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Efficacy of a Topical Aromatic Rub (Vicks VapoRub) on Effects on Self-Reported and Actigraphically Assessed Aspects of Sleep in Common Cold Patients  [PDF]
Nayantara Santhi, David Ramsey, Gill Phillipson, David Hull, Victoria L. Revell, Derk-Jan Dijk
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.72009
Common cold sufferers frequently report sleep disruption during the symptomatic period of infections. We examined the effects of treatment with a topical aromatic pharmaceutical ointment (Vicks VapoRub), on associated sleep disturbances. The effects of Vicks VapoRub versus placebo (petrolatum ointment) on subjective and objective measured sleep parameters were assessed in an exploratory study of 100 common cold patients, in a randomized, single blind, controlled, two-arm, parallel design study. The primary efficacy variable was subjective sleep quality measured with the SQSQ (Subjective Quality of Sleep Questionnaire). Additional measures included, ease of falling asleep and depth of sleep (measured with a post-sleep Visual Analog Scale), total sleep time, sleep onset latency, activity score, percentage of sleep, sleep efficiency (measured with actigraphy and SQSQ) and sleep quality index measured with a modified Karolinska Sleep Diary (KSD). The primary endpoint, “How was the quality of your sleep last night?” showed a statistically significant difference in change from baseline in favour of VapoRub treatment (p = 0.0392) versus placebo. Positive effects of VapoRub versus placebo were also observed for “How refreshed did you feel upon waking up?” (p = 0.0122) (SQSQ), “Did you get enough sleep?” (p = 0.0036) (KSD), “How was it to get up?” (p = 0.0120) (KSD) and “Do you feel well-rested?” (p = 0.0125) (KSD). No statistically significant changes from baseline versus placebo were detected in the Actiwatch endpoints. Vicks VapoRub when applied before retiring to bed can reduce subjective sleep disturbances during a common cold. The results of this exploratory study support the belief among patients that the use of VapoRub improves subjective sleep quality during common cold which was associated with more refreshing sleep.
Acute Sleep Deprivation and Circadian Misalignment Associated with Transition onto the First Night of Work Impairs Visual Selective Attention
Nayantara Santhi, Todd S. Horowitz, Jeanne F. Duffy, Charles A. Czeisler
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001233
Abstract: Background Overnight operations pose a challenge because our circadian biology promotes sleepiness and dissipates wakefulness at night. Since the circadian effect on cognitive functions magnifies with increasing sleep pressure, cognitive deficits associated with night work are likely to be most acute with extended wakefulness, such as during the transition from a day shift to night shift. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis we measured selective attention (with visual search), vigilance (with Psychomotor Vigilance Task [PVT]) and alertness (with a visual analog scale) in a shift work simulation protocol, which included four day shifts followed by three night shifts. There was a nocturnal decline in cognitive processes, some of which were most pronounced on the first night shift. The nighttime decrease in visual search sensitivity was most pronounced on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p = .04), and this was accompanied by a trend towards selective attention becoming ‘fast and sloppy’. The nighttime increase in attentional lapses on the PVT was significantly greater on the first night compared to subsequent nights (p<.05) indicating an impaired ability to sustain focus. The nighttime decrease in subjective alertness was also greatest on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p<.05). Conclusions/Significance These nocturnal deficits in attention and alertness offer some insight into why occupational errors, accidents, and injuries are pronounced during night work compared to day work. Examination of the nighttime vulnerabilities underlying the deployment of attention can be informative for the design of optimal work schedules and the implementation of effective countermeasures for performance deficits during night work.
Morning Sleep Inertia in Alertness and Performance: Effect of Cognitive Domain and White Light Conditions
Nayantara Santhi, John A. Groeger, Simon N. Archer, Marina Gimenez, Luc J. M. Schlangen, Derk-Jan Dijk
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079688
Abstract: The transition from sleep to wakefulness entails a temporary period of reduced alertness and impaired performance known as sleep inertia. The extent to which its severity varies with task and cognitive processes remains unclear. We examined sleep inertia in alertness, attention, working memory and cognitive throughput with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), n-back and add tasks, respectively. The tasks were administered 2 hours before bedtime and at regular intervals for four hours, starting immediately after awakening in the morning, in eleven participants, in a four-way cross-over laboratory design. We also investigated whether exposure to Blue-Enhanced or Bright Blue-Enhanced white light would reduce sleep inertia. Alertness and all cognitive processes were impaired immediately upon awakening (p<0.01). However, alertness and sustained attention were more affected than cognitive throughput and working memory. Moreover, speed was more affected than accuracy of responses. The light conditions had no differential effect on performance except in the 3-back task (p<0.01), where response times (RT) at the end of four hours in the two Blue-Enhanced white light conditions were faster (200 ms) than at wake time. We conclude that the effect of sleep inertia varies with cognitive domain and that it’s spectral/intensity response to light is different from that of sleepiness. That is, just increasing blue-wavelength in light may not be sufficient to reduce sleep inertia. These findings have implications for critical professions like medicine, law-enforcement etc., in which, personnel routinely wake up from night-time sleep to respond to emergency situations.
Effects of Partial and Acute Total Sleep Deprivation on Performance across Cognitive Domains, Individuals and Circadian Phase
June C. Lo, John A. Groeger, Nayantara Santhi, Emma L. Arbon, Alpar S. Lazar, Sibah Hasan, Malcolm von Schantz, Simon N. Archer, Derk-Jan Dijk
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045987
Abstract: Background Cognitive performance deteriorates during extended wakefulness and circadian phase misalignment, and some individuals are more affected than others. Whether performance is affected similarly across cognitive domains, or whether cognitive processes involving Executive Functions are more sensitive to sleep and circadian misalignment than Alertness and Sustained Attention, is a matter of debate. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a 2 × 12-day laboratory protocol to characterize the interaction of repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation and circadian phase on performance across seven cognitive domains in 36 individuals (18 males; mean ± SD of age = 27.6±4.0 years). The sample was stratified for the rs57875989 polymorphism in PER3, which confers cognitive susceptibility to total sleep deprivation. We observed a deterioration of performance during both repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation. Furthermore, prior partial sleep deprivation led to poorer cognitive performance in a subsequent total sleep deprivation period, but its effect was modulated by circadian phase such that it was virtually absent in the evening wake maintenance zone, and most prominent during early morning hours. A significant effect of PER3 genotype was observed for Subjective Alertness during partial sleep deprivation and on n-back tasks with a high executive load when assessed in the morning hours during total sleep deprivation after partial sleep loss. Overall, however, Subjective Alertness and Sustained Attention were more affected by both partial and total sleep deprivation than other cognitive domains and tasks including n-back tasks of Working Memory, even when implemented with a high executive load. Conclusions/Significance Sleep loss has a primary effect on Sleepiness and Sustained Attention with much smaller effects on challenging Working Memory tasks. These findings have implications for understanding how sleep debt and circadian rhythmicity interact to determine waking performance across cognitive domains and individuals.
Analysis Method and Experimental Conditions Affect Computed Circadian Phase from Melatonin Data
Hadassa Klerman, Melissa A. St. Hilaire, Richard E. Kronauer, Joshua J. Gooley, Claude Gronfier, Joseph T. Hull, Steven W. Lockley, Nayantara Santhi, Wei Wang, Elizabeth B. Klerman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033836
Abstract: Accurate determination of circadian phase is necessary for research and clinical purposes because of the influence of the master circadian pacemaker on multiple physiologic functions. Melatonin is presently the most accurate marker of the activity of the human circadian pacemaker. Current methods of analyzing the plasma melatonin rhythm can be grouped into three categories: curve-fitting, threshold-based and physiologically-based linear differential equations. To determine which method provides the most accurate assessment of circadian phase, we compared the ability to fit the data and the variability of phase estimates for seventeen different markers of melatonin phase derived from these methodological categories. We used data from three experimental conditions under which circadian rhythms - and therefore calculated melatonin phase - were expected to remain constant or progress uniformly. Melatonin profiles from older subjects and subjects with lower melatonin amplitude were less likely to be fit by all analysis methods. When circadian drift over multiple study days was algebraically removed, there were no significant differences between analysis methods of melatonin onsets (P = 0.57), but there were significant differences between those of melatonin offsets (P<0.0001). For a subset of phase assessment methods, we also examined the effects of data loss on variability of phase estimates by systematically removing data in 2-hour segments. Data loss near onset of melatonin secretion differentially affected phase estimates from the methods, with some methods incorrectly assigning phases too early while other methods assigning phases too late; missing data at other times did not affect analyses of the melatonin profile. We conclude that melatonin data set characteristics, including amplitude and completeness of data collection, differentially affect the results depending on the melatonin analysis method used.
Removal of Malachite Green Dye from Aqueous Solutions onto Microwave Assisted Zinc Chloride Chemical Activated Epicarp of Ricinus communis  [PDF]
M. Makeswari, T. Santhi
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.52023

Competitive adsorption of malachite green (MG) in single and binary system on microwave activated epicarp of Ricinus communis (MRC) and microwave assisted zinc chloride activated epicarp of Ricinus communis (ZRC) were analyzed. The preparation of ZRC from Ricinus communis was investigated in this paper. Orthogonal array experimental design method was used to optimize the preparation of ZRC. Optimized parameters were radiation power of 100 W, radiation time of 4 min, concentration of zinc chloride of 30% by volume and impregnation time of 16 h, respectively. The MRC and ZRC were characterized by pHzpc, SEM-EDAX and FTIR analysis. The effect of the presence of one dye solution on the adsorption of the other dye solution was investigated in terms of equilibrium isotherm and adsorption yield. Experimental results indicated that the uptake capacities of one dye were reduced by the presence of the other dye. The adsorption equilibrium data fits the Langmuir model well and follows pseudo second-order kinetics for the bio-sorption process. Among MRC and ZRC, ZRC shows most adsorption ability than MRC in single and binary system.

Neutrino Induced Upward Going Muons from a Gamma Ray Burst in a Neutrino Telescope of Km^2 Area
Nayantara Gupta
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.65.113005
Abstract: The number of neutrino induced upward going muons from a single Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) expected to be detected by the proposed kilometer scale IceCube detector at the South Pole location has been calculated. The effects of the Lorentz factor, total energy of the GRB emitted in neutrinos and its distance from the observer (red shift) on the number of neutrino events from the GRB have been examined. The present investigation reveals that there is possibility of exploring the early Universe with the proposed kilometer scale IceCube neutrino telescope.
Galactic PeV Neutrinos
Nayantara Gupta
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2013.07.003
Abstract: IceCube experiment has detected two neutrinos with energies beween 1-10 PeV. They might have originated from Galactic or extragalactic sources of cosmic rays. In the present work we consider hadronic interactions of the diffuse very high energy cosmic rays with the interstellar matter within our Galaxy to explain the PeV neutrino events detected in IceCube. We also expect PeV gamma ray events along with the PeV neutrino events if the observed PeV neutrinos were produced within our Galaxy in hadronic interactions. PeV gamma rays are unlikely to reach us from sources outside our Galaxy due to pair production with cosmic background radiations. We suggest that in future with simultaneous detections of PeV gamma rays and neutrinos it would be possible to distinguish between Galactic and extragalactic origins of very high energy neutrinos.
Very High Energy Antineutrinos from Photo-disintegration of Cosmic Ray Nuclei
Nayantara Gupta
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2015.08.003
Abstract: The photo-disintegration of cosmic ray nuclei by starlight leads to the production of secondary antineutrinos. We have assumed that the flux of the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei near the Galactic plane region is the same as that observed near the earth and calculated the antineutrino flux produced from their photo-disintegration. The IceCube detector has measured the neutrino/antineutrino flux in the TeV-PeV energy range. Our calculated secondary antineutrino flux in the energy range of 10-100 TeV is found to be much less compared to the flux detected by the IceCube collaboration. The upper limit on the intensity of the radiation field in the extragalactic medium is much lower than that near the Galactic center. If we extend our formalism to the extragalactic medium the contribution from the photo-disintegration of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray heavy nuclei remains insignificant due to their very low flux.
On the Gamma Ray Burst Origin of Extremely Energetic Cosmic Rays
Nayantara Gupta
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.03.006
Abstract: Air shower experiments have detected cosmic ray events of energies upto 300 EeV. Most likely these cosmic rays have originated from compact objects. Their exact sources are yet to be identified. It has been suggested before that gamma ray bursts are possible sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The two models of gamma ray burst emissions most often discussed are the internal and external shock models. We have calculated the proton spectrum above 60EeV from all gamma ray bursts distributed upto a redshift of 0.02 in the internal shock model assuming redshift and luminosity distributions consistent with observations, log normal distributions for their values of Lorentz factors, variability times and duration of bursts. Within the external shock model we have calculated the proton flux above 60EeV from all nearby gamma ray bursts assuming log normal distributions in their values of total energies, Lorentz factors at the deceleration epoch and compared with the observed data. We find that gamma ray bursts can produce cosmic ray proton flux comparable to the flux observed by the Pierre Auger experiment both within the internal and external shock models. We have also studied the dependence of the maximum proton energies and the cooling breaks in the proton spectrum on the various parameters like Lorentz factor, energy of the GRB fireball, variability time (in case of internal shocks), ambient particle density (in case of external shocks). Our results are important to understand how the various observable parameters determine which mechanism e.g. $p\gamma$ interactions, synchrotron cooling of protons will dominate over one another inside these sources.
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