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Beyond “Methodological Islamism”? A Thematic Discussion of Muslim Minorities in Europe  [PDF]
Nasar Meer, Tariq Modood
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.37039
Abstract: In this discussion we offer an overview of the place of Muslim actors in European scholarship. We especially focus on the second and subsequent generations of European Muslims, and how future research agendas could conceptualise the relationship between contemporary Muslim identity and citizenship regimes in Europe. We explore the way in which our understanding is formed by a concern with socio- economic processes, cultural adaptations and civic status. We include questions of citizenship and “difference”, and the extent to which there has been a re-imagining and re-forming of national collectivities in the face of Muslim claims-making. By claims-making we invoke a further register which centres on the creation of a Muslim infrastructure, perhaps through modes of religious pluralism (or opposition to it), and how this interacts with prevailing ideas that to greater and lesser extents inform public policies e.g., multiculturalism, interculturalism, cohesion, secularism, or Leitkulture, amongst others. While the latter register focuses more on nation-state politics, there is a further transnational dimension in the Muslim experience in Europe, and this assumes an important trajectory in the ways discussed. It is argued that Muslim identities in Europe contain many social layers that are often independent of scriptural texts; such that the appellation of “Muslim” can be appropriated without any unanimity on Islamic matters. We conclude by observing how this point is understudied, and as a consequence the dynamic features of Muslims’ leadership in Europe remain unexplored.a
Correlation between standard enthalpy of formation, structural parameters and ionicity for alkali halides
Nasar Abu
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society , 2013, DOI: 10.2298/jsc120113049n
Abstract: The standard enthalpy of formation (ΔHo) has been considered to be an interesting and useful parameter for the correlation of various properties of alkali halides. The interrelation between ΔHo and structural parameters for the halides of Li, Na, K and Rb has been thoroughly analyzed. When cationic component element is kept constant in a homologous series of alkali halides, the negative value of ΔHo has been observed to decrease linearly with increase of interionic distance (d) and accordingly following empirical equation ΔHo = α + βd (where α and β are empirical constants) has been established. However, for common anionic series of alkali halides an opposite nonlinear trend has been observed with the exception of common fluorides. The correlation study on the standard enthalpy of formation has been extended in term of radius ratio and also discussed in the light of ionization energy of the metal, electron affinity of the halogen, size of the ions, ionic character of bond and lattice energy of the compound.
Programmable SoC for an XTEA Encryption Algorithm Using a Co-Design Environment Replication Performance Approach  [PDF]
Mohamed H. Al Meer
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2017.511004
Abstract: With the rapid development of wired and wireless networks, the security needs within network systems are becoming increasingly intensive owing to the continuous development of new applications. Existing cryptography algorithms differ from each other in many ways including their security complexity, size of the key and words operated on, and processing time. Nevertheless, the main factors that prioritize an encryption algorithm over others are its ability to secure and protect data against attacks and its speed and efficiency. In this study, a reconfigurable Co-Design multi-purpose security design with very low complexity, weight, and cost, has been developed using Extended Tiny Encryption Algorithm (XTEA) data encryption standards. The paper aims to discuss issues and present solutions associated with this system, as well as compare the Co-Design implementation approach with Full-Hardware and Full-Software solutions. The main contribution that this paper offers is the profiling of XTEA cryptographic algorithm to reach more satisfactory understanding of its computation structure that leads to fully software, fully hardware, beside the co-design implementations all together, of this light weight encryption algorithm.
Examination of Flower Bud Initiation and Differentiation in `Redhaven` Peach by Using Scanning Electron Microscope
Hakan Engin,Nasar Iqbal
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Flower initiation and development in `Redhaven` Peach (Prunus persica L.) was examined using scanning electron microscope. The samples were taken every 10 days from 20 June to 10 Oct. and stored in FAA (10% Formalin, 50% Ethanol, 5% Glacial Acetic Acid). On July, 7, 107 days after anthesis (DAA), a doming of the apex signified the initial change from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. After this stage, floral primordia developed in the order of sepal, petal, stamen and carpel. Sepal primordia were evident on 22 Aug. 153 DAA, petal primordia were evident on 31 Aug. 162 DAA. Rings of stamen primordia had formed by 15 Sep. followed by carpel differentiation. These organs of the flower gained their normal forms by the end of September.2
Flowering and Fruitset Behaviour of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu, Marc.) as Influenced by Environment
Nasar Iqbal,Ismail Karacali
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Present studies were carried out to determine the effect of environment on inflorescence pattern and fruit set behaviour of Satsuma mandarin. Data obtained showed that mean temperature for February, March and April was 9.6°C during 1997 as compared with 11.63°C in 1998. Similarly the mean maximum and minimum temperature during these three months was higher in 1998 than in 1997. Data in respect of flower opening showed that flowering was realized two weeks earlier in 1998 as compared with 1997 due to climate influence. Generaly leafless inflorescence experienced full bloom earlier than leafy ones. Significantly higher leafy inflorescence (27.05%) were noted in 1998 as compared (11.89%) in 1997 and vice versa for leafless inflorescence. There were significant differences among rootstocks in respect of inflorescence leafiness. Leafy inflorescence presented significantly higher ovary weight of 27.75 mg/ovary as compared with 22.07 mg/ovary in leafless inflorescence. Relatively higher fruitset occurred in leafy as compared with leafless inflorescence although differences were non significant. Results obtained have been discussed to establish a relationship of inflorescence leafiness with climatic forces and fruit growth.
Gibberellins Contents in Leafy Fruitlets of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu, Marc.) in Relation to Fruit Quality
Nasar Iqbal,Ismail Karacali
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Present studies were designed to find out the role of endogenous Gibberellin like compounds in production of low quality in leafy fruits of Satsuma mandarin. Gibberellin-like activity in the leafy and leafless fruitlets of Satsuma mandarin grafted on Troyer citrange, Sour orange and Trifoliate orange rootstock was tested with lettuce hypocotyl elongation test. Results showed that Gibberellin-like activity in the leafy fruitlets was considerably higher than the leafless fruitlets in Troyer citrange. Like wise Gibberellin-like activity in the leafy fruitlets of Satsuma mandarin grafted on Sour orange and Trifoliate orange was also higher than that of leafless fruitlets. Comparison of the leafy fruitlets indicated that maximum gibberellin like activities were noted in case of Trifoliate rootstock which was followed by Troyer citrange and Sour orange, respectively.
A parallel implementation of a derivative pricing model incorporating SABR calibration and probability lookup tables
Qasim Nasar-Ullah
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: We describe a high performance parallel implementation of a derivative pricing model, within which we introduce a new parallel method for the calibration of the industry standard SABR (stochastic-\alpha \beta \rho) stochastic volatility model using three strike inputs. SABR calibration involves a non-linear three dimensional minimisation and parallelisation is achieved by incorporating several assumptions unique to the SABR class of models. Our calibration method is based on principles of surface intersection, guarantees convergence to a unique solution and operates by iteratively refining a two dimensional grid with local mesh refinement. As part of our pricing model we additionally present a fast parallel iterative algorithm for the creation of dynamically sized cumulative probability lookup tables that are able to cap maximum estimated linear interpolation error. We optimise performance for probability distributions that exhibit clustering of linear interpolation error. We also make an empirical assessment of error propagation through our pricing model as a result of changes in accuracy parameters within the pricing model's multiple algorithmic steps. Algorithms are implemented on a GPU (graphics processing unit) using Nvidia's Fermi architecture. The pricing model targets the evaluation of spread options using copula methods, however the presented algorithms can be applied to a wider class of financial instruments.
UWB-BPF with Application Based Triple Notches and Suppressed Stopband
Abu Nasar Ghazali;Srikanta Pal
PIER C , 2013,
Abstract: An ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filter (BPF) with application oriented triple notches and simultaneously suppressed stopband is proposed. Implementing complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) and novel complementary meandered folded split ring resonators (CMFSRR) shaped defected ground structures (DGS) in the ground of proposed structure generates the triple notch in the UWB passband. The notch positions are functions of CSRR/CMFSRR profile dimensions. Stopband is suppressed using the dual attenuation poles generated by the double equilateral-U (DEU) shaped DGS. An approximate lumped equivalent circuit model of the proposed filter is presented. Measured results obtained are in good agreement with the equivalent circuit model and full wave electromagnetic (EM) simulation. The filter is small in size with an overall area of 26.06 mm × 11 mm.
Analysis of a Small UWB Filter with Notch and Improved Stopband
Abu Nasar Ghazali;Srikanta Pal
PIER Letters , 2012, DOI: 10.2528/PIERL12070103
Abstract: A microstrip based Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Bandpass Filter (BPF) with a notch at WLAN and simultaneously improved stopband till 18 GHz is proposed. Meander shaped Defected Ground Structures (DGS) are used to implement the notch (which can be increased in width and number) within the passband and double U-shaped DGS present under the input and output feeding lines are used to attain the suppressed stopband. Experimental results are in good agreement with the simulated data.
Dehydration Characteristics of Sweet Cherries (Prunus avium L.)
Alaa Abd Elrashid,Nasar Iqbal
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Effect of drying conditions on Allahidyen (Salihli) sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) cultivated in Turkey was studied with the following treatments: dipping in 2 per cent Na2S2O5 for 7 minute, or in 0.5 per cent K2CO3 for one minute at 90°C before drying. The pretreatment were compared with untreated samples. The initial moisture contents of all the samples were 5.4528 gram H2O/gram dry matter (g.H2O/g.DM) while final moisture contents were 0.5254, 0.7796 and 0.6102 g.H2O/g. DM for control, Na2S2O5 and K2CO3 treated samples, respectively. The total soluble solids of dried samples were 66.9 for control, 63.3 and 60.3 per cent for Na2S2O5 and K2CO3 treatments. A decline pattern in ascorbic acid concentration was noted. The anthocyanin extracts from salified samples showed increase in optical density as compare to control and the K2CO3 treated ones. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the chemical and physical properties of the untreated (control) dried sweet cherries and those treated with Na2S2O5 or K2CO3. Such conclusion enhanced the possibility of drying sweet cherries without any chemical treatments, a trend which will have a direct effect on human health by preventing the harmful effect of chemical additives and supporting the pattern of reaching "food safety".
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