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Non-syndromic hypo-hyperdontia—A rare case report and review of literature  [PDF]
Kanika Gupta Verma, Pradhuman Verma, Navneet Singh, Richa Bansal, Rameen Khosa, Gagandeep Kaur Sidhu, Vikas Setia
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2013.39A006

Abnormalities of tooth number in development of the dentition are quite common; however, concomitant hypo-hyperdontia is a rare mixed numeric anomalous condition, especially when it occurs in the same dental arch and in a non-syndromic situation. The presence of this condition specifically in the mandibular anterior region is reported very infrequently. This case report presents the case of a 9 years old non-syndromic male with missing mandibular central incisors and an erupted mandibular mesiodens along with the review of literature. To ensure optimum function and aesthetics, cosmetic recontouring was performed after oral prophylaxis. This is the ninth case reported in the dental literature till date, with the two anomalies manifesting in the anterior region of the mandible. This article also discusses the review of literature of concomitant hypo-hyperdontia.

Dixit Priyanka,Tripathi Shalini,Verma Kumar Navneet
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Tagetes species belonging to family Asteraceae, are most common in plant kingdom, which is used in different areas like cosmetic preparation, medicines as well as it is most widely used as ornamentals. It is found in different colors and different fragrance. Yellow color is most common. Flowers are mainly used for the all these purposes by the extraction process. Lutein is an oxycarotenoid, or xanthophyll, containing 2 cyclic end groups (one beta and one alpha-ionone ring) and the basic C-40 isoprenoid structure common to all carotenoids. It is one of the major constituents and the main pigment of Tagetes erecta. It has a strongly aromatic essential oil (Tagetes oil), quercetagetin, a glucoside of quercetagetin, phenolics, syringic acid, methyl-3, 5-dihydroxy-4- methoxy benzoate, quercetin, thienyl and ethyl gallate, terpines, and other important phytochemical constituents from the different part of the plant. The leaves are reported to be effective against piles, kidney troubles, muscularpain, ulcers, and wounds. The flower is useful in fevers, epileptic fits (Ayurveda), astringent, carminative, stomachic, scabies and liver complaints and is also employed in diseases of the eyes. It shows different pharmacological activities like Anti-bacterial Activity, Anti-microbial Activity, hepatoprotective activity, Insecticidal activity, Mosquitocidal activity, Nematicidal activity, Wound healing activity, Anti oxidant and Analgesic activity Larvicidal activity ,Sub acute toxicity studies also studies Tagetes species for Nematode Management in details.
Asha Roshan,Navneet Kumar Verma,Chaudhari Sunil Kumar,Vikash Chandra
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Liquoris, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, is a herb belonging to the family Leguminoceae.It is widely used in ayurvedic formulations. This review article is presented to phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities, which were performed by widely different methods. It contains glycyrrhizin, which is a saponin glycoside, flavanoides, Carbenoxolone etc. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn possesses different pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antioxidant, antimalerial, expectorant, anti-tussive, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and anti hyper glycemic properties. Various other effects like antiulcer, antiviral, antihapatotoxic, antifungal and herpes simplex have also been studies. These results are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studies more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Medicinal uses of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn through the millennia as well as drug-botanical interaction, side effect and toxicity also included under this review article.
Carbon Nanotubes: An Emerging Drug Carrier for Targeting Cancer Cells
Vaibhav Rastogi,Pragya Yadav,Shiv Sankar Bhattacharya,Arun Kumar Mishra,Navneet Verma,Anurag Verma,Jayanta Kumar Pandit
Journal of Drug Delivery , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/670815
Abstract: During recent years carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been attracted by many researchers as a drug delivery carrier. CNTs are the third allotropic form of carbon-fullerenes which were rolled into cylindrical tubes. To be integrated into the biological systems, CNTs can be chemically modified or functionalised with therapeutically active molecules by forming stable covalent bonds or supramolecular assemblies based on noncovalent interactions. Owing to their high carrying capacity, biocompatibility, and specificity to cells, various cancer cells have been explored with CNTs for evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters, cell viability, cytotoxicty, and drug delivery in tumor cells. This review attempts to highlight all aspects of CNTs which render them as an effective anticancer drug carrier and imaging agent. Also the potential application of CNT in targeting metastatic cancer cells by entrapping biomolecules and anticancer drugs has been covered in this review. 1. Introduction After the discovery of the third allotropic form of carbon fullerene in 1991, Sumio Iijima identified a new structural form of this allotrope, the cylindrical fullerene and named them as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) [1]. CNTs are graphene sheets rolled into a seamless cylinder that can be open ended or capped, having a high aspect ratio with diameters as small as 1nm and a length of several micrometers [2]. Depending on the number of sheets rolled into concentric cylinders, there are two broad categories of CNTs, namely, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) (Figure 1). SWCNTs are made up of single graphene layer wrapped into a hexagonal close-packed cylindrical structure whose diameter varies from 0.4 to 3.0?nm and length ranges from 20 to 1000?nm and are held together by Vander Waals forces, which makes them easily twistable and more pliable [3]. SWCNTs are produced by the electric arc [4], laser ablation [5], chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [6], and gas-phase catalytic processes (HiPco or high-pressure CO conversion) [7]. Figure 1: Carbon nanotube: (a) single walled carbon nanotube and (b) multiwalled carbon nanotube. MWCNTs consist of several coaxial cylinders, each made of a single graphene sheet surrounding a hollow core. The outer diameter of MWCNTs ranges from 2 to 100?nm, while the inner diameter is in the range of 1–3?nm, and their length is 1 to several m [8]. Electric arc [9] and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [10, 11] are the main techniques for their production. Owing to the sp2 hybridization in MWCNTs, a delocalized electron cloud
Single-Channel Speech Enhancement Using Critical-Band Rate Scale Based Improved Multi-Band Spectral Subtraction  [PDF]
Navneet Upadhyay, Abhijit Karmakar
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.43040

This paper addresses the problem of single-channel speech enhancement in the adverse environment. The critical-band rate scale based on improved multi-band spectral subtraction is investigated in this study for enhancement of single-channel speech. In this work, the whole speech spectrum is divided into different non-uniformly spaced frequency bands in accordance with the critical-band rate scale of the psycho-acoustic model and the spectral over-subtraction is carried-out separately in each band. In addition, for the estimation of the noise from each band, the adaptive noise estimation approach is used and does not require explicit speech silence detection. The noise is estimated and updated by adaptively smoothing the noisy signal power in each band. The smoothing parameter is controlled by a-posteriori signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For the performance analysis of the proposed algorithm, the objective measures, such as, SNR, segmental SNR, and perceptual evaluations of the speech quality are conducted for the variety of noises at different levels of SNRs. The speech spectrogram and objective evaluations of the proposed algorithm are compared with other standard speech enhancement algorithms and proved that the musical structure of the remnant noise and background noise is better suppressed by the proposed algorithm.

A Multi-Band Speech Enhancement Algorithm Exploiting Iterative Processing for Enhancement of Single Channel Speech  [PDF]
Navneet Upadhyay, Abhijit Karmakar
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.42027

This paper proposes a multi-band speech enhancement algorithm exploiting iterative processing for enhancement of single channel speech. In the proposed algorithm, the output of the multi-band spectral subtraction (MBSS) algorithm is used as the input signal again for next iteration process. As after the first MBSS processing step, the additive noise transforms to the remnant noise, the remnant noise needs to be further re-estimated. The proposed algorithm reduces the remnant musical noise further by iterating the enhanced output signal to the input again and performing the operation repeatedly. The newly estimated remnant noise is further used to process the next MBSS step. This procedure is iterated a small number of times. The proposed algorithm estimates noise in each iteration and spectral over-subtraction is executed independently in each band. The experiments are conducted for various types of noises. The performance of the proposed enhancement algorithm is evaluated for various types of noises at different level of SNRs using, 1) objective quality measures: signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), segmental SNR, perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ); and 2) subjective quality measure: mean opinion score (MOS). The results of proposed enhancement algorithm are compared with the popular MBSS algorithm. Experimental results as well as the objective and subjective quality measurement test results confirm that the enhanced speech obtained from the proposed algorithm is more pleasant to listeners than speech enhanced by classical MBSS algorithm.

Absence of Musculocutaneous Nerve: Embryological Basis
Arvind Kumar Pankaj, CS Ramesh Babu, Archana Rani, Anita Rani, Jyoti Chopra, Rakesh Kumar Verma, Navneet Kumar, Ajay Kumar Srivastava
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/ajms.v3i2.6626
Abstract: Variation of brachial plexus characterized by the absence of musculocutaneous nerve in right arm was found during routine dissection of a 54 year old male cadaver. After giving lateral pectoral nerve, rest of the lateral cord continued as lateral root of median nerve. An unusual branch was arising from lateral cord which crossed the axillary artery anteriorly and then divided into two branches. One of these branches joined ulnar nerve and other medial root of median nerve. All the muscles of front of arm were supplied by branches of median nerve. These variations are important for the anesthetists, surgeons, neurologists during surgery and for anatomists during dissection in the region of axilla. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajms.v3i2.6626 Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 3(2012) 21-24
Sensitivity of Planktonic Aquatic Bacteria to Ciprofloxacin  [PDF]
Brij Verma, David Verma
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.610074
Abstract: Many anthropogenic compounds, such as antibiotics, are found at trace levels (<μg·L-1) in aquatic and terrestrial systems. The effect of these compounds on the metabolism and function of microbes are difficult to assess because the assays used, such as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the disk diffusion methods, lack the sensitivities to measure bacterial response to these very low levels of antibiotics on bacterial populations. Therefore, we theorized that the [3H] thymidine incorporation into DNA method might be sensitive in determining the effect of DNA inhibiting antibiotics on DNA production in planktonic bacteria in aquatic systems. Utilizing the 3H thymidine method, we measured the effects of ciprofloxacin on DNA production on planktonic bacteria in river and pond waters. Ciprofloxacin significantly (P < 0.02) inhibited river water bacteria at a concentration of 25 μg·L-1 but significant inhibition (P < 0.01) occurred at 1000 μg·L-1in pond water. The very low concentration required to inhibit DNA production in river water bacteria indicates that bacteria are extremely sensitive to antibiotics at very low concentrations. A likely reason for the differences in inhibition between the two waters is due to ciprofloxacin becoming bound, and possibly becoming biologically inactive, in the pond water due to higher dissolved organic carbon content. This work demonstrates that bacteria in some aquatic systems can be significantly impacted by low concentrations of anthropogenic antibiotics finding their way into these systems and that our assumptions as to the concentrations at which antibiotics affect microbes are highly underestimated.
AIP or ARDS? Not just semantics
Navneet Singh
Critical Care , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/cc5003
Abstract: A point that merits attention is the need to differentiate between ARDS and acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). AIP is a rapidly progressive idiopathic interstitial pneumonia characterized by the presence of an organizing form of diffuse alveolar damage on histopathological examination of lung specimens. Although the histological pattern is indistinguishable from that found in ARDS, the term AIP is reserved for cases of unknown cause [2]. In fact, exclusion of a precipitating or etiological agent (which is usually identifiable in patients with ARDS) is one of the diagnostic criteria for AIP. The mortality from AIP is about 70% and is higher than that from ARDS [3].Although there are no established therapies for AIP, parenteral corticosteroids, often at high doses, are used frequently. Recently Suh and colleagues [4] reported survival rates of 80% in a small series of ten patients with AIP, all of whom required mechanical ventilation (with a median positive end-expiratory pressure of 11 cmH2O) and underwent open lung biopsy (on median hospital day 4). In these patients, high-dose corticosteroid pulse therapy had been initiated (on median hospital day 3.5) after respiratory infection had been ruled out by means of an aggressive diagnostic workup (including bronchoalveolar lavage performed on median hospital day 2). The authors had postulated that the approach of aggressive diagnostics, mechanical ventilation with lung-protective strategy, and early institution of high-dose immunosuppressive therapy could have led to the improved clinical outcome [4].In the present study, diffuse alveolar damage was seen in most of the patients who had a non-specific pathological diagnosis. Moreover, this group, in comparison with the group with a specific diagnosis, had a higher rate of treatment alteration (87% versus 56%) as well as a higher rate of hospital survival (61% versus 33%). It is possible that the trend toward improved survival that was seen in this group was a reflection
Challenges in mass drug administration for treating lymphatic filariasis in Papua, Indonesia
Navneet Bhullar, Jacob Maikere
Parasites & Vectors , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-70
Abstract: During the MDA, we encountered difficult challenges in accessing as well as persuading the patient population to take the antifilarial drugs. Health promotion activities supporting treatment need to be adapted and repetitive, with adequate time and resources allocated for accessing and communicating with local, seminomadic populations. Distribution of bednets resulted in an increase in MDA coverage, but it was still below the 80-85% target.MDA for lymphatic filariasis is how the WHO has planned to eliminate the disease from endemic areas. Our programmatic experience will hopefully help inform future campaign planning in difficult-to-access, high-burden areas of the world to achieve target MDA coverage for elimination of lymphatic filariasis.Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease transmitted by mosquito bites which causes disability and adversely impacts the economy of the developing countries where it is endemic. LF is the fourth most common cause of disability worldwide [1]. It is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, or Brugia timori. These parasites reside in lymphatic channels or lymph nodes where they remain viable for more than two decades. W. bancrofti is the most widely distributed, affecting an estimated 115 million people throughout the tropics and subtropics. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 120 million people are currently infected and more than 1 billion people are at risk in 83 countries [1]. Approximately 40 million people are seriously incapacitated and disfigured by the disease [1,2].LF disease transmission can be stopped through a feasible, effective, and relatively inexpensive prevention strategy through mass drug administration (MDA) of two oral drugs to at-risk populations once a year [3-5]. These drugs kill the microfilariae in an infected patient's blood so that mosquitoes cannot transmit the disease to others. This MDA-based strategy of transmission interruption is part of the WHO's Global Program to Elimi
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