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Adapting a Database of Text Messages to a Mobile-Based Weight Loss Program: The Case of the Middle East
Selma Limam Mansar,Shashank Jariwala,Nawal Behih,Maahd Shahzad,Aysha Anggraini
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/658149
Abstract: Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic. Qatar, a rapidly developing country in the Middle East, has seen a sharp increase in the prevalence of obesity. The increase can be attributed to several reasons, including sedentary lifestyles imposed by a harsh climate and the introduction of Western fast food. Mobile technologies have been used and studied as a technology to support individuals’ weight loss. The authors have developed a mobile application that implements three strategies drawn from proven theories of behavioral change. The application is localized to the cultural context of its proposed users. The objective of this paper is to present a method through which we adapted the messaging content of a weight loss application to the context of its users while retaining an effective degree of automation. The adaptation addressed body image, eating and physical exercise habits, and regional/cultural needs. The paper discusses how surveying potential users can be used to build a profile of a target population, find common patterns, and then develop a database of text messages. The text messages are automated and sent to the users at specific times of day, as suggested by the survey results. 1. Introduction Tackling the weight issue is a significant undertaking. Worldwide, the number of obese people has doubled in the past 20 years [1]. We explored ways in which mobile technologies can be adapted to meet environmental and cultural norms and thereby support individuals in their effort to lose weight. In this paper, we examine the case of the Middle East through the example of Qatar. According to the International Association for the Study of Obesity, the numbers for obesity for the Qatari population are alarming. The association ranks the country sixth on its list of the most obese countries worldwide. The numbers presented in [2] (cited by [3]) were overwhelming: for the 25–65 age group, 34.6% of the men were obese and 34.3% were overweight. For females in the same age group, 45.3% were obese and 33% were overweight. The figures are also alarming for children: [4] (cited by [3]) found that in the 12–17 age group, 28.7% of boys were overweight and 7.6% were obese. Additionally, 20.3% of the girls in the same age group were overweight and 4.5% were obese. A more recent study in Qatar [5] suggests slightly lower figures among children of 2–19 years old, but still a much higher percentage than the current 16.9% for American children in this age group as reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) [6]. Despite this disparity, the
Evaluation of wheat ear insects in large scale field in central Germany  [PDF]
Nawal Gaafar, Christa Volkmar
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/as.2010.12010
Abstract: Wheat ear insects in large scale winter wheat field in Salzmünde (SaxsonyAnhalt) central Germany were evaluated. The present study aimed at studying the abundance of wheat blossom midges WBM, Sitodoplosis mosellana (Géhin), Contarinia tritici (Kirby) and thrips, Li mothrips cerealium (Haliday) and Haplothrips tritici (Kurdjumov). Infestation in winter wheat during the growing seasons 2007, 2008 and 2009 was evaluated. Three methods were used to determine population densities and damage of wheat midges and thrips; pheromone traps, inspection of ear insects and water traps. A strong correlation between midge’s catches and weather conditions was obtained in field ob servations. A positive correlation between phe romone catches and ear infestation levels was recorded; it was higher in 2008 than in 2009. On the other hand, in 2007 there was no synchro nization; S. mosellana hibernated emerged too late to coincide with the susceptible wheat growth stages. The chemical treatment applied at 2008 for highly infestation; there were sig nificant differences in thrips and midge num bers between treated and untreated. Thrips and midge numbers were lower in the treated than in control. The high midge populations in water traps were recorded at growth stages 7779 and 83 and the low populations were recorded at GS 75 and 7577. This gives a reliable base for de cision making to midges control.
Methodological Approach of Decision Support for the Development Choices of an Abandoned Quarry (The Landfill of Mohammedia-Morocco)  [PDF]
Nawal Ezzirari, Lahcen Bahi
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2013.33019

The principal component analysis of the landfill of Mohammedia, was carried out by monitoring and spatiotemporal analysis of a number of physical and chemical tracers (temperature, pH, salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, TOC and metal) of superficial waters during the years 2010-2012. It has, on the one hand, to evaluate several options in situations where no possibility is perfect, and secondly, to visualize the distribution of different individuals (wells), which gave an idea of their similarity relative the measured variables revealed two major groups: The group I is close to the proximal region of the river and landfill and submitted to direct influences of the latter and the group II, with transitional character between wells in Group I, which is characterized by a relatively high TOC showing a deteriorated water quality. And for the potential damage caused by the landfill of the waters of river El Maleh, the identification of suitable rehabilitation plan for this landfill becomes a necessity.

Etude de l’e et de deux types d’aides (questionnaire versus note explicative) et de la langue maternelle sur la relecture, le retraitement des informations et la compréhension d’un texte explicatif
Boudechiche Nawal
Synergies Algerie , 2007,
Abstract: Cette recherche décrit et analyse les processus cognitifs impliqués dans la compréhension d’un texte explicatif en langue étrangère et évalue l’effet de deux types d’aide sur la compréhension et la réécriture chez des apprenants universitaires de classe scienti que. Dans une première expérience, ces aides ont consisté en un questionnaire d’aide à la compréhension alors que dans l’expérience 2, elles étaient constituées de notes explicatives. Dans les deux conditions, ces dernières renvoient soit au modèle de situation évoqué par le texte, soit au contenu de la base du texte (van Dijk et Kintsch, 1983). Les propositions d’aides visent à faciliter l’activité inférentielle des apprenants et à développer la construction de la cohérence de la signi cation globale du texte en fonction, non seulement du contexte linguistique des étudiants : la langue utilisée dans les aides (langue maternelle vs langue étrangère), mais également du niveau des apprenants en fran ais).
Apprendre ensemble à écrire tout seul
Nawal Boudechiche
Voix Plurielles , 2012,
Abstract: Comme la didactique est un domaine de réflexions sur les pratiques d’enseignement/apprentissage et en raison de la difficulté des scripteurs à se représenter un équilibre entre les connaissances et les attentes des lecteurs potentiels de leur écrit, nous analysons les effets d’une variante du travail collaboratif sur les procédés de réécriture mis en uvre en situation de production écrite individuelle, et par hypothèse, sur les capacités cognitives de prise en charge du lecteur différé du message. Il s'agit précisément d’analyser les développements du contenu sémantique d'un texte descriptif en fran ais langue étrangère, écrit et réécrit en situation individuelle, par des apprenants de première année licence de fran ais, suite aux annotations mentionnées par les pairs. Le socioconstructivisme (Vygotsky; Jonnaert) pr ne le r le majeur des interactions sociales dans la construction et la reconstruction des connaissances. Les recherches sur la cognition soulignent le besoin de développer la responsabilité individuelle au niveau de la construction des connaissances.
Adverse Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on Liver and Kidney Functions in Adult Rats and Potential Protective Effect of Vitamins C and E  [PDF]
Manal Said Tawfik, Nawal Al-Badr
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.35089
Abstract: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) was administrated to rats at doses of 0.6 and 1.6 mg/g body weight for 14 days. Body weight and relative liver and kidney weight of rats were significantly increased. On regard to liver functions, the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ glutamyle transferase (GGT) significantly increased in the serum, on MSG administration, meanwhile, serum total protein, albumin and serum total bilirubin significantly decreased. MSG had adverse effects on kidney functions as serum urea and serum creatinine were significantly increased. Vitamin C (0.3 mg/g body weight) and vitamin E (0.2 mg/g body weight) co-adminstrated with MSG, significantly restored the body weight and relative liver and kidney weights to control levels. In the presence of vitamin C and vitamin E the activities of ALT and GGT in the serum were also significantly reduced to become comparable with control trail. Consequently, serum total protein, albumin and serum total bilirubin were significantly increased in the serum, while serum urea and serum creatinine were significantly decreased after administration of each vitamin. The results showed that MSG at doses of 0.6 and 1.6 mg/g of body weight may cause an adverse effect on the hepatic and renal functions which might be due to oxidative stress induced by MSG on the liver and renal tissue. Supplementation of vitamin C and vitamin E was capable of ameliorating MSG-induced oxidative stress on hepatic and renal functions.
Mild Solutions for Nonlocal Impulsive Fractional Semilinear Differential Inclusions with Delay in Banach Spaces  [PDF]
Ahmed Gamal Ibrahim, Nawal Abdulwahab Al Sarori
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.47A008
Abstract: In this paper, we give various existence results concerning the existence of mild solutions for nonlocal impulsive differential inclusions with delay and of fractional order in Caputo sense in Banach space. We consider the case when the values of the orient field are convex as well as nonconvex. Our obtained results improve and generalize many results proved in recent papers.
Numerical Treatment of Initial-Boundary Value Problems with Mixed Boundary Conditions  [PDF]
Nawal Abdullah Alzaid, Huda Omar Bakodah
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2018.82012
Abstract: In this paper, we extend the reliable modification of the Adomian Decom-position Method coupled to the Lesnic’s approach to solve boundary value problems and initial boundary value problems with mixed boundary conditions for linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. The method is applied to different forms of heat and wave equations as illustrative examples to exhibit the effectiveness of the method. The method provides the solution in a rapidly convergent series with components that can be computed iteratively. The numerical results for the illustrative examples obtained show remarkable agreement with the exact solutions. We also provide some graphical representations for clear-cut comparisons between the solutions using Maple software.
Heavy Metal Levels in Most Common Available Fish Species in Saudi` Market
Nawal Al-Bader
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Three highly consumed fish in Saudi market were evaluated for their composition of heavy metals. The fish species` were included Spanish mackerel, (Scomberomorus maculates), Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and Yellow-spotted trevally (Carangoides fulvoguttatus) which, respectively known as Kanad, Hammour and Hammam in Saudi market. The concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, lead, nickel, vanadium, arsenic and mercury) was determined in the muscle and the head of fish. The level of elements was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). The maximum Cd, Zn, Pb, As, Ni, V and Hg concentrations in fish samples were 49.78, 30.28, 244, 42, 138, 17.49 and 2.84 ng g 1, respectively. The concentration of metals was below the maximum allowed limit by the Saudi and International Legislations for fish human consumption permissible limit.
Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of Jordanian Chamomile Extracts
Nawal Hassan Al Bahtiti
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The Jordanian chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) has been researched more thoroughly to evaluate its useful properties. It is investigated and found that Jordanian chamomile is rich in phenolic compounds, with beneficial biological activities. By applying the most promising HPLC method, the content of total phenolics in methanolic extract was determined according to the Folin-Clocalteu procedure, and was found (GAE>20 mg/g.) The flavonoid types were found as flavones and flavonolos.The minimum inhibitory concentration values for methanolic extracts of Jordanian chamomile were determined for different kinds of bacteria. The extracts have activity against Staphylococcus aurous, candida albicans, Esherichia Coli, Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris. The activity has been observed to be due to the tannins and a pigenin present in the extract. To utilize these significant sources of natural compounds, further characterization of phenolic composition is needed.
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