Abstract:
Ensuring the environmental protection of the Lebanese coast requires a continues monitoring system. For this purpose, four heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu and Pb in the marine sediments along the Lebanese coast were selected for analysis Sampling was carried out from two sites: Beirut and Batroun. Thus, 1g of dried sample is used for digestion by wet mineralization in order to determine the concentration of the four heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that Beirut area is polluted, by Fe and Mn as well as the station Bat 2 of Batroun. For Cu and Pb, Batroun region is more polluted in the superficial layers. The analysis also showed significant difference between the sites except for Cu. A difference between depths and between particles size fractions are observed for all the parameters studied. There is no a significant difference in layer sequence except for the Pb, and neither between the repetitions of the same sample. Results showed that the values of the four metals studied do not exceed the maximum limits at both sites, but they showed increase in comparison with the analyses obtained before July 2006 conflict, which was caused by the release of large quantity of fuel-oil from Jiyeh Power Station.

Abstract:
Yoghurt (Laban) is one of the most consumed food products in Lebanon. Thus its quality has given a concern. In this study, the sensory, chemical and rheological properties of commercial and traditional samples were investigated in order to characterize this fermented milk. Hence, Laban samples were collected from 14 areas in Lebanon; especially from mountainous regions and from the capital Beirut. Forty-two samples were provided by processing industry whether at small, medium, or large scale. A statistical analysis was carried out, and thus sensory and physicochemical properties were subjected to two approaches of variance analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients between attributes were also calculated. Both, the analyses of variance and correlations were conducted using SPSS 3. The physicochemical analysis and the microbiological analysis exhibit a significant effect of the date, and the manufacturing process. Also, the instrumental data showed no significant correlation between physicochemical and microbiological parameters, which indicates that they are completely independent. Moreover, the general appreciation of descriptive sensory analysis of products display that this appreciation is not dependant on the production process. It is also noticed that some sensory characteristics can be dread by instrumental measures. This research endorses the essential role of quality control for the manufacturing of yoghurt in Lebanon.

Induction of labour remains one of the most challenging interventions in current obstetrics. Different pharmaceuticals have been used for cervical ripening such as prostaglandins; however they can lead to a number of potential inconvenient risks namely uterine tachysystole and pathological fetal cardiotocography (CTG). In cases of women with previous caesarean births, using prostaglandins would pose even higher risks such as uterine rupture and perinatal mortality. A mechanical method of cervical ripening could represent an alternative for these women. We report the use of the extra-amniotic double balloon cervical device (Cook’s device) for ripening of unfavourable cervix in seventeen women attempting vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC). Using Bishop scoring system to assess cervical dilatetion, position, consistency, fetal station and effacement, the unfavourable cervix is the cervix that scores less than 6. We review the relevant literature discussing this method of induction focusing on its effectiveness, simplicity, safety and efficacy, low cost and any associated serious side effects. Conclusion: Success was estimated to be over 50% with no serious life threatening maternal or fetal complications. We considered the process satisfactory and practical. We recommend larger studies to assess safety and efficacy of Cook’s device in vaginal birth after caesarean section before embarking on routine elective caesarean delivery. Objectives: To estimate success rate for vaginal delivery after previous caesarean section using cervical double balloon device (Cook’s device). Design: Three-year observational study. Setting: Maternity unit in district general hospital, UK. Population: Women who had one previous lower segment caesarean section and unfavourable cervix identified as having Bishop Score less than 6. Methods: Data were obtained from the birth registry over 3 years from January 2008 until December 2010. Main outcome: Measure successful vaginal delivery. Results: Out of 25 cases that had induction of labour with history of one previous lower segment caesarean section, 17 patients did fit in the inclusion criteria and were studied. 53% had a successful vaginal delivery while 47% had to have cesarean section either due to failure to progress or pathological cardiotocography. 82% required to have syntocinon infusion for augmentation as per local unit protocol. All newborn babies were in good condition and did not require admission to neonatal intensive care unit.

Abstract:
in egypt the "national schistosomiasis control program" was formulated to control transmission by reduction of prevalence and intensity of current infections, and thereby achieve an acceptable level of schistosomiasis disease control. the program was implemented foremost in middle egypt (1977) and upper egypt (1980), collectively extending 800 km alongside of the river nile and accommodate about 10.5 million people. schistosoma haematobium has been essentially the prevailing species infection in both areas. the strategy of control entailed both area-wide mollusciciding with niclosamide, and selective population chemotherapy with metrifonate. evaluation in 1986 showed that prevalence dropped from pre-control 29.4% in middle egypt and 26.3% in upper egypt to 6% and 7.8% respectively, together with a remarkable drop of infections among children. also mean intensity attained low levels consistent of low grade infections. it is evident therefore that in these areas where an enhancement of schistosomiasis infections had been anticipated the employment of the twofold strategy effected a state of low-prevalence/low-intensity signifying a lowered reservoir of infection and a substantial interference with the potentials of transmission.

Abstract:
are there evidences of deindustrialization in brazil? this paper aims at analyzing the theoretical concept of deindustrialization, and evaluating if brazil, following the implementation of economic reforms in the 1990's, has suffered from a " new dutch disease" . despite the manufacturing sector declining participation in the brazilian gross domestic product (gdp), the empirical evidence show that the changes in the economy structure since the mid-1980？s to the end of 2005 should not be described as deindustrialization. since there was not evidence of either generalized reallocation of resources towards industries based on natural resources, or a pattern of export specialization in goods technologically based on natural resources or even on labor, one cannot conclude that brazil was infected by a " new dutch disease" .

Abstract:
This research aims to introduce a new principle in the flat space-time geometry through the elimination of the classical idea of rest and by including a universal minimum limit of speed in the quantum world. This limit, unattainable by the particles, represents a preferred inertial reference frame associated with a universal background field that breaks Lorentz symmetry. There emerges a new relativistic dynamics where a minimum speed forms an inferior energy barrier. One of the interesting consequences of the existence of such a minimum speed is that it prevents the absolute zero temperature for an ultracold gas according to the third law of thermodynamics. So we will be able to provide a fundamental dynamical explanation for the third law through a connection between such a phenomenological law and the new relativistic dynamics with a minimum speed.

Abstract:
We will look for an implementation of new symmetries in the space-time structure and their cosmological implications. This search will allow us to find a unified vision for electrodynamics and gravitation. We will attempt to develop a heuristic model of the electromagnetic nature of the electron, so that the influence of the gravitational field on the electrodynamics at very large distances leads to a reformulation of our comprehension of the space- time structure at quantum level through the elimination of the classical idea of rest. This will lead us to a modification of the relativistic theory by introducing the idea about a universal minimum limit of speed in the space- time. Such a limit, unattainable by the particles, represents a preferred frame associated with a universal background field (a vacuum energy), enabling a fundamental understanding of the quantum uncertainties. The structure of space-time becomes extended due to such a vacuum energy density, which leads to a negative pressure at the cosmological scales as an anti-gravity, playing the role of the cosmological constant. The tiny values of the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant will be successfully obtained, being in agreement with current observational results.

Abstract:
The present work aims to search for an implementation of new symmetries in the space-time in order to enable us to find a connection between electrodynamics and gravitation, from where quantum principles naturally emerge. To do that, first of all we build a heuristic model of the electromagnetic nature of the electron so that the influence of the gravitational field on the electrodynamics of such moving particle leads us essentially to an elimination of the classical idea of rest by introducing the idea of a universal minimum limit of speed ($V$). Such a lowest limit $V$, being unattainable by the particles, represents a fundamental and preferred reference frame connected to a universal background field (a vacuum energy) that breaks Lorentz symmetry. So there emerges a new principle of symmetry in the space-time at the subatomic level for very low energies close to the background frame ($v\approx V$), providing a fundamental understanding for the uncertainty principle.

Abstract:
The paper aims to introduce a new symmetry principle in the space-time geometry through the elimination of the classical idea of rest and by including a universal minimum limit of speed in the subatomic world. Such a limit, unattainable by particles, represents a preferred reference frame associated with a universal background field that breaks Lorentz symmetry. Thus the structure of space-time is extended due to the presence of a vacuum energy density, which leads to a negative pressure at cosmological scales. The tiny values of the cosmological constant and the vacuum energy density shall be successfully obtained, being in good agreement with current observational results.

Abstract:
We attempt to find new symmetries in the space-time structure, leading to a modified gravitation at large length scales, which provides the foundations of a quantum gravity at very low energies. This search begins by considering a unified model for electrodynamics and gravitation, so that the influence of the gravitational field on the electrodynamics at very large distances leads to a reformulation of our understanding about space-time through the elimination of the classical idea of rest at quantum level. This leads us to a modification of the relativistic theory by introducing the idea of a universal minimum speed related to Planck minimum length. Such a speed, unattainable by the particles, represents a privileged inertial reference frame associated with a universal background field. The structure of space-time becomes extended due to such a vacuum energy density, which leads to a cosmological anti-gravity, playing the role of the cosmological constant. The tiny values of the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant are successfully obtained, being in agreement with current observational results. We estimate the very high value of vacuum energy density at Planck length scale. After we find the critical radius of the universe, beyond which the accelerated expansion takes place. We show that such a critical radius is $R_{uc}=r_g/2$, where $r_g=2GM/c^2$, being $r_g$ the Shwarzschild radius of a sphere with a mass $M$ representing the total attractive mass contained in our universe. And finally we obtain the radius $R_{u0}=3r_g/4(>R_{uc})$ where we find the maximum rate of accelerated expansion. For $R_u>R_{u0}$, the rate of acceleration decreases to zero at the infinite, avoiding Big Rip.