively unknown. Animal studies have shown that nanoparticles can penetrate cells and tissues, move through the body and brain and cause biochemical damage. The greater chemical reactivity of nanomaterials result in increased production of reactive oxygen species which may contribute to similar patterns of cell injury and alterations at the molecular level by initiation, propagation and autocatalytic chain reactions. Intracellular signaling activation and inactivation of enzymes, stimulation, secretion and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and nuclear factor activation and alteration are also common events. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000): 35-40]
Arawatti Siddaram,Jain Neetu,Nirmalkar Uttam,Murthy Seema
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Colle’s fracture is the commonest fracture in people above forty years of age, and is particularly common in women because of post menopausal osteoporosis. So the problem faced by the medical practitioner regarding Colle’s fracture provides much scope for systematic study. In present study clinical evaluation was done to evaluate the effect of Asthishrankhala (Cissus quadrangularis Linn.). 30 registered, clinically diagnosed and confirmed patients of Colle’s fracture were selected for the present clinical trial from OPD/IPD of NIA, Jaipur. They were randomly divided in following three groups of 10 patients each, Group A- treated with only external application, Group B-treated with only internal application and Group C-treated with both external and internal application of Asthishrankhala (Cissus quadrangularis Linn.). At the end of study it was found that results were highly significant in group B & C (combined therapy).
Effect of PVP, PVA and POLE surfactants on the size of iridium nanoparticles  [PDF]
Anjali Goel, Neetu Rani
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (OJIC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojic.2012.23010
Abstract: Commonly transition metal nano particle are synthesized by physical, chemical or electrochemical methods. In the present work colloidal iridium nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical oxidation method with different surfactants like poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly oxyethylene lauryl ether (POLE). It was found that shape and size of Ir-nano particles resulted were related to kind of capping agent (surfactant) used. The characterization of the synthesized nano particle has been carried out by UV-vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) techniques. UV-vis and FT-IR confirm the oxidation of IrCl3 into IrO2 while XRD confirms the amorphous nature of the iridium nanoparticles synthesized. The morphology and size of the particle were confirmed by TEM. The average particle size determined by Scherrer equation was about 4.12 nm to 4.23 nm with PVP, 2.74 to 3.36 nm with PVA and 20.41 to 42.25 nm with POLE. Poly oxyethylene lauryl ether particles were not further analyzed because of their large size and less stability. Further particle size was confirmed with TEM, which was 4.5 nm with PVP and 7.0 nm with PVA. The particles are spherical with no agglomeration tendency.
A method to synthesize cDNA constructs by homology based recombination cloning  [PDF]
Neetu Verma, Pradeep Kumar Burma
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2014.41003

We introduce a homology-based recombination approach for generating a cDNA construct. This method depends on amplifying several exon fragments and their fusions by the homology-based recombination. This method provides a way to generate the cDNA sequence of any gene without any need for its mRNA. The paper describes the strategy by assembling cDNA of the MYB1 and MYB2 genes of Arabidopsis thaliana.

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