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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6391 matches for " Nardell Edward "
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Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis: achievements and challenges to current knowledge
Murray,Megan; Nardell,Edward;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862002000600013
Abstract: over the past 10 years, molecular methods have become available with which to strain-type mycobacterium tuberculosis. they have allowed researchers to study certain important but previously unresolved issues in the epidemiology of tuberculosis (tb). for example, some unsuspected microepidemics have been revealed and it has been shown that the relative contribution of recently acquired disease to the tb burden in many settings is far greater than had been thought. these findings have led to the strengthening of tb control. other research has demonstrated the existence and described the frequency of exogenous reinfection in areas of high incidence. much recent work has focused on the phenotypic variation among strains and has evaluated the relative transmissibility, virulence, and immunogenicity of different lineages of the organism. we summarize the recent achievements in tb epidemiology associated with the introduction of dna fingerprinting techniques, and consider the implications of this technology for the design and analysis of epidemiological studies.
Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis: achievements and challenges to current knowledge
Murray Megan,Nardell Edward
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002,
Abstract: Over the past 10 years, molecular methods have become available with which to strain-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They have allowed researchers to study certain important but previously unresolved issues in the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). For example, some unsuspected microepidemics have been revealed and it has been shown that the relative contribution of recently acquired disease to the TB burden in many settings is far greater than had been thought. These findings have led to the strengthening of TB control. Other research has demonstrated the existence and described the frequency of exogenous reinfection in areas of high incidence. Much recent work has focused on the phenotypic variation among strains and has evaluated the relative transmissibility, virulence, and immunogenicity of different lineages of the organism. We summarize the recent achievements in TB epidemiology associated with the introduction of DNA fingerprinting techniques, and consider the implications of this technology for the design and analysis of epidemiological studies.
Influenza and Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation
Lewis J Radonovich, Richard A Martinello, Michael Hodgson, Donald K Milton, Edward A Nardell
Virology Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-5-149
Abstract: In the February 25th issue of Virology Journal, Cannell and colleagues propose that Vitamin D is intimately associated with the incidence of human influenza infection to the extent that it explains numerous previously misunderstood manifestations of the disease and the behavior of epidemics [1]. Although a novel and intriguing hypothesis, it contains multiple incorrect assertions. Regarding the 1957 Livermore, California influenza study [2], Cannell and colleagues assert,"Maclean's [sic] description of the Livermore hospital's procedures is inadequate to know if patients were being directly irradiated, thus triggering vitamin D production in their skin. However careful inspection of another 1957 publication about a similarly irradiated Baltimore VA hospital – co-authored by McLean – is illuminating [3]. The Baltimore hospital wing apparently used a similar irradiation set-up with 'standard ultraviolet fixtures.' (p. 421) illustrations clearly show – despite text stating that only upper air was irradiated – that the rooms and hallways were all equipped with UV lights that either shone directly or indirectly on patients ... [which] would have significantly raised the 25(OH)D levels of the irradiated, and relatively influenza free, patients. "Represented in this assertion are multiple key misconceptions about air disinfection using ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) that need to be rectified.First, McLean clearly identifies the location of the air disinfection as the upper-room, as was the practice at the time. In the text under Figure 4 (p. 37) he describes the UV treated ward of the Livermore facility as sustaining "disinfection of the upper air of all rooms and corridors [2]." Investigators at the time were well aware of the need to confine UV to the upper room for occupant safety [4,5]. In addition, the UV fixtures in the Baltimore hospital wing, in fact, did not directly irradiate the buildings occupants [3]. The fixtures directed the UV energy horizontally
Observation on Mercury Concentration in Kao Bay (Halmahera) and Anggai Waters (Obi Island), North of Maluku
Edward
Makara Seri Sains , 2008,
Abstract: Observation on Mercury Concentration in Kao Bay (Halmahera) and Anggai Waters (Obi Island), North of Maluku. Observation on merkuri concentration in territorial waters of Kao Bay and Anggai have been done in January 2005. The result showed that mercury concentration in seawater and sediment in territorial waters of Kao Bay and Anggai waters still lower and still in line with peaceful threshold value for waters biota life. This data indicate that waste of mercury coming from activity of gold mining by PT Nusa Halmahera Raya (NHR) and illegal gold mining by society not yet polluted both of that waters.
The Origin of Quantification  [PDF]
Edward MacKinnon
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.34A002
Abstract: Neither the Greek nor the Alexandrian nor the early Arabic philosopher/scientists ever developed a mathematical representation of qualities, a prerequisite for a mathematical physics. By the early seventeenth century the quantification of qualities was a common practice. This article traces the way this practice developed. It originated with a medievally theological problem and was developed by philosophical logicians who did not have mathematical physics as a goal. The verbal algebra they developed was given a mathematical formulation in the late fifteenth century. This was subsequently assimilated into a neo-Platonic revival that stressed mathematical forms. The quantification of qualities developed in physics supplied the paradigm for quantification in other fields.
Why Interpret Quantum Physics?  [PDF]
Edward MacKinnon
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2016.61009
Abstract: This article probes the question of what interpretations of quantum mechanics actually accomplish. In other domains, which are briefly considered, interpretations serve to make alien systematizations intelligible to us. This often involves clarifying the status of their implicit ontology. A survey of interpretations of non-relativistic quantum mechanics supports the evaluation that these interpretations make a contribution to philosophy, but not to physics. Interpretations of quantum field theory are polarized by the divergence between the Lagrangian field theory, which leads to the Standard Model of Particle physics and the Algebraic quantum field theory that discounts an ontology of particles. Ruetsche’s interpretation offers a potential for loosening the sharp polarization that presently obtains. A brief evaluation focuses on the functional ontology of quantum field theory considered as an effective theory.
Development of a Canadian Adaptation of the Facts on Aging Quiz  [PDF]
Edward Helmes
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2016.53007
Abstract: Accurate knowledge about older adults is desirable for research into aging populations. The Palmore Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) has been one of the most widely used measures of knowledge about aging that has been used in English-speaking countries. The original true-false version has largely been replaced by the current multiple-choice format. Here I present data on a Canadian multiple-choice FAQ from 172 older adult residents in the community with a mean age of 70.3 years old (SD = 8.88). The mean percentage correct on the Canadian FAQ-2C was 54.4%, a proportion higher than the recent Australian data and some older American data on older adults. The Canadian adaptation of the modified Australian multiple-choice version demonstrates the value of the local verification of FAQ items’ scoring key if the knowledge assessed by the FAQ is to be used accurately in a different country or if the local scoring key was developed several years earlier.
The Impact of Microfinance on Grassroot Development: Evidence from Smes in Kwabre East District of Ashanti Region of Ghana  [PDF]
Edward Yeboah
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2017.54050
Abstract: Empirical studies attest to the assertion that development interventions aimed at people at the grassroots are poverty alleviation oriented. Microfinance has been acclaimed to be effective vehicle for poverty eradication. Since poverty alleviation is rooted in grassroots development, the impact of microfinance on grassroots development cannot be gainsaid. Equally relevant in this regard is the pivotal role of the SME subsector in grassroots development. This is against the backdrop that at the grass root, the active poor are those who run enterprises known as micro, small and medium enterprises. This research looked at the impact of microfinance on grassroots development using SMEs in Kwabre East District of Ashanti Region in Ghana as the case study. Both theoretical and empirical literatures were reviewed. The study adopted the descriptive type of research and the survey method to collect data from 82 respondents. The survey was done through the administration of structured questionnaires. The sampling techniques used included the non-probability methods of purposive and convenience. Qualitative and quantitative techniques were utilized in the data analysis. The research used the development evaluation framework for impact assessment of projects pioneered by the Inter- American Foundation. It was evidenced that microfinance as a development intervention has some level of impact on grassroots development. The impact is of direct benefits to individual operators of SMEs and their families. These included positive impact on basic needs; knowledge and skills; employment and income; and assets. Other positive effects of microfinance on SMEs relative to grassroots development were self-esteem, creativity and critical reflection. However, findings from the survey are not explicit on the impact of microfinance on strengthening organizations and broader impact on society in relation to local, regional and national as demanded by the Gras-sroots Development Framework (GDF) of Inter-American Foundation for measurement of impact of development interventions. The researcher therefore recommends for further studies the effect of microfinance on organizations and society in the areas of organizational capacity and culture, policy environment and community norms. It was also revealed that microcredit remained the dominant feature of microfinance in making significant impact. The hurdle of accessibility to credit by SMEs has not been completely cleared. Over 60% of the respondents posited that microfinance has not increased their business capital and stock levels. The
Experiments and Functional Realism  [PDF]
Edward MacKinnon
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2017.74005
Abstract:
This article focuses on interpreting theories when they are functioning in an ongoing investigation. The sustained search for a quark-gluon plasma serves as a prime example. The analysis treats the Standard Model of Particle Physics as an Effective Field Theory. Related effective theories functioning in different energy ranges can have different functional ontologies, or models of the reality treated. A functional ontology supplies a categorial framework that grounds and limits the language used in describing experiments and reporting results. The scope and limitations of such a local functional realism are evaluated.
Superimposing Scales and Doppler-Like Effect  [PDF]
Edward Szaraniec
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2019.103024
Abstract: The observable universe together with the observer, both on sufficiently large scale, succeeds in their self-entaglement and paradoxical inconsistency. For consistency, the observable universe and the observer have to be on different scale (size) provided, the cosmological principle is preserved as an approximation in a limit. The point is the univers’ principle itself. Our proposal for the disentaglement is superimposition out of complexity. The distance contraction, as observed in electrical soundings over horizontally stratified earth (static system), is identified as a counterpart of Doppler shift in dynamical systems. An alternative answer to the question about an effective cause of the Doppler shift sounds the heterogeneities under superimposing scales. The energy propagating in stratified universe exhibits a shift which could be attributed not only to the expansion but alternatively to fluctuations across different scales. When nothing is said or predetermined about kinematics of a system, both causes might share in the effect. It opens different static and kinematic possibilities, which challenge established theories of energy/information transmission and/or sounding at a distance as well as pertinent technology in prospect.
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