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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 405118 matches for " Nathaniel M.; Brown "
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Adherence: a review of education, research, practice, and policy in the United States
Rickles,Nathaniel M.; Brown,Todd A.; McGivney,Melissa S.; Snyder,Margie E.; White,Kelsey A.;
Pharmacy Practice (Internet) , 2010, DOI: 10.4321/S1886-36552010000100001
Abstract: objective: to describe the education, research, practice, and policy related to pharmacist interventions to improve medication adherence in community settings in the united states. methods: authors used medline and international pharmaceutical abstracts (since 1990) to identify community and ambulatory pharmacy intervention studies which aimed to improve medication adherence. the authors also searched the primary literature using ovid to identify studies related to the pharmacy teaching of medication adherence. the bibliographies of relevant studies were reviewed in order to identify additional literature. we searched the tables of content of three us pharmacy education journals and reviewed the american association of colleges of pharmacy website for materials on teaching adherence principles. policies related to medication adherence were identified based on what was commonly known to the authors from professional experience, attendance at professional meetings, and pharmacy journals. results: research and practice: 29 studies were identified: 18 randomized controlled trials; 3 prospective cohort studies; 2 retrospective cohort studies; 5 case-controlled studies; and one other study. there was considerable variability in types of interventions and use of adherence measures. many of the interventions were completed by pharmacists with advanced clinical backgrounds and not typical of pharmacists in community settings. the positive intervention effects had either decreased or not been sustained after interventions were removed. although not formally assessed, in general, the average community pharmacy did not routinely assess and/or intervene on medication adherence. education: national pharmacy education groups support the need for pharmacists to learn and use adherence-related skills. educational efforts involving adherence have focused on students′ awareness of adherence barriers and communication skills needed to engage patients in behavioral change. policy: sever
Financial Market Pricing of Earnings Quality: Evidence from a Multi-Factor Return Model  [PDF]
Gregory M. Dempster, Nathaniel T. Oliver
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.71021
Abstract: Although earnings quality has been an important part of literature in accounting and financial economics for some time, there are relatively few examples of empirical work designed to isolate the effects of variation in earnings quality on the returns to equity ownership in the marketplace. Building on the previous literature, we conduct a robust analysis of these effects by employing earnings restatements as a proxy for quality of earnings in a multi-factor return model. Our results indicate that material misstatements of earnings are priced risk factors that have persistent (long-run) impacts on equity returns. Applications to business practice are discussed in the light of these results.
Spectral Approach to the Relativistic Inverse Stellar Structure Problem II
Lee Lindblom,Nathaniel M. Indik
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.064003
Abstract: The inverse stellar structure problem determines the equation of state of the matter in stars from a knowledge of their macroscopic observables (e.g. their masses and radii). This problem was solved in a previous paper by constructing a spectral representation of the equation of state whose stellar models match a prescribed set of macroscopic observables. This paper improves and extends that work in two significant ways: i) The method is made more robust by accounting for an unexpected feature of the enthalpy based representations of the equations of state used in this work. After making the appropriate modifications, accurate initial guesses for the spectral parameters are no longer needed so Monte-Carlo techniques can now be used to ensure the best fit to the observables. ii) The method is extended here to use masses and tidal deformabilities (which will be measured by gravitational wave observations of neutron-star mergers) as the macroscopic observables instead of masses and radii. The accuracy and reliability of this extended and more robust spectral method is evaluated in this paper using mock data for observables from stars based on 34 different theoretical models of the high density neutron-star equation of state. In qualitative agreement with earlier work, these tests suggest the high density part of the neutron-star equation of state could be determined at the few-percent accuracy level using high quality measurements of the masses and radii (or masses and tidal deformabilities) of just two or three neutron stars.
A Spectral Approach to the Relativistic Inverse Stellar Structure Problem
Lee Lindblom,Nathaniel M. Indik
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.084003
Abstract: A new method for solving the relativistic inverse stellar structure problem is presented. This method determines a spectral representation of the unknown high density portion of the stellar equation of state from a knowledge of the total masses M and radii R of the stars. Spectral representations of the equation of state are very efficient, generally requiring only a few spectral parameters to achieve good accuracy. This new method is able, therefore, to determine the high density equation of state quite accurately from only a few accurately measured [M,R] data points. This method is tested here by determining the equations of state from mock [M,R] data computed from tabulated "realistic" neutron-star equations of state. The spectral equations of state obtained from these mock data are shown to agree on average with the originals to within a few percent (over the entire high density range of the neutron-star interior) using only two [M,R] data points. Higher accuracies are achieved when more data are used. The accuracies of the equations of state determined in these examples are shown to be nearly optimal, in the sense that their errors are comparable to the errors of the best-fit spectral representations of these realistic equations of state.
A transchromatic proof of Strickland's theorem
Tomer M. Schlank,Nathaniel Stapleton
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: In "Morava E-theory of symmetric groups", Strickland proved that the Morava E-theory of the symmetric group has an algebro-geometric interpretation after taking the quotient by a certain transfer ideal. This result has influenced most of the work on power operations in Morava E-theory and provides an important calculational tool. In this paper we give a new proof of this result as well as a generalization by using transchromatic character theory. The character maps are used to reduce Strickland's result to representation theory.
Ethnic-Racial Socialization Has an Indirect Effect on Self-Esteem for Asian American Emerging Adults  [PDF]
Carrie M. Brown, Wells Ling
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31013
Abstract: Although there has been recognition of the importance of examining the indirect effect of perceived parental ethnic-racial socialization on youths’ psychosocial outcomes, few studies have done so. To date, Tran and Lee’s (2010) study is one of few that has linked ethnic-racial socialization to psychosocial outcomes among Asian Americans, specifically. The purpose of this study was to extend Tran and Lee’s (2010) research in two ways. First, the present study tested a model similar to Tran and Lee’s but replaced their dependent variable, social competence, with self-esteem. Second, the present study tested the model among Asian American emerging adults (i.e., ages 18 to 25), not late adolescents. The present study hypothesized that perceiving more frequent messages of cultural socialization-pluralism from parents would indirectly lead to higher self-esteem via stronger ethnic identity. One-hundred-fourteen self-identified Asian Americans (M age = 21.34 years; 66% female) completed an online survey that included measures of perceived cultural socialization-pluralism, ethnic identity, and self-esteem. Based on model testing via the bootstrap method (Preacher & Hayes, 2008), the hypothesis was supported. The findings of the present study contribute to the discussion of the role that perceived ethnic-racial socialization plays in Asian Americans’ positive development. Further, the present study contributes to the limited research on ethnic- racial socialization among Asian Americans.
Affinity Proteomics Reveals Elevated Muscle Proteins in Plasma of Children with Cerebral Malaria
Julie Bachmann equal contributor,Florence Burté equal contributor,Setia Pramana,Ianina Conte,Biobele J. Brown,Adebola E. Orimadegun,Wasiu A. Ajetunmobi,Nathaniel K. Afolabi,Francis Akinkunmi,Samuel Omokhodion,Felix O. Akinbami,Wuraola A. Shokunbi,Caroline Kampf,Yudi Pawitan,Mathias Uhlén,Olugbemiro Sodeinde,Jochen M. Schwenk,Mats Wahlgren ? ,Delmiro Fernandez-Reyes ? ,Peter Nilsson ?
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004038
Abstract: Systemic inflammation and sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes are central processes in the pathophysiology of severe Plasmodium falciparum childhood malaria. However, it is still not understood why some children are more at risks to develop malaria complications than others. To identify human proteins in plasma related to childhood malaria syndromes, multiplex antibody suspension bead arrays were employed. Out of the 1,015 proteins analyzed in plasma from more than 700 children, 41 differed between malaria infected children and community controls, whereas 13 discriminated uncomplicated malaria from severe malaria syndromes. Markers of oxidative stress were found related to severe malaria anemia while markers of endothelial activation, platelet adhesion and muscular damage were identified in relation to children with cerebral malaria. These findings suggest the presence of generalized vascular inflammation, vascular wall modulations, activation of endothelium and unbalanced glucose metabolism in severe malaria. The increased levels of specific muscle proteins in plasma implicate potential muscle damage and microvasculature lesions during the course of cerebral malaria.
Current crisis or artifact of surveillance: insights into rebound chlamydia rates from dynamic modelling
David M Vickers, Nathaniel D Osgood
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-70
Abstract: This study integrated 25-year testing volume data from the Canadian province of Saskatchewan with one susceptible-infected-treated-susceptible and three susceptible-infected-treated-removed compartmental models. Calibration of model parameters to fit observed 25-year case notification data, after being combined with testing records, placed constraints on model behaviour and allowed for an approximation of chlamydia prevalence to be estimated. Model predictions were compared to observed case notification trends, and extensive sensitivity analyses were performed to confirm the robustness of model results.Model predictions accurately mirrored historic chlamydial trends including an observed rebound in the mid 1990s. For all models examined, the results repeatedly highlighted that increased testing volumes, rather than changes in the sensitivity and specificity of testing technologies, sexual behaviour, or truncated immunological responses brought about by treatment can, explain the increase in observed chlamydia case notifications.Our results highlight the significant impact testing volume can have on observed incidence rates, and that simple explanations for these observed increases appear to have been dismissed in favor of changes to the underlying prevalence. These simple methods not only demonstrate geographic portability, but the results reassure the public health effort towards monitoring and controlling chlamydia.With millions of new cases occurring annually, Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide [1]. Among women, the magnitude of morbidity associated with sexually transmitted chlamydia can be staggering [1,2]. Chronic and progressive disease due to unresolved chlamydia infections include endometritis, salpingitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy [3-5], and has also been associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection and cervical dysplasia [1]. Given
A unified framework of immunological and epidemiological dynamics for the spread of viral infections in a simple network-based population
David M Vickers, Nathaniel D Osgood
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-4-49
Abstract: Our compartmental formulation parsimoniously demonstrates a correlation between immune responsiveness, network connectivity, and the natural history of infection in a population. It suggests that an increased disparity between people's ability to respond to an infection, while maintaining an average immune responsiveness rate, may worsen the overall impact of an outbreak within a population. Additionally, varying an individual's network connectivity affects the rate with which the population-wide viral load accumulates, but has little impact on the asymptotic limit in which it approaches. Whilst the clearance of a pathogen in a population will lower viral loads in the short-term, the longer the time until re-infection, the more severe an outbreak is likely to be. Given the eventual likelihood of reinfection, the resulting long-run viral burden after elimination of an infection is negligible compared to the situation in which infection is persistent.Future infectious disease research would benefit by striving to not only continue to understand the properties of an invading microbe, or the body's response to infections, but how these properties, jointly, affect the propagation of an infection throughout a population. These initial results offer a refinement to current immuno-epidemiological modelling methodology, and reinforce how coupling principles of immunology with epidemiology can provide insight into a multi-scaled description of an ecological system. Overall, we anticipate these results to as a further step towards articulating an integrated, more refined epidemiological theory of the reciprocal influences between host-pathogen interactions, epidemiological mixing, and disease spread.Epidemics consist of dynamic processes at multiple biological scales. From host-pathogen interactions to host-host interactions infectious diseases have had a major influence on the development of our immune systems and the evolution of human ecology [1,2]. In recent decades, remar
Cortical and Hippocampal Correlates of Deliberation during Model-Based Decisions for Rewards in Humans
Aaron M. Bornstein ,Nathaniel D. Daw
PLOS Computational Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003387
Abstract: How do we use our memories of the past to guide decisions we've never had to make before? Although extensive work describes how the brain learns to repeat rewarded actions, decisions can also be influenced by associations between stimuli or events not directly involving reward — such as when planning routes using a cognitive map or chess moves using predicted countermoves — and these sorts of associations are critical when deciding among novel options. This process is known as model-based decision making. While the learning of environmental relations that might support model-based decisions is well studied, and separately this sort of information has been inferred to impact decisions, there is little evidence concerning the full cycle by which such associations are acquired and drive choices. Of particular interest is whether decisions are directly supported by the same mnemonic systems characterized for relational learning more generally, or instead rely on other, specialized representations. Here, building on our previous work, which isolated dual representations underlying sequential predictive learning, we directly demonstrate that one such representation, encoded by the hippocampal memory system and adjacent cortical structures, supports goal-directed decisions. Using interleaved learning and decision tasks, we monitor predictive learning directly and also trace its influence on decisions for reward. We quantitatively compare the learning processes underlying multiple behavioral and fMRI observables using computational model fits. Across both tasks, a quantitatively consistent learning process explains reaction times, choices, and both expectation- and surprise-related neural activity. The same hippocampal and ventral stream regions engaged in anticipating stimuli during learning are also engaged in proportion to the difficulty of decisions. These results support a role for predictive associations learned by the hippocampal memory system to be recalled during choice formation.
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