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BACTERIAL DNA GYRASE IS NOT THE TARGET OF QUINOLINE-BASED ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS COMPOUNDS
Verma Rahul,Tripathy Rajan K.,Paul Manash,Nayyar Amit
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Few quinoline-based synthetic compounds (2, 8 Dicyclopentyl-4-methyl quinoline and 2, 8 Dicyclohexyl-4-methyl quinoline), the synthesis of which have been already shown by our medicinal chemistry group, were found to be potent inhibitor of mycobacterial growth. Based on the results of cell culture-based cell killing assays using DNA gyrase positive E. coli strains, we presumed that bacterial DNA gyrase might be a probable target of quinolines. The resemblance of the basic skeletal structural moiety of quinolone and quinoline inspired us to hypothesize that these quinolines might inhibit DNA gyrase. While the non-gyrase inhibitors like ethambutol and isoniazid did not inhibit the growth of these strains. The genesis of the notion of using E. coli DNA gyrase as an alternative to DNA gyrase from the pathogenic Mycobacterium, stems from the fact that E. coli DNA gyrase is found to be about eighty times more sensitive to the action of quinolones than the Mycobacterium DNA gyrase. Therefore, we had used E. coli DNA gyrase as a model enzyme for studying the action of some synthetic quinoline compounds synthesized by us. In the present work, we have used cell killing assay, gel electrophoresis assay (for DNA supercoiling) and UV spectroscopy-based coupled assay (for ATP hydrolysis) for characterizing the activity of DNA gyrase. Quinolones exhibited low IC50 values as compared to the studied quinolines on DNA gyrase positive E. coli strains We found that although quinolones are the potent inhibitors of supercoiling activity of E. coli DNA gyrase, quinolines are not. We further found that ATPase activity of E. coli DNA gyrase (Non-specific inhibitor) was inhibited to a very minor extent in the presence of very high concentration of these synthetic quinolines. DNA gyrase is not the primary target of these synthetic quinolines (2, 8 Dicyclopentyl-4-methyl quinoline and 2, 8 Dicyclohexyl-4-methyl quinoline).
Rethinking macroeconomic policies for development
Nayyar, Deepak;
Revista de Economia Política , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-31572011000300001
Abstract: the global economic crisis has created an opportunity to rethink macroeconomics for development. such rethinking is both necessary and desirable. it is essential to redefine macroeconomic objectives so that the emphasis is on fostering employment creation and supporting economic growth instead of the focus on price stability alone. it is just as important to rethink macroeconomic policies which cannot simply be used for the management of inflation and the elimination of macroeconomic imbalances, since fiscal and monetary policies are powerful and versatile instruments in the pursuit of development objectives. in doing so, it is essential to the overcome the constraints embedded in orthodox economic thinking and recognize the constraints implicit in the politics of ideology and interests.
Macroeconomics in develpoing countries
Deepak Nayyar
PSL Quarterly Review , 2007,
Abstract: This essay analyzes the differences between the economies of industrialized countriesand developing countries, which have important implications for macroeconomics interms of theory and policy. It considers the differences in macroeconomic objectives andexamines why the reach of macroeconomic policies is different in the two sets ofcountries. It argues that the distinction between short-run macroeconomic models andlong-term growth models is not quite appropriate for developing countries, wheremacroeconomic constraints on growth straddle time horizons and short-term policieshave long-term consequences. The essential hypothesis is that the nature of relationshipsand the direction of causation in macroeconomics, which shape analysis, diagnosis andprescription, depend on the institutional setting and not the analytical structure of models.And even if some laws of economics are universal, the functioning of economies can bemarkedly different. Therefore, economic theory and policy analysis should recognize,rather than ignore, such myriad differences.
Enhanced Anomaly Detection IDS-Based Scheme for Dynamic MANET on-Demand (DYMO) Routing Protocol for MANETS
Anand Nayyar
International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing , 2013,
Abstract: Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET) is a kind of wireless network which has no infrastructure.Security is an essential requirement in mobile ad hoc network to provide protected communication betweenmobile nodes. Due to unique characteristic of MANETs, it creates a number of consequential challenges toits security design. In this paper, we propose a new anomaly-detection scheme for Dynamic MANET Ondemand(DYMO) Routing protocol based on dynamic learning process that allows IDS system to monitor thenetwork and updating the training data at particular time interval. In the dynamic environment, a trustablenode (IDS system) in the network will do monitor process of each node in the network using dynamictraining data. The dynamic learning process involves calculating the projection distances based onmultidimensional statistics using weighted coefficients. For maintaining security the data packet are send inthe encrypted format using RSA algorithm.
A Search for $t\bar{t}$ Resonances in Lepton Plus Jets Events with ATLAS using 14 fb$^{-1}$ of Proton-Proton Collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV
Ruchika Nayyar
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: Some Beyond the Standard Model theories predict new particles that decay predominantly into top-antitop quark pairs. A search for top-antitop quark resonances that decay into the lepton plus jets final state is carried out with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC using 14 fb$^{-1}$ of $\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV proton-proton collisions. The search considers both cases where all of the final state jets are isolated and where some or all of the top quark decay products are merged into a single jet. Mass exclusion limits at a 95% credibility level are set for two benchmark models, one predicting leptophobic topcolor Z' bosons and the other predicting Randall-Sundrum Kaluza-Klein gluons.
Modelling the Transmission Dynamics of Hepatitis B & Optimal control
Nayyar Mehmood
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: This paper has been withdrawn by the author due to a crucial error in one of equation in (3).
Review of various PTS (Partial Transmit Sequence) techniques of PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) reduction in MIMO-OFDM
Er. Ankita,Anand Nayyar
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: MIMO-OFDM is the most important candidate forwireless communication. The main drawback of thisMIMO-OFDM is high PAPR which results in signal distortionand power inefficiency in RF section of transmitter. In this paperwe will discuss and compare all the Partial Transmit Sequence(PTS) techniques and conclude that why cooperative PTS is muchbetter than PTS technique.
Gingival Enlargement In Epileptic Patients On Phenytoin Therapy-An Overview Of Possible Etiologies And Studies
Abhishek Singh Nayyar
Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with recurrent seizures due to a chronic underlying process. Despite tremendous advances in the field of understanding regarding the etio-pathogenesis of epilepsy, phenytoin still remains the drug of choice in its management. Chronic administration of phenytoin has been associated to have a number of adverse effects. Gingival enlargement is one such most often reported adverse drug sequela of long term phenytoin usage with exclusion of local factors contributing towards gingival enlargement. This review gives an overview regarding the association of phenytoin and gingival enlargement seen in epileptic patients being treated with phenytoin.
Novel Biochemical Markers: Early Detection and Prevention of Malignant Transformation A Pilot Study
Abhishek Singh Nayyar
Acta Medica Iranica , 2012,
Abstract: The role of oxygen free radicals in the initiation, promotion and progression of carcinogenesis and the protective role of anti-oxidant defenses has been the subject of much speculation in the recent past with conflicting reports in the literature. In recent years, increasing experimental and clinical data have provided compelling evidence for the involvement of oxidative stress in a large number of pathological states including cancers. The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of serum total proteins and albumin as potent anti-oxidants in the sera of patients diagnosed with speckled leukoplakia, one of the oral pre-cancerous lesions reported to have significantly high malignant transformation rates and well-differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma. The study consisted of sera analysis of total protein and albumin levels in patients with speckled leukoplakia and histologically proven, well-differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma. One way analyses of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the difference between groups. To find out which of the two groups' means were significantly different; post-hoc test of Scheffe was used. The study revealed variations in sera levels of albumin to be statistically significant. The results obtained emphasize the need for more studies with larger sample sizes to be conducted before a conclusive role for sera levels of total protein and albumin could be drawn as markers of transition from the various oral pre-cancerous lesions and conditions to frank oral squamous cell carcinoma.
FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION BIOPSY IN CONJUNCTION WITH CELL BLOCK PREPARATION;
Nayyar Waqar Ahmed
The Professional Medical Journal , 1998,
Abstract: This study is based on an analysis of 1000 fine needle aspiration biopsies in which both cytology smearsand paraffin cell block were available. The histology slides from these cell blocks were studied and the caseswere divided into 3 categories. In category A 903 (90.3%) cases fall which show a definitive histologicaldiagnosis of the lesion as well as type of the lesion can be made. In category B, included 81 (8.1%) cases,only the presence of lesion could be detected, but the type of lesion was not ascertained . In category Cwhich consisted of 16 (1.6%) cases, the tissue was insufficient for reliable diagnosis. Comparison of thecytologic diagnosis based on aspiration smear with the cell block diagnosis revealed that in 210 (21%) casesonly cell block was positive while in another 130(13%) of cases the diagnosis from the cell block was moreprecise and specific. These results indicate that cell blocks can enhance the effectiveness of fine needleaspiration biopsy in establishing a pathologic diagnosis. Moreover the cell block preparation in addition toroutine FNA cytology smears provide a valuable tool for the evaluation of a lesion and for proper selectionof a patient for surgery or for other means of treatment.
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