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Acyclovir-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for ocular delivery
Rajendran N,Natrajan R,Kumar R,Selvaraj S
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The topical application of acyclovir as eye ointment remains a concern for effective management of various ocular viral diseases owing to poor ocular drug bioavailability. Hence the present study was aimed to develop and evaluate nanosphere colloidal suspension containing acyclovir as potential ophthalmic drug delivery system. The acyclovir-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation of chitosan with tripolyphosphate anions. The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microcopy, zeta potential analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy. All the prepared formulations resulted in nano-range size particles (200-495 nm) and displayed spherical smooth morphology with zeta potential (+36.7 to +42.3 mV). The encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were 56-80% and 10-25%, respectively. The acyclovir-loaded chitosan nanoparticles displayed more crystallinity than acyclovir. The in vitro diffusion profile of acyclovir from the nanoparticles showed a sustained release of the drug over a period of 24 hrs. Kinetic release profiles of acyclovir from nanoparticles appeared to fit best with Higuchi model with zero order and the non-Fickian diffusion was superior phenomenon. Thus the results suggest that acyclovir-loaded chitosan nanoparticle suspension appears to be promising enough for effective management of ocular viral infections.
Leiomyosarcoma of the maxilla as second malignancy in retinoblastoma
Qureshi S,Mistry R,Natrajan G,Gujral S
Indian Journal of Cancer , 2008,
Abstract: Patients with hereditary retinoblastoma are at increased risk of second primary tumor, the commonest tumor being osteosarcoma. Leiomyosarcoma developing as second primary neoplasm in retinoblastoma patients is unusual and most have occurred in the field of previous radiotherapy. Although with aggressive therapy better survival can be achieved, the overall prognosis of patients developing these second neoplasms is poor. In this report we present a case of leiomyosarcoma of the maxilla as a second neoplasm in a patient with bilateral retinoblastoma which has developed outside the radiation field.
CTR1 Silencing Inhibits Angiogenesis by Limiting Copper Entry into Endothelial Cells
Gomathy Narayanan, Bharathidevi S. R., Harish Vuyyuru, Bharathselvi Muthuvel, Sulochana Konerirajapuram Natrajan
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071982
Abstract: Increased levels of intracellular copper stimulate angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Copper transporter 1 (CTR1) is a copper importer present in the cell membrane and plays a major role in copper transport. In this study, three siRNAs targeting CTR1 mRNA were designed and screened for gene silencing. HUVECs when exposed to 100 μM copper showed 3 fold increased proliferation, migration by 1.8 - fold and tube formation by 1.8 - fold. One of the designed CTR1 siRNA (si 1) at 10 nM concentration decreased proliferation by 2.5 - fold, migration by 4 - fold and tube formation by 2.8 - fold. Rabbit corneal packet assay also showed considerable decrease in matrigel induced blood vessel formation by si 1 when compared to untreated control. The designed si 1 when topically applied inhibited angiogenesis. This can be further developed for therapeutic application.
Complications of Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking
Shikha Dhawan,Kavita Rao,Sundaram Natrajan
Journal of Ophthalmology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/869015
Abstract: Cross-linking of corneal collagen (CXL) is a promising approach for the treatment of keratoconus and secondary ectasia. Several long-term and short-term complications of CXL have been studied and documented. The possibility of a secondary infection after the procedure exists because the patient is subjected to epithelial debridement and the application of a soft contact lens. Formation of temporary corneal haze, permanent scars, endothelial damage, treatment failure, sterile infiltrates, and herpes reactivation are the other reported complications of this procedure. Cross-linking is a low-invasive procedure with low complication and failure rate but it may have direct or primary complications due to incorrect technique application or incorrect patient's inclusion and indirect or secondary complications related to therapeutic soft contact lens, patient’s poor hygiene, and undiagnosed concomitant ocular surface diseases.
The nature of bones and joints: a new perspective.
Kothari M,Mehta L,Natrajan M
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 1990,
Abstract: In human ontogeny recapitulating phylogeny, bones arrive late on the scene--long after neurogenesis, musculogenesis, organogenesis and so on are over--as islands of ossification in an ocean of collagen. This study confirms this developmental sequence by demonstrating, in cadavers, the rather independent nature of bone, to which nothing--muscle, tendon, ligament or articular cartilage--is attached. Bone is like the air in a tubeless tyre; it gives rigidity and shape to the tyre, and in return takes the shape of the tyre. The tibia, for example, is the bony tissue that is contained in tyre-like casing made of peritibial soft tissues whose inner limit is the periosteum, which continues proximally and distally as capsules of knee/ankle joint, and to which only are the articular cartilages of the knee and ankle attached, being clearly free from the bones. This study also exposes the truer nature of a joint wherein the articular cartilage assumes anatomic and physiologic significance hitherto unthought of.
Complications of Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking
Shikha Dhawan,Kavita Rao,Sundaram Natrajan
Journal of Ophthalmology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/869015
Abstract: Cross-linking of corneal collagen (CXL) is a promising approach for the treatment of keratoconus and secondary ectasia. Several long-term and short-term complications of CXL have been studied and documented. The possibility of a secondary infection after the procedure exists because the patient is subjected to epithelial debridement and the application of a soft contact lens. Formation of temporary corneal haze, permanent scars, endothelial damage, treatment failure, sterile infiltrates, and herpes reactivation are the other reported complications of this procedure. Cross-linking is a low-invasive procedure with low complication and failure rate but it may have direct or primary complications due to incorrect technique application or incorrect patient's inclusion and indirect or secondary complications related to therapeutic soft contact lens, patient’s poor hygiene, and undiagnosed concomitant ocular surface diseases. 1. Introduction Keratoconus is a progressive, bilateral, often asymmetrical, and noninflammatory corneal ectasia. Prevalence of keratoconus is 1?:?2000 [1] and is usually diagnosed during the second and third decade of life. Currently available treatments for keratoconus (rigid contact lens, lamellar Keratoplasty, intacs) largely involve interventions which are done for tectonic, optical, or refractive purpose. Unfortunately, neither of those options treats the underlying cause of ectasia, and therefore cannot stop the progression of keratoconus. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) based on the combined use of the photosensitizer riboflavin and UVA light of 370?nm was introduced by Wollensak et al. from Germany in 2003. CXL is the only available treatment directed at the underlying pathology in keratoconic cornea, which is stromal biomechanical and structural instability leading to progressive ectasia. CXL induces covalent inter- and intrafibrillar collagen cross-links creating an increase in biomechanical rigidity of human cornea by about 300%. The cross-linking effect is maximal only in the anterior stroma. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) is currently under investigation to determine if it can slow, stabilize, or even possibly reverse the progression of corneal ectasia in patients with keratoconus [2]. The present paper is a review of literature on CXL complications. 2. Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking with Riboflavin and UVA The main indication for CXL in ophthalmology has been the management of corneal ectasia, such as halting the progression of keratoconus. In addition, CXL has been proposed as a treatment modality for iatrogenic
Real Time Speech Based Integrated Development Environment for C Program  [PDF]
Bharathi Bhagavathsingh, Kavitha Srinivasan, Mariappan Natrajan
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.73008
Abstract: This Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is the process which converts an acoustic signal captured by the microphone to written text. The motivation of the paper is to create a speech based Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for C program. This paper proposes a technique to facilitate the visually impaired people or the person with arm injuries with excellent programming skills that can code the C program through voice input. The proposed system accepts the C program as voice input and produces compiled C program as output. The user should utter each line of the C program through voice input. First the voice input is recognized as text. The recognized text will be converted into C program by using syntactic constructs of the C language. After conversion, C program will be fetched as input to the IDE. Furthermore, the IDE commands like open, save, close, compile, run are also given through voice input only. If any error occurs during the compilation process, the error is corrected through voice input only. The errors can be corrected by specifying the line number through voice input. Performance of the speech recognition system is analyzed by varying the vocabulary size as well as number of mixture components in HMM.
Chemotherapy trials in MB leprosy using conventional and newer drugs pefloxacin and minocycline
Katoch Kiran,Katoch V,Natrajan M,Sharma V
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2000,
Abstract: One hundred, untreated, smear positive BB, BL and LL patients were treated with a regimen comprising of once a month, supervised, 600 mg of Rifampicin+ 400 mg Ofloxacin + 100 mg of Minocycline in addition to self administered 100 mg dapsone and 50 mg of clofazimine daily for twelve months.The treatment was then stopped and patients were followed up on placebo. This study reports the preliminary results after 2.5 to 3.5 years of post treatment follow-up. The drugs were well tolerated, the clinical response to the treatment was very good, and there was no case of treatment failure. Bacteriologically 25 out of the total 70 patients available for follow- up were still positive at the end of one year of treatment. These patients continued to progress satisfactorily and four patients were still positive at the end of 2 years. No growth was observed in the normal mouse foot pad after one year of therapy. No bacillary ATP was detected in the biopsy tissues after one year. While no M. leprae specific rRNA was detectable in any of the specimens after one year of treatment, weak PCR signals were detectable in 3/57 specimens at that period. In the follow up available no patient has relapsed. The patients are being followed up on placebo and longer follow-up is required to draw firm conclusions.
Refractive error and visual functions in children with special needs compared with the first grade school students in Oman
Vora Urmi,Khandekar Rajiv,Natrajan Sarvanan,Al-Hadrami Khalfan
Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology , 2010,
Abstract: Background: We evaluated the refractive status and visual function of children with special needs (other handicap) in 2010 and compared them with healthy 1 st grade school students in Oman. Materials and Methods: This was a cohort study. Optometrists recorded vision using a logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) chart. Preferential looking method was used for testing 31 children. Cycloplegic refraction was performed on all children. Contrast sensitivity was tested using 2.5%, 10%, and 100% contrast charts. Ocular movement, alignment, and anterior segment were also assessed. A pediatrician reviewed the health records of all the children at the time of their enrollment in this study to determine if the child had been diagnosed with a systemic condition or syndromes. The visual functions were assessed by study investigators. We estimated the rates and the risk of different visual function defects in children with special needs. Result: The prevalence of refractive error in 70 children (4.7 ± 0.8 years) with special needs (group 1) and 175 normal healthy first grade students (group 2) were 58.5% and 2.9%, respectively. The risk of refractive error was significantly higher in children with special needs [relative risk, 48.1 (95% confidence interval, 17.54-131.8)]. Hyperopia (>1.00 D), myopia (≥ 1.00D) and astigmatism (≥ ±1.00 D) were found in 18.6%, 24.3%, and 27.1%, respectively, in group 1. Six children in this group had defective near vision. Sixteen (80%) children with Down syndrome had refractive error. Seven (50%) children with developmental disorder showed decreased contrast sensitivity. Conclusion: Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error was much higher in children with special needs. Prevalence of strabismus, nystagmus, and reduced contrast sensitivity was also higher in children with special needs. Early vision screening, visual function assessment, correction of refractive error, and frequent follow-up are recommended.
Optimization of Thermal Aware VLSI Non-Slicing Floorplanning Using Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm-Harmony Search Algorithm  [PDF]
Sivaranjani Paramasivam, Senthilkumar Athappan, Eswari Devi Natrajan, Maheswaran Shanmugam
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.75048
Abstract: Floorplanning is a prominent area in the Very Large-Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuit design automation, because it influences the performance, size, yield and reliability of the VLSI chips. It is the process of estimating the positions and shapes of the modules. A high packing density, small feature size and high clock frequency make the Integrated Circuit (IC) to dissipate large amount of heat. So, in this paper, a methodology is presented to distribute the temperature of the module on the layout while simultaneously optimizing the total area and wirelength by using a hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization-Harmony Search (HPSOHS) algorithm. This hybrid algorithm employs diversification technique (PSO) to obtain global optima and intensification strategy (HS) to achieve the best solution at the local level and Modified Corner List algorithm (MCL) for floorplan representation. A thermal modelling tool called hotspot tool is integrated with the proposed algorithm to obtain the temperature at the block level. The proposed algorithm is illustrated using Microelectronics Centre of North Carolina (MCNC) benchmark circuits. The results obtained are compared with the solutions derived from other stochastic algorithms and the proposed algorithm provides better solution.
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