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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1246 matches for " Naomi Hirano "
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Submillimeter CO emission from shock-heated gas in the L1157 outflow
Naomi Hirano,Yoshiaki Taniguchi
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/319649
Abstract: We present the CO J=6-5, 4-3, and 3-2 spectra from the blueshifted gas of the outflow driven by the low-mass class 0 protostar in the L1157 dark cloud. Strong submillimeter CO emission lines with T_mb > 30 K have been detected at 63" (~0.13 pc) south from the protostar. It is remarkable that the blue wings in the submillimeter lines are stronger by a factor of 3-4 than that of the CO J=1-0 emission line. The CO line ratios suggest that the blueshifted lobe of this outflow consists of moderately dense gas of n(H_2) = (1-3)x10^4 cm^-3 heated to T_kin = 50-170 K.It is also suggested that the kinetic temperature of the outflowing gas increases from ~80 K near the protostar to ~170 K at the shocked region in the lobe center, toward which the largest velocity dispersion of the CO emission is observed. A remarkable correlation between the kinetic temperature and velocity dispersion of the CO emission along the lobe provides us with direct evidence that the molecular gas at the head of the jet-driven bow shock is indeed heated kinematically. The lower temperature of ~80 K measured at the other shocked region near the end of the lobe is explained if this shock is in a later evolutionary stage, in which the gas has been cooled mainly through radiation of the CO rotational lines.
Outflow - Core Interaction in Barnard 1
Masaaki Hiramatsu,Naomi Hirano,Shigehisa Takakuwa
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/712/2/778
Abstract: In order to study how outflows from protostars influence the physical and chemical conditions of the parent molecular cloud, we have observed Barnard 1 (B1) main core, which harbors four Class 0 and three Class I sources, in the CO (J=1-0), CH3OH (J_K=2_K-1_K), and the SiO (J=1-0) lines using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We have identified three CO outflows in this region; one is an elongated (~ 0.3 pc) bipolar outflow from a Class 0 protostar B1-c in the submillimeter clump SMM 2, another is a rather compact (~ 0.1 pc) outflow from a Class I protostar B1 IRS in the clump SMM 6, and the other is an extended outflow from a Class I protostar in SMM 11. In the western lobe of the SMM 2 outflow, both the SiO and CH3OH lines show broad redshifted wings with the terminal velocities of 25 km/s and 13 km/s, respectively. It is likely that the shocks caused by the interaction between the outflow and ambient gas enhance the abundance of SiO and CH3OH in the gas phase. The total energy input rate by the outflows (1.1x10^{-3} Lsun) is smaller than the energy loss rate (8.5x10^{-3} Lsun$) through the turbulence decay in B1 main core, which suggests that the outflows can not sustain the turbulence in this region. Since the outflows are energetic enough to compensate the dissipating turbulence energy in the neighboring, more evolved star forming region NGC 1333, we suggest that the turbulence energy balance depends on the evolutionary state of the star formation in molecular clouds.
Probing the Earliest Stage of Protostellar Evolution -- Barnard 1-bN and Barnard 1-bS
Yun-Hsin Huang,Naomi Hirano
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/131
Abstract: Two submm/mm sources in the Barnard 1b (B1-b) core, B1-bN and B1-bS, have been observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT). The 1.1 mm continuum map obtained with the SMA reveals that the two sources contain spatially compact components, suggesting that they harbor protostars. The N2D+ and N2H+ J=3-2 maps were obtained by combining the SMA and SMT data. The N2D+ map clearly shows two peaks at the continuum positions. The N2H+ map also peaks at the continuum positions, but is more dominated by the spatially extended component. The N2D+/N2H+ ratio was estimated to be ~ 0.2 at the positions of both B1-bN and B1-bS. The derived N2D+/N2H+ ratio is comparable to those of the prestellar cores in the late evolutionary stage and the class 0 protostars in the early evolutionary stage. Although B1-bN is bright in N2H+ and N2D+, this source was barely seen in H13CO+. This implies that the depletion of carbon-bearing molecules is significant in B1-bN. The chemical property suggests that B1-bN is in the earlier evolutionary stage as compared to B1-bS with the H13CO+ counterpart. The N2H+ and N2D+ lines show that the radial velocities of the two sources are different by ~ 0.9 km s-1. However, the velocity pattern along the line through B1-bN and B1-bS suggests that these two sources were not formed out of a single rotating cloud. It is likely that the B1-b core consists of two velocity components, each of which harbors a very young source.
Interaction between the Outflow and the Core in IRAM 04191+1522
Shigehisa Takakuwa,Nagayoshi Ohashi,Naomi Hirano
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/375190
Abstract: We have carried out mapping observations of the molecular core associated with the young Class 0 protostar, IRAM 04191+1522, in the CH3OH (JK=2K-1K) and C34S (J=2-1) lines using the 45 m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. As well as an elongated envelope associated with the protostellar formation (size \~0.07 pc x 0.04 pc, mass ~ 2.3 Mo), two compact (~ 0.03 pc) condensations were found in the CH3OH line at the southern edge of the elongated envelope, where the blueshifted CO outflow emerging from the protostar is located. In contrast to the elongated envelope, those compact CH3OH condensations show much larger line width (up to 2.0 km s-1) with centroid velocities blueshifted by ~ 0.8 km s-1. The compact condensations have momenta (~ 0.06 Mo km s-1) comparable to that of the blueshifted molecular outflow. These results suggest that the compact condensations are probably formed in the course of interaction between the outflow and the ambient gas surrounding the protostar, and that such interaction may cause dissipation of a part of the ambient gas. No drastic, localized enhancement of the CH3OH abundance is, however, observed toward the compact condensations, implying that there seems to be no significant shock heating at the compact condensations. This may be because the CO outflow velocity (< 10 km s-1) is too low to cause effective heating to release CH3OH on dust grains into gas phase.
Two Extreme Young Objects in Barnard 1-b
Naomi Hirano,Fang-Chun Liu
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/789/1/50
Abstract: Two submm/mm sources in the Barnard 1b (B1-b) core, B1-bN and B1-bS, have been studied in dust continuum, H13CO+ J=1-0, CO J=2-1, 13CO J=2-1, and C18O J=2-1. The spectral energy distributions of these sources from the mid-IR to 7 mm are characterized by very cold temperatures of T_dust < 20 K and low bolometric luminosities of 0.15-0.31 L_sun. The internal luminosities of B1-bN and B1-bS are estimated to be <0.01-0.03 L_sun and ~0.1-0.2 L_sun, respectively. Millimeter interferometric observations have shown that these sources have already formed central compact objects of ~100 AU sizes. Both B1-bN and B1-bS are driving the CO outflows with low characteristic velocities of ~2-4 km/s. The fractional abundance of H13CO+ at the positions of B1-bN and B1-bS is lower than the canonical value by a factor of 4-8. This implies that significant fraction of CO is depleted onto dust grains in dense gas surrounding these sources. The observed physical and chemical properties suggest that B1-bN and B1-bS are in the earlier evolutionary stage than most of the known Class 0 protostars. Especially, the properties of B1-bN agree with those of the first hydrostatic core predicted by the MHD simulations. The CO outflow was also detected in the mid-IR source located at ~15" from B1-bS. Since the dust continuum emission was not detected in this source, the circumstellar material surrounding this source is less than 0.01 M_sun. It is likely that the envelope of this source was dissipated by the outflow from the protostar that is located to the southwest of B1-b.
Hydrodynamics and Flow
Hirano, Tetsufumi;van der Kolk, Naomi;Bilandzic, Ante
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008,
Abstract: In this lecture note, we present several topics on relativistic hydrodynamics and its application to relativistic heavy ion collisions. In the first part we give a brief introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics in the context of heavy ion collisions. In the second part we present the formalism and some fundamental aspects of relativistic ideal and viscous hydrodynamics. In the third part, we start with some basic checks of the fundamental observables followed by discussion of collective flow, in particular elliptic flow, which is one of the most exciting phenomenon in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies. Next we discuss how to formulate the hydrodynamic model to describe dynamics of heavy ion collisions. Finally, we conclude the third part of the lecture note by showing some results from ideal hydrodynamic calculations and by comparing them with the experimental data.
Hydrodynamics and Flow
Tetsufumi Hirano,Naomi van der Kolk,Ante Bilandzic
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-02286-9_4
Abstract: In this lecture note, we present several topics on relativistic hydrodynamics and its application to relativistic heavy ion collisions. In the first part we give a brief introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics in the context of heavy ion collisions. In the second part we present the formalism and some fundamental aspects of relativistic ideal and viscous hydrodynamics. In the third part, we start with some basic checks of the fundamental observables followed by discussion of collective flow, in particular elliptic flow, which is one of the most exciting phenomenon in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies. Next we discuss how to formulate the hydrodynamic model to describe dynamics of heavy ion collisions. Finally, we conclude the third part of the lecture note by showing some results from ideal hydrodynamic calculations and by comparing them with the experimental data.
The ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia in the L1157 outflow
Tomofumi Umemoto,Hitomi Mikami,Satoshi Yamamoto,Naomi Hirano
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/312337
Abstract: We have measured the ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia in the blueshifted gas of the L1157 outflow by observing the six metastable inversion lines from (J, K) = (1, 1) to (6, 6). The highly excited (5, 5) and (6, 6) lines were first detected in the low-mass star forming regions. The rotational temperature derived from the ratio of four transition lines from (3, 3) to (6, 6) is 130-140 K, suggesting that the blueshifted gas is heated by a factor of ~10 as compared to the quiescent gas. The ortho-to-para ratio of the NH3 molecules in the blueshifted gas is estimated to be 1.3--1.7, which is higher than the statistical equilibrium value. This ratio provides us with evidence that the NH3 molecules have been evaporated from dust grains with the formation temperature between 18 and 25 K. It is most likely that the NH3 molecules on dust grains have been released into the gas phase through the passage of strong shock waves produced by the outflow. Such a scenario is supported by the fact that the ammonia abundance in the blueshifted gas is enhanced by a factor of ~5 with respect to the dense quiescent gas.
SiO Emission in the Multi-Lobe Outflow associated with IRAS 16293-2422
Naomi Hirano,Hitomi Mikami,Tomofumi Umemoto,Satoshi Yamamoto,Yoshiaki Taniguchi
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/318432
Abstract: We have mapped the thermal emission line of SiO (v = 0; J = 2-1) associated with the quadrupolar molecular outflow driven by the very cold far-infrared source IRAS 16293-2422. The SiO emission is significantly enhanced in the northeastern red lobe and at the position ~50" east of the IRAS source. Strong SiO emission observed at ~50" east of the IRAS source presents evidence for a dynamical interaction between a part of the eastern blue lobe and the dense ambient gas condensation, however, such an interaction is unlikely to be responsible for producing the quadrupolar morphology. The SiO emission in the northeastern red lobe shows the spatial and velocity structure similar to those of the CO outflow, suggesting that the SiO emission comes from the molecular outflow in the northeastern red lobe itself. The observed velocity structure is reproduced by a simple spatio-kinematic model of bow shock with a shock velocity of 19-24 km/s inclined by 30-45 deg from the plane of the sky. This implies that the northeastern red lobe is independent of the eastern blue lobe and that the quadrupolar structure is due to two separate bipolar outflows. The SiO emission observed in the western red lobe has a broad pedestal shape with low intensity. Unlike the SiO emission in the northeastern red lobe, the spatial extent of the SiO emission in the western red lobe is restricted to its central region. The spatial and velocity structures and the line profiles suggest that three different types of the SiO emission are observed in this outflow; the SiO emission arises from the interface between the outflowing gas and the dense ambient gas clump, the SiO emission coming from the outflow lobe itself, and the broad SiO emission with low intensity observed at the central region of the outflow lobe.
Jet Motion, Internal Working Surfaces, and Nested Shells in the Protostellar System HH 212
Chin-Fei Lee,Naomi Hirano,Qizhou Zhang,Hsien Shang,Paul T. P. Ho,Yosuke Mizuno
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/805/2/186
Abstract: HH 212 is a nearby (400 pc) highly collimated protostellar jet powered by a Class 0 source in Orion. We have mapped the inner 80" (~ 0.16 pc) of the jet in SiO (J=8-7) and CO (J=3-2) simultaneously at ~ 0.5 resolution with the Atacama Millimeter/Submillimeter Array at unprecedented sensitivity. The jet consists of a chain of knots, bow shocks, and sinuous structures in between. As compared to that seen in our previous observations with the Submillimeter Array, it appears to be more continuous, especially in the northern part. Some of the knots are now seen associated with small bow shocks, with their bow wings curving back to the jet axis, as seen in pulsed jet simulations. Two of them are reasonably resolved, showing kinematics consistent with sideways ejection, possibly tracing the internal working surfaces formed by a temporal variation in the jet velocity. In addition, nested shells are seen in CO around the jet axis connecting to the knots and bow shocks, driven by them. The proper motion of the jet is estimated to be ~ 115+-50 km/s, comparing to our previous observations. The jet has a small semi-periodical wiggle, with a period of ~ 93 yrs. The amplitude of the wiggle first increases with the distance from the central source and then stays roughly constant. One possible origin of the wiggle could be the kink instability in a magnetized jet.
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