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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20820 matches for " Nay Min Tun "
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Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism with New Oral Anticoagulants: A Practical Update for Clinicians
Nay Min Tun,Thein Hlaing Oo
Thrombosis , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/183616
Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism with New Oral Anticoagulants: A Practical Update for Clinicians
Nay Min Tun,Thein Hlaing Oo
Thrombosis , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/183616
Abstract: Traditional anticoagulants, such as warfarin and enoxaparin, have several limitations, including parenteral administration, need for laboratory monitoring, and ongoing dose adjustment, which may limit optimal patient care. Newer oral anticoagulants, such as direct thrombin inhibitors (e.g., dabigatran etexilate) and direct factor Xa inhibitors (e.g., rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban), have been developed to overcome these drawbacks, and thereby improve patient care. Several of these agents have been approved for use in the prevention and treatment of venous and/or systemic thromboembolism. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the available clinical trial data for these new oral anticoagulants in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and a practical update for clinicians. 1. Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) comprises deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Although the exact incidence of VTE is not known, it is estimated to affect 900,000 patients each year in the United States [1]. Approximately one-third of these cases are fatal pulmonary emboli, and the remaining two-thirds are nonfatal episodes of symptomatic DVT or PE [1]. VTE is the second most common cause of extended hospital stay and the third most common cause of in-hospital mortality [2]. Because it causes considerable morbidity and mortality, VTE places a substantial burden on healthcare resources [3, 4]. Without thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of hospital-acquired DVT based on objective diagnostic screening is 10–40% among medical or general surgical patients and 40–60% among patients who have undergone major orthopedic surgery such as total knee replacement (TKR), total hip replacement (THR), and hip fracture surgery [5]. Patients with cancer are at a greater risk of new or recurrent VTE than patients without cancer. VTE risk is 3- to 5-fold higher in cancer patients who are undergoing surgery and 6.5-fold higher in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy than in patients who do not have cancer [6, 7]. The efficacy of traditional anticoagulants in preventing VTE in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery and in hospitalized acutely ill medical patients is well established [5, 8–11]. However, these agents have several limitations that may limit optimal patient care, such as their parenteral administration, need for laboratory monitoring, and ongoing dose adjustment (Table 1) [12–16]. Newer oral anticoagulants, such as direct thrombin inhibitors (e.g., dabigatran etexilate) and direct factor Xa inhibitors (e.g.,
An Instability Result to a Certain Vector Differential Equation of the Sixth Order  [PDF]
Cemil Tun
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.39147
Abstract: The nonlinear vector differential equation of the sixth order with constant delay is considered in this article. New criteria for instability of the zero solution are established using the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach and the differential inequality techniques. The result of this article improves previously known results.
Study on the Cultivation of Agaricus blazei (Almond Mushroom) Grown on Compost Mixed with Selected Agro-Residues  [PDF]
Tun Tun Win, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.810051
Abstract: The Agaricus blazei strain (KUMB 1221) from Forest Production Control Laboratory, Kyushu University was grown on the basal media of compost mixed with selected agro-residues (sawdust, woodchips and corncob) in the ratio of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (by weight). The data was collected on the colony diameter of mycelial growth, days required for spawn run (colonization), days required for primordial formation, whiteness measurement, days required for fruit body formation, number, size and fresh weight of mushrooms, biological efficiency (BE) and mushroom production (MP). It was observed that the mycelial growth showed two types of mycelia according the level of mycelial density; compact (C) and somewhat compact (SC). The fastest spawn run (17 days) was found in woodchips (50%) among all the different treatments while the least spawn run took 26 days in corncob (75%). Sawdust substrates promoted longer days for primordial formation and fruit body development, if compared with woodchips substrates and corncob substrates. With regard to yield, 100%, 75% and 50% mixture with compost were superior to 25% mixture with compost in each group of selected agro-residues and it indicated that adding more compost gave the increased yield. Interestingly, it was noted that mushroom size on compost (100%) was double to the mushroom size of other treatments. In conclusion, it was clearly showed that compost (100%), woodchips (25%) and corncob (25%) could produce better yields among all treatments, and it was also possible to obtain acceptable yields of good quality almond mushroom using main substrates of compost mixed with different agro-residues at various concentrations.
Effects of malaria volunteer training on coverage and timeliness of diagnosis: a cluster randomized controlled trial in Myanmar
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-309
Abstract: Background The use of community volunteers is expected to improve access to accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of malaria, using rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). However, empirical data from the field are still limited. The aim of this study was to assess whether training village volunteers on the use of Paracheck-Pf RDT and ACT (artemether-lumefantrine (AL)) for Plasmodium falciparum and presumptive treatment with chloroquine for Plasmodium vivax had an effect on the coverage of timely diagnosis and treatment and on mortality in malaria-endemic villages without health staff in Myanmar. Methods The study was designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial with a cross-sectional survey at baseline, a monthly visit for six months following the intervention (village volunteers trained and equipped with Paracheck-Pf ) and an endline survey at six months follow-up. Survey data were supplemented by the analysis of logbooks and field-based verbal autopsies. Villages with midwives (MW) in post were used as a third comparison group in the endline survey. Intention-to-treat analysis was used. Results Of 38 villages selected, 21 were randomly assigned to the intervention (two villages failed to participate) and 17 to the comparison group. The two groups had comparable baseline statistics. The blood tests provided by volunteers every month declined over time from 279 tests to 41 but not in MW group in 18 villages (from 326 to 180). In the endline survey, among interviewed subjects (268 intervention, 287 in comparison, 313 in MW), the coverage of RDT was low in all groups (14.9%, SE 2.4% in intervention; 5.7%, SE 1.7% in comparison; 21.4%, SE 2.6% in MW) although the intervention (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5-6.7) and MW (OR 5.4, 95% CI 2.6-11.0) were more likely to receive a blood test. Mean (SE) of blood tests after onset of fever in days was delayed (intervention 3.6 (0.3); comparison 4.8 (1.3); MW 3.2 (0.4)). Malaria mortality rates per 100,000 populations in a year were not significantly different (intervention 130 SE 37; comparison 119 SE 34; MW 50 SE 18). None of the dead cases had consulted volunteers. Conclusions The results show that implementing volunteer programmes to improve the coverage of accurate and timely diagnosis with RDT and early treatment may be beneficial but the timeliness of detection and sustainability must be improved.
Investigation of Phenolic Acids in Suspension Cultures of Vitis vinifera Stimulated with Indanoyl-Isoleucine, N-Linolenoyl-L-Glutamine, Malonyl Coenzyme A and Insect Saliva
Heidi Riedel,Divine N. Akumo,Nay Min Min Thaw Saw,Iryna Smetanska,Peter Neubauer
Metabolites , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/metabo2010165
Abstract: Vitis vinifera c.v. Muscat de Frontignan (grape) contains various high valuable bioactive phenolic compounds with pharmaceutical properties and industrial interest which are not fully exploited. The focus of this investigation consists in testing the effects of various biological elicitors on a non-morphogenic callus suspension culture of V. vinifera. The investigated elicitors: Indanoyl-isoleucine (IN), N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine (LG), insect saliva (IS) and malonyl coenzyme A (MCoA) were aimed at mimicking the influence of environmental pathogens on plants in their natural habitats and at provoking exogenous induction of the phenylpropanoid pathway. The elicitors’ indanoyl-isoleucine (IN), N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine (LG) and insect saliva (IS), as well as malonyl coenzyme A (MCoA), were independently inoculated to stimulate the synthesis of phenylpropanoids. All of the enhancers positively increased the concentration of phenolic compounds in grape cells. The highest concentration of phenolic acids was detected after 2 h for MCoA, after 48 h for IN and after 24 h for LG and IS respectively. At the maximum production time, treated grape cells had a 3.5-fold (MCoA), 1.6-fold (IN) and 1.5-fold (IS) higher phenolic acid content compared to the corresponding control samples. The HPLC results of grape cells showed two major resveratrol derivatives: 3- O-Glucosyl-resveratrol and 4-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-phenol. Their influences of the different elicitors, time of harvest and biomass concentration ( p < 0.0001) were statistically significant on the synthesis of phenolic compounds. The induction with MCoA was found to demonstrate the highest statistical effect corresponding to the strongest stress response within the phenylpropanoid pathway in grape cells.
Dengue Maculopathy: Case Series  [PDF]
Lai Chan Fhun, Evelyn Tai Li Min, Hong Kee Ng, Tun Wang Ch’ng, Mei Fong Chong, Ahmad Tajudin Liza-Sharmini
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2016.64031
Abstract: We report a case series of dengue maculopathy with different ocular manifestations, managements, visual outcomes and sequelae of patients. All three cases were diagnosed to have dengue fever. Patients presented with symptoms of central scotoma (case 1 and case 3) and blurring of vision (case 2) on Day 9 of dengue fever. Fundus examination showed intra retinal haemorrhages (case 1 and case 2) and macula thickening (case 3). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed macular thickening with intra retinal fluid (case 1) and diffuse retinal thickening (case 3), while in case 2, it had irregular ellipsoid line in OCT. Fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) revealed parafoveal vasculitis. After treatment with systemic steroids, one patient had good visual outcome (case 2), while two others had a persistent central scotoma due to macula atrophy (case 3). Although it is a self limiting disease, but the mode of treatment is variable. Treatment with corticosteroids may hasten recovery of vision and prevent permanent visual impairment.
Geothermal Modeling of Kizilcahamam-Çamlidere Area Using 3D Imaging Technique  [PDF]
Ayhan Keskinsezer,nay Beyhan
Geomaterials (GM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2013.34016

Geothermal energy has long been used for various purposes. Geothermal energy was used for bath and health care since ancient times. With the increase in the population, it is being used today for industrial and energy production. This paper examines the geothermal structure of Northern Ankara-NAF (Northern Anatolian Fault Zone) regions to reveal its tectonic features, and the relationships of the region with earthquakes. The 3D geological features of the area are investigated using the resistivity data and tectonic and the quake values. The resistivity data obtained by MTA (Mineral Research and Exploration of Turkey) are reached by geothermal measurements in the area in 1999. In Kizilcahamam town of Ankara Province, geothermal exploration was performed using geoelectrical methods. During the study, electrode measurement scheme was planned according to the Schlumberger expansion. AB/2 spacing is between 1900 m. and 2000 m. Data obtained from geoelectrical methods were processed to delineate the subsurface structure. Also, lithological components were determined and the previously known fault structure was shown. Since the 3D works have been more feasible recently, the received results are transferred into the 3D imaging platform taking advantage of 2D electrical resistivity maps. The low resistivity values obtained in 3D imaging are gathered that the temperature values of the area are high. On the other hand, as the pull-apart between NAF and Kirikkale fault trending NE-SW of the region is in form of basin, the study area is observed to own opening tectonics. Thus, when the seismic activity is considered, it reveals important findings about the presence of geothermal fields in the local.

Determination of Shearing Properties for Tubular Pinewood under Torsion  [PDF]
Ezgi Günay, Emre Uludogan
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.61007
Abstract: In this study, tubular pinewood (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens are tested and shear strain measurements are performed by applying torsion in z direction in the consideration of light weight aircraft engineering. The objective of this paper is to contribute and generate the nonlinear material model in terms of shear modulus presented with power functions under the consideration of nonlinear behavior of wood under torque. Strain gauge measurements are performed for the maximum shear stresses which develop on the tubular specimen, along the radial r(rin, rout), circumferential Φ(Φin, Φout) and z directions, in a point-wise manner. The data is gathered and examined for the determination of the local variations of empirical shear modulus functions on transversely isotropic surfaces of the specimens. The coordinate dependent shear modulus functions of GzΦ(r), GzΦ(Φ), GzΦ(z) are derived for GzΦ(r, Φ, z)as the function of r, Φ and z, respectively, by analyzing the gathered data. It is proposed to represent the shear modulus functions, GzΦ(Φ) and GzΦ(z) with the parabolic polynomials, and, to represent the shear modulus function GzΦ(r) with a linear equation.
New Oscillation Results for Forced Second Order Differential Equations with Mixed Nonlinearities  [PDF]
Ercan Tun, Adil Kaymaz
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.32023
Abstract: Some new oscillation criteria are given for forced second order differential equations with mixed nonlinearities by using the generalized variational principle and Riccati technique. Our results generalize and extend some known oscillation results in the literature.
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