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ASSISTêNCIA AO PARTO: HISTóRIA ORAL DE MULHERES QUE DERAM à LUZ NAS DéCADAS DE 1940 A 1980
Nathalie Leister,Maria Luiza Gonzalez Riesco
Texto & Contexto - Enfermagem , 2013,
Abstract: El objetivo fue comprender las transformaciones en el modelo de atención al parto desde la experiencia de mujeres que dieron a luz en el Estado de S o Paulo en las décadas de 1940 a 1980. Estudio descriptivo, según la Historia Oral Temática, con 20 mujeres. Los datos fueron recolectados con entrevistas no estructuradas. El tema extraído de las entrevistas fue "La experiencia del parto". Los resultados indicaron una delimitación temporal y generacional en la década de 1970. Los partos en las décadas de 1940 a 1960 ocurrieron en un contexto de transición del domicilio al hospital. La década de 1980 representa un punto de inflexión del modelo de atención, como tipo y lugar del parto y profesional que atiende a la mujer, con incremento de la tecnología y de las intervenciones obstétricas.
Escola de obstetrícia da Universidade de S?o Paulo: a história contada no livro de atas (1912-1970)
Riesco, Maria Luiza Gonzalez;Tsunechiro, Maria Alice;Leister, Nathalie;
Texto & Contexto - Enfermagem , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-07072011000500021
Abstract: throughout the 20th century, obstetrics education has undergone innumerous changes which have accompanied changes in the maternal and newborn health care model and conceptions concerning professional nursing education and practice. this qualitative and documentary study aimed to describe and analyze the minutes of the meetings of the s?o paulo obstetrics school. the school was founded in 1912 and was adjacent to the university of s?o paulo medical school until 1970, when it was incorporated into the school of nursing. the minutes have recorded aspects of the school's operation such as student selection and performance, examinations, teaching programs, curriculum changes, faculty, school calendar, revalidation of foreign diplomas, financial turnover, and other disciplinary, administrative, and legal matters concerning the course. one can infer that the original purpose of creating the school was "in tune" with the broader project of the medical and social elite of the time.
ESCOLA DE OBSTETRíCIA DA UNIVERSIDADE DE S O PAULO: A HISTóRIA CONTADA NO LIVRO DE ATAS (1912-1970)
Maria Luiza Gonzalez Riesco,Maria Alice Tsunechiro,Nathalie Leister
Texto & Contexto - Enfermagem , 2011,
Abstract: A lo largo del Siglo XX, la ense anza de la Obstetricia ha sufrido muchas transformaciones, que acompa aron los cambios en la atención a la salud materna y del recién nacido y en las actividades profesionales en el área. Este estudio, de tipo cualitativo y documental, tuvo como objetivo describir y analizar las actas de reuniones de la Escuela de Parteras de S o Paulo. La Escuela fue fundada en 1912 y funcionó adscrita a la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidade de S o Paulo hasta 1970, cuando se incorporó a la Escuela de Enfermería. Las actas registran aspectos de su funcionamiento como desempe o de las estudiantes, programas de ense anza, profesorado, revalidación de títulos extranjeros, movimiento financiero y otros asuntos disciplinarios, administrativos y jurídicos del curso. Se pude inferir que el proyecto original de creación de la Escuela estaba de acuerdo al proyecto más amplio de la elite médica y social.
Cyanobacteria as an Experimental Platform for Modifying Bacterial and Plant Photosynthesis
Dario Leister
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2014.00007
Abstract: One of the fascinating characteristics of photosynthesis is its capacity for repair, self-renewal and energy storage within chemical bonds. Given the evolutionary history of plant photosynthesis and the patchwork nature of many of its components, it is safe to assume that the light reactions of plant photosynthesis can be improved by genetic engineering (Leister, 2012). The evolutionary precursor of chloroplasts was a microorganism whose biochemistry was very similar to that of present-day cyanobacteria. Many cyanobacterial species are easy to manipulate genetically and grow robustly in liquid cultures that can be easily scaled up into photobioreactors. Therefore, cyanobacteria such as Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter “Synechocystis”) have been widely used for decades as model systems to study the principles of photosynthesis (Table 1). Indeed, genetic engineering based on homologous recombination is well established in Synechocystis. Moreover, new genetic engineering toolkits, including marker-less gene deletion and replacement strategies needing only a single transformation step (Viola et al., 2014) and novel approaches for chromosomal integration and expression of synthetic gene operons (Bentley et al., 2014), allow for large-scale replacement and/or integration of dozens of genes in reasonable time frames. This makes Synechocystis a very attractive basis for the experimental modification of important processes like photosynthesis, and it also suggests innovative ways of improving modules of related eukaryotic pathways, among them the combination of cyanobacterial and eukaryotic elements using the tools of synthetic biology. Improving the photosynthetic light reactions in cyanobacteria In plants, the activity of the Calvin cycle (in particular the RuBisCO-mediated carbon fixation step) is considered to represent the major brake on photosynthetic efficiency under saturating irradiance and limiting CO2 concentrations (Quick et al., 1991;Stitt et al., 1991;Furbank et al., 1996). Autotrophic growth of Synechocystis, on the other hand, is constrained by the rate of phosphoglycerate reduction, owing to limitations on the ATP/NADPH supply from the light reactions (Marcus et al., 2011). In fact, cyanobacteria cannot absorb all incoming sunlight due to light reflection, dissipation and shading effects. In some cases, significant numbers of the photons absorbed by the antennae are not used for energy conversion due to dissipation mechanisms. It has therefore been proposed that uneven light distribution could be avoided by using cell cultures with smaller
How Can the Light Reactions of Photosynthesis be Improved in Plants?
Dario Leister
Frontiers in Plant Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00199
Abstract:
Complexities and protein complexes in the antimycin A-sensitive pathway of cyclic electron flow in plants
Dario Leister,Toshiharu Shikanai
Frontiers in Plant Science , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00161
Abstract:
O contratualismo como método: política, direito e neocontratualismo
Chiappin, J. R. N.;Leister, Carolina;
Revista de Sociologia e Política , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-44782010000100002
Abstract: the goal of this article is to present contractualism as a method and as a result of the systematizing of other methods for constructing knowledge. while classical contractualism takes its paradigms from the geometric and mechanical models of galileo's physics and from descartes - particularly, the latter's model of rational choice - rawlsian contractualism takes its paradigm from several micro-economic paradigms, and that of general equilibrium in particular. the contractualist method of the 17th century has making politics and law into a scientific discipline as its project, considering that, during this epoch: (i) the prevailing model of knowledge is the geometric one and knowledge is definite knowledge; (ii) the prevailing model of the individual sees the latter as rational and moved by self-interest; (iii) it entails a theory of rational human action and decision-making. therefore, in order to make the project of turning politics and law into science more viable, contractualism is not interpreted here substantively but instrumentally, as a method to access the bases of the political world. the contractualist method pursues a combination of the scientific model of knowledge of efficient causes and their relationship with effects, with the model of knowledge of ultimate causes as the study of ends or of the functional characteristics of things. in order to interpret contractualism as a method, we accept the new model of the relationship between knowledge and technology that has been elaborated by modern science and which maintains that knowledge of nature is a knowledge of conquest and domination that is capable of producing technological mechanisms for intervening in nature, with the goal of uncovering and manipulating causes in order to obtain the desired effects.
Uma reconstru??o racional do programa de pesquisa do racionalismo neoclássico: os subprogramas do convencionalismo/pragmatismo (Poincaré) e do realismo estrutural convergente (Duhem)
Chiappin, José Raimundo Novaes;Leister, Ana Carolina;
Trans/Form/A??o , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-31732011000200007
Abstract: the aim of this article é to propose a rational reconstruction of a research program of the neoclassical rationalism as a replacement for the program of the classical rationalism. the neoclassical program has as his main objective the construction of a new conception of science as representation instead of explanation. it is made of three subprograms: the conventionalism/pragmatism of poincaré, the structural realism of duhem and the logical empirism.
Nonparametric identification and maximum likelihood estimation for hidden Markov model
Grigory Alexandrovich,Hajo Holzmann,Anna Leister
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: Nonparametric identification and maximum likelihood estimation for finite-state hidden Markov models are investigated. We obtain identification of the parameters as well as the order of the Markov chain if the transition probability matrices have full-rank and are ergodic, and if the state-dependent distributions are all distinct, but not necessarily linearly independent. Based on this identification result, we develop nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation theory. First, we show that the asymptotic contrast, the Kullback--Leibler divergence of the hidden Markov model, identifies the true parameter vector nonparametrically as well. Second, for classes of state-dependent densities which are arbitrary mixtures of a parametric family, we show consistency of the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator. Here, identification of the mixing distributions need not be assumed. Numerical properties of the estimates as well as of nonparametric goodness of fit tests are investigated in a simulation study.
Adjuvant Treatment for High-Risk Operable Prostate Cancer  [PDF]
Bernard Paule, Nathalie Brion
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2010.11002
Abstract: Patients who have undergone a radical prostatectomy may have to face high risks of recurrence. The risk of recurrence is elevated due to probable occult metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A rationale for using multimodal approach in order to minimize the chance of disease recurrence and to improve the survival of high risk patients is emerging from preclinical and clinical studies. New molecular and genetics assays, may help to select patients most likely to benefit from these approaches. In this review, we will especially discuss the potential benefits of adjuvant therapy after radical prostatectomy. This paper presents the identification of these high-risk patients; the explanation of an adjuvant treatment of residual disease after a radical prostatectomy; the clinical studies with adjuvant androgen deprivation, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy and the microarrays analysis. This review highlights the importance of these new adjuvant treatments that aims at targeting the factor which triggers metastatic disease following a radical prostatectomy
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