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Despite recent controversy, it is not yet formally recognised how lower-limb prosthesis should be assessed for their performance. To assist in this process, experiments are undertaken to investigate the linearity, stiffness and assessment of feet based energy return prosthesis technology typically used for elite level high speed running. Through initial investigations, it is concluded that static load testing would not be recommended to specify or regulate energy return prostheses for athletes with a lower-limb amputation. Furthermore, an assessment of energy return technology when loaded under dynamic conditions demonstrates changes in mechanical stiffness due to bending and effective blade length variation during motion. Such radical changes of boundary conditions due to loading suggest that any assessment of lower-limb prosthesis technology in the future should use methods that do not assume linear mechanical stiffness. The research into such effects warrants further investigation in the future.
This paper extends the option betas presented by Cox and Rubinstein (1985) and Branger and Schlag (2007). In particular, we show how the beta of the underlying asset affects both an option’s covariance beta and its asset pricing beta. In contrast to Branger and Schlag (2007), the generalized option betas coincide if the options are evaluated according to the CAPM option pricing model of Husmann and Todorova (2011). The option betas are presented in terms of Black-Scholes option prices and are therefore easy to use in practice.