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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1818 matches for " Nathalie Bajos "
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Effectiveness of Family Planning Policies: The Abortion Paradox
Nathalie Bajos, Mireille Le Guen, Aline Bohet, Henri Panjo, Caroline Moreau, the FECOND group
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091539
Abstract: Objective The relation between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion remains a topic of heated debate. Many of the contradictions are likely due to the fact that abortion is the end point of a process that starts with sexual activity, contraceptive use (or non-use), followed by unwanted pregnancy, a decision to terminate, and access to abortion. Trends in abortion rates reflect changes in each step of this process, and opposing trends may cancel each other out. This paper aims to investigate the roles played by the dissemination of contraception and the evolving norms of motherhood on changes in abortion rates. Methods Drawing data from six national probability surveys that explored contraception and pregnancy wantedness in France from 1978 through 2010, we used multivariate linear regression to explore the associations between trends in contraceptive rates and trends in (i) abortion rates, (ii) unwanted pregnancy rates, (iii) and unwanted birth rates, and to determine which of these 3 associations was strongest. Findings The association between contraceptive rates and abortion rates over time was weaker than that between contraception rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p = 0.003). Similarly, the association between contraceptive rates and unwanted birth rates over time was weaker than that between contraceptive rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p = 0.000).
Access to health care for induced abortions : analysis by means of french national survey
Moreau C,Bajos N,Bouyer J
Revue Médicale de l'Assurance Maladie , 2005,
Abstract: Aims: Despite recent studies that evidence some problems in the organisation of the French health care system concerning access for an abortion, far little is known on the reality of access conditions and the views of women on the difficulties they experience when they attend an abortion clinic. This study describes conditions of access to health care for abortions based on women’s reports, taking into account the woman’s background and the influence of the first professional contacted. Methods: A national sample of 2 863 women aged 18 to 44, randomly selected from the telephone directory was interviewed by telephone in 2000. Of these women, 480 had an abortion in the last ten years. Results: Results show that 61% of women had a direct access to abortion services. However patterns of care differed according to the type of first professional they contacted. The choice of first professional depended on women’s social background. This choice affected subsequent access conditions, in terms of time delay or complexity of patterns of care to access abortion services. Women who first contacted a private gynaecologist had more direct and shorter patterns of care. Conversely, general practitioners were associated with longer and more indirect patterns of care, especially when women were less well educated. Conclusion: This study reveals the heterogeneous nature of patterns of access to an abortion in France. It also raises questions concerning the training of general practitioners, who seem to be less well prepared to take charge of a request for an abortion than other professionals. Efforts must be made to better inform women and these professionals about the process required for abortions.
Influence of the typicality of the actions in a mugging script on retrieval-induced forgetting
Malen Migueles,Elvira García-Bajos
Psicológica , 2006,
Abstract: La investigación ha mostrado que el simple acto de recordar puede causar olvido temporal o inhibición de contenidos relacionados en la memoria. En este estudio se amplía el efecto del olvido inducido por la recuperación a la memoria de las acciones de un suceso. A partir de un estudio normativo se seleccionaron acciones de tipicidad alta y baja de un robo a una persona en la calle. Los participantes estudiaron hechos comprobados (acciones de tipicidad alta) y hechos no comprobados (acciones de tipicidad baja). Después recuperaron la mitad de las acciones de tipicidad alta, baja o, en el caso del grupo control, sin práctica de recuperación. En la prueba final los tres grupos recordaron los hechos comprobados y no comprobados estudiados. En las acciones de tipicidad baja se obtuvo el olvido inducido por la recuperación convencional, pero no se produjo inhibición en las acciones de tipicidad alta. Este resultado sugiere que la activación del guión del suceso pudo proteger la información de tipicidad alta del olvido inducido por la recuperación. La integración de las acciones que forman el guión del suceso hace que sean resistentes a procesos inhibitorios.
Eyewitness memory in an emotional vs. neutral context.
García Bajos E. and Migueles M.
Psicológica , 1999,
Recuperación parcial en la memoria de testigos, un arma de doble filo
Malen Migueles,Elvira García-Bajos
Ciencia Cognitiva : Revista Electrónica de Divulgación , 2010,
Abstract: Las víctimas y los testigos de delitos son interrogados en repetidas ocasiones, pero las preguntas no suelen abarcar todos los contenidos del suceso. La recuperación selectiva favorece el recuerdo, consolidación y mantenimiento de la información aportada, pero también puede promover el olvido de contenidos relacionados en la memoria, contenidos potencialmente relevantes para resolver un caso.
Las personas mayores son testigos fiables?
Alaitz Aizpurua,Elvira García-Bajos,Malen Migueles
Ciencia Cognitiva : Revista Electrónica de Divulgación , 2011,
Abstract: Imaginemos que en un juicio llaman a declarar como víctima o testigo a una persona mayor, situación cada vez más probable debido al envejecimiento de la población. En este artículo analizamos las diferencias entre jóvenes y mayores en la exactitud y fiabilidad del testimonio. Los mayores recuerdan con precisión aspectos representativos o la esencia del acontecimiento, pero recuerdan peor que los jóvenes detalles específicos. En pruebas de reconocimiento que requieren discriminar o verificar los hechos, las personas mayores tienen más falsas memorias y las experimentan como recuerdos verídicos en mayor medida que los jóvenes, produciendo así testimonios menos fiables.
Adjuvant Treatment for High-Risk Operable Prostate Cancer  [PDF]
Bernard Paule, Nathalie Brion
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2010.11002
Abstract: Patients who have undergone a radical prostatectomy may have to face high risks of recurrence. The risk of recurrence is elevated due to probable occult metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A rationale for using multimodal approach in order to minimize the chance of disease recurrence and to improve the survival of high risk patients is emerging from preclinical and clinical studies. New molecular and genetics assays, may help to select patients most likely to benefit from these approaches. In this review, we will especially discuss the potential benefits of adjuvant therapy after radical prostatectomy. This paper presents the identification of these high-risk patients; the explanation of an adjuvant treatment of residual disease after a radical prostatectomy; the clinical studies with adjuvant androgen deprivation, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy and the microarrays analysis. This review highlights the importance of these new adjuvant treatments that aims at targeting the factor which triggers metastatic disease following a radical prostatectomy
Therapeutic MUC1-Based Cancer Vaccine Expressed in Flagella-Efficacy in an Aggressive Model of Breast Cancer  [PDF]
Nathalie Machluf, Ruth Arnon
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2012.23015
Abstract: MUC1, a tumor-associated antigen overexpressed in many carcinomas, represents a candidate of choice for cancer immunotherapy. Flagella-based MUC1 vaccines were tested in therapeutic setting in two aggressive breast cancer models, comprising the implantation of the 4T1-MUC1 cell line in either Balb/c, or Human MUC1 transgenic mice in which spontaneous metastases occurs. Recombinant flagella carrying only 7 amino acid of MUC1 elicited therapeutic activity, affecting both the growth of established growing tumors and the number of metastases. Higher therapeutic activity was achieved with an additional recombinant flagella designed with the SYFPEITHI algorithm. The vaccines triggered a Th1 response against MUC1 with no evident autoimmune response towards healthy MUC1-expressing tissues. Recombinant flagella carrying a 25-residue fragment of MUC1, induced the most effective response, as evidenced by a significant reduction of both the size and growth rate of the tumor as well as by the lower number of metastases, and expanding life span of vaccinated mice.
Lab-Scale Performance Evaluation of Vertical Flow Reed Beds for the Treatment of Chlorobenzene Contaminated Groundwater  [PDF]
Gerard Merlin, Nathalie Cottin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.328099
Abstract: Chlorinated Benzenes (CBs) that were released into the environment contaminate groundwater at many existing and former industrial sites. A research program was initiated to investigate the ecoremediation of CBs contaminated groundwater using subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Four lab-scale experiments were performed to evaluate re- moval efficiency with different operation conditions. The first experiment was achieved with two different solid-state materials: a peat and a lava stone (pozzolana). In order to stimulate biological activity, organic matter coming from an aged Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands (VFCW) was added to the media. Mass balance was determined to assess the fate of these pollutants in this system. The biofiltres of the second experiment were constructed with the same materials but bioaugmentation was realized by adding organic matter of VFCW or by bacteria inoculums. Peat and pozzolana biofiltres planted with Phragmites australis constituted the third experiment to evaluate the effect of plants. Bioaugmen- tation was constituted by the addition of OM coming from aged VFCW. Compost mixed with pozzolana was the solid-state material of the fourth experiment. Columns were made of two stages. The first stage was unplanted and the second stage was planted with Phragmites. Peat has been replaced by compost, a renewable material. Lab-scale biofil- tres remove CBs with an efficiency of 70% - 99%, depending on studied media and conditions. Greater efficiency was observed with bioaugmented media. Volatilization was very low (<0.2%) and the detection of chlorides in water indi- cated the occurrence of biodegradation. The experiments have shown that organic solid-state materials (compost or peat) are useful for groundwater remediation, with higher treatment efficiency than pozzolana material. Bioaugmentation increased biological activity. Clogging of biofiltres have been observed and can be reduced by the presence of plants or by a resting period of 14 - 21 days (requiring alternative feedings on several filters).
Encoding of local and global cues in domestic dogs’ spatial working memory  [PDF]
Sylvain Fiset, Nathalie Malenfant
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.33A001
Abstract: The current study investigated whether domestic dogs encode local and/or global cues in spatial working memory. Seven dogs were trained to use a source of allocentric information (local and/or global cues) to locate an attractive object they saw move and disappear behind one of the three opaque boxes arrayed in front of them. To do so, after the disappearance of the target object and out of the dogs’ knowledge, all sources of allocentric information were simultaneously shifted to a new spatial position and the dogs were forced to follow a U-shaped pathway leading to the hiding box. Out of the seven dogs that were trained in the detour problem, only three dogs learned to use the cues that were moved from trial to trial. On tests, local (boxes and experimenter) and/or global cues (walls of the room) were systematically and drastically shifted to a new position in the testing chamber. Although they easily succeeded the control trials, the three dogs failed to use a specific source of allocentric information when local and global cues were put in conflict. In discussion, we explore several hypotheses to explain why dogs have difficulties to use allocentric cues to locate a hidden object in a detour problem and why they do not differentiate the local and global cues in this particular experimental setting.
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