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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 892 matches for " Naomi Drexler "
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Secondary Mapping of Lymphatic Filariasis in Haiti-Definition of Transmission Foci in Low-Prevalence Settings
Naomi Drexler ,Charles H. Washington,Maribeth Lovegrove,Caroline Grady,Marie Denise Milord,Thomas Streit,Patrick Lammie
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001807
Abstract: To eliminate Lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that any area with infection prevalence greater than or equal to 1% (denoted by presence of microfilaremia or antigenemia) should receive mass drug administration (MDA) of antifilarial drugs for at least five consecutive rounds. Areas of low-antigen prevalence (<1%) are thought to pose little risk for continued transmission of LF. Five low-antigen prevalence communes in Haiti, characterized as part of a national survey, were further assessed for transmission in this study. An initial evaluation of schoolchildren was performed in each commune to identify antigen-positive children who served as index cases for subsequent community surveys conducted among households neighboring the index cases. Global positioning system (GPS) coordinates and immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for filarial antigenemia were collected on approximately 1,600 persons of all ages in the five communes. The relationship between antigen-positive cases in the community and distance from index cases was evaluated using multivariate regression techniques and analyses of spatial clustering. Community surveys demonstrated higher antigen prevalence in three of the five communes than was observed in the original mapping survey; autochthonous cases were found in the same three communes. Regression techniques identified a significantly increased likelihood of being antigen-positive when living within 20 meters of index cases when controlling for age, gender, and commune. Spatial clustering of antigen-positive cases was observed in some, but not all communes. Our results suggest that localized transmission was present even in low-prevalence settings and suggest that better surveillance methods may be needed to detect microfoci of LF transmission.
Outside the Cage: Exploring Everyday Interactions between Government Workers and Residents in a Place-Based Health Initiative  [PDF]
Naomi Sunderland
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.31008
Abstract: This paper presents an ethnographic case study of the daily lived experience of place by government health and community workers in a place-based chronic disease initiative (PBI) located in a disadvantaged peri-urban area in Australia. The case study focused on the place at which the PBI staff members interfaced with the community informally as opposed to the deliberate interactions described in the formal community engagement strategy. Subtle social phenomena, such as social positioning and the contrasting cultures of bureaucracy and community, generated outcomes that were the antithesis of those sought by the PBI. If these characteristics of place are not attended to during the development of PBIs, we risk recreating existing social divides and jeopardizing the potential of these initiatives to build community capacity. This case study provides an important conceptual-theoretical understanding of the place-based approach, which can augment existing empirical studies of place. The findings are also relevant for those who are exploring the physical co-location of diverse professional groups in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods. It also exposes the inherent complexity of place and the futility of poorly designed bureaucratic responses.


Psychological Preparation of Children for Surgery: Awareness Survey Targeting Medical Professionals  [PDF]
Naomi Matsumori
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.47059
Abstract:

The objective of this study was to conduct a nation-wide survey to investigate the state of: 1) the prevalence of psychological preparation of children undergoing surgery; and 2) the awareness of psychological preparation of children by medical professionals (physicians and nurses). We also aimed to identify the issues that need to be addressed next. A total of 178 physicians and 291 nurses working in hospitals where children undergo surgeries participated in this study. Anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey. Physicians and nurses in Japan are aware of the need to provide age-appropriate psychological preparation for children undergoing medical procedures. In current practice, however, our study revealed that surgical orientations are given solely to parents in the absence of the child in approximately 30% of cases. While approximately 60% of respondents felt that the uses of “children’s picture books and booklets” are good methods for delivering explanations to children, only about 20% of respondents were implementing psychological preparation specific to each age group, and half of the respondents were providing verbal explanations alone. Meanwhile, 77% responded that it is “time-consuming” and 48% said, “on the contrary, it may heighten their anxiety”. Also 34.3% said that they “do not know how to explain to a child” and 54.8% of these medical professionals worked in mixed wards. We observed a gap between ideal requirements and current practices. We found that it is essential to: 1) organize training sessions for knowledge acquisition; 2) consciously strive to be informed of the actual post-surgery conditions and outcomes of the children; and 3) acquire physical and financial support.

A Relativistic-Proton Dark Matter Would Be Evidence The Big Bang Probably Satisfied The Second Law Of Thermodynamics
Jerome Drexler
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: A new research hypothesis has been developed by the author based upon finding astronomically based `cosmic constituents` of the Universe that may be created or influenced by or have a special relationship with possible dark matter candidates. He then developed a list of 14 relevant and plausible `cosmic constituents` of the Universe, which then was used to establish a list of constraints regarding the nature and characteristics of the long-sought dark matter particles. A dark matter candidate was then found that best conformed to the 14 constraints established by the `cosmic constituents.` The author then used this same dark matter candidate to provide evidence that the Big Bang was relativistic, had a low entropy, and therefore probably satisfied the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
Finding a Spiritual Home: A Pilot Study on the Effects of a Spirituality Retreat and Loneliness among Urban Homeless Adults  [PDF]
Joseph R. Ferrari, Thomas Drexler, Jordan Skarr
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.63020
Abstract: Social agencies and services exist in urban settings for the physical needs of homeless citizens. However, there exist few if any programs that feed the spiritual needs of the homeless. In the present study, 35 women and 23 men (55.9% African-American) competed short, reliable and valid self-report measures on their levels of loneliness and addiction before and then again 6-month post a weekend religious retreat. Results indicate that over time, participants on the retreat reported significant decreases in loneliness. Women reported significantly higher rates of loneliness at baseline and again at 6-month follow-up, compared to men. It seems offering a group-based spiritual retreat may impact the lives of homeless.
Dietary γ-Aminobutyric Acid Shortens the Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  [PDF]
Nakamichi Watanabe, Naomi Washio
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.24043
Abstract: Dietary γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) has been suggested to decrease systolic blood pressure. This study aimed to ex-amine the effects of dietary GABA on the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSPs). In this study, life span was determined for SHRSPs provided 1% NaCl solution or 0.01% GABA in 1% NaCl solution as drinking water. The life span of the GABA-fed group (76.3 ± 1.65 days) was significantly shorter than that of the control group (81.6 ± 0.88 days). The results of this study may not be applicable to humans. Future studies will be necessary to elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon.
Empirical Analysis for High Quality Software Development  [PDF]
Naomi Honda, Shigeru Yamada
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2012.21004
Abstract: It remains important for a development organization to configure a software process that enables it to develop software products with the least possible number of defects after shipment. A development organization of CMMI level 5 has, over three years, been strived to improve those software projects that had been noted as having many defects after shipment. In this paper, we discuss our organization’s improvement (Kaizen) activities, to analyze the important matters of software process to be considered when developing a software product with the least possible number of defects after shipment. Our results are identified by three important points; 1) early ensured quality by defect detection during design or code review; 2) quality assurance for both process quality and product one; and 3) quantitative management by which data of the appropriate resolution can be collected at an appropriate timing.
Psychological preparation practices for children undergoing medical procedures in Japan and Germany  [PDF]
Naomi Matsumori, Michael Isfort
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.32038
Abstract:

The present study aimed to clarify the current status and awareness of psychological preparation for children undergoing medical procedures in pediatric nursing in Japan as compared with that in Germany. An original questionnaire about the current status and awareness of psychological preparation for children in hospitals was distributed by mail to nurses’ working on Japanese pediatric wards in 2010. The same questionnaire, translated into German, was distributed to nurses working on German pediatric wards via the internet in 2010. A large majority of respondents strongly agreed that children have a right to informed consent. German nurses expressed a longer-term viewpoint on the effects of preparation than Japanese nurses. Japanese nurses recognized a greater need for improvement in their duties than German nurses. The results suggest that we should consider our own country’s nursing practices and need for improvement, but also learn from studies of other countries to address each culture and medical situation appropriately.

Synergistic Apoptosis Induction in Leukemic Cells by the Phosphatase Inhibitor Salubrinal and Proteasome Inhibitors
Hannes C. A. Drexler
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004161
Abstract: Background Cells adapt to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress by arresting global protein synthesis while simultaneously activating specific transcription factors and their downstream targets. These processes are mediated in part by the phosphorylation-dependent inactivation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α. Following restoration of homeostasis protein synthesis is resumed when the serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1 dephosphorylates and reactivates eIF2α. Proteasome inhibitors, used to treat multiple myeloma patients evoke ER-stress and apoptosis by blocking the ER-associated degradation of misfolded proteins (ERAD), however, the role of eIF2α phosphorylation in leukemic cells under conditions of proteasome inhibitor-mediated ER stress is currently unclear. Methodology and Principal Findings Bcr-Abl-positive and negative leukemic cell lines were used to investigate the functional implications of PP1-related phosphatase activities on eIF2α phosphorylation in proteasome inhibitor-mediated ER stress and apoptosis. Rather unexpectedly, salubrinal, a recently identified PP1 inhibitor capable to protect against ER stress in various model systems, strongly synergized with proteasome inhibitors to augment apoptotic death of different leukemic cell lines. Salubrinal treatment did not affect the phosphorlyation status of eIF2α. Furthermore, the proapoptotic effect of salubrinal occurred independently from the chemical nature of the proteasome inhibitor, was recapitulated by a second unrelated phosphatase inhibitor and was unaffected by overexpression of a dominant negative eIF2α S51A variant that can not be phosphorylated. Salubrinal further aggravated ER-stress and proteotoxicity inflicted by the proteasome inhibitors on the leukemic cells since characteristic ER stress responses, such as ATF4 and CHOP synthesis, XBP1 splicing, activation of MAP kinases and eventually apoptosis were efficiently abrogated by the translational inhibitor cycloheximide. Conclusions Although PP1 activity does not play a major role in regulating the ER stress response in leukemic cells, phosphatase signaling nevertheless significantly limits proteasome inhibitor-mediated ER-stress and apoptosis. Inclusion of specific phosphatase inhibitors might therefore represent an option to improve current proteasome inhibitor-based treatment modalities for hematological cancers.
Utilization of Faraday Mirror in Fiber Optic Current Sensors
P. Drexler,P. Fiala
Radioengineering , 2008,
Abstract: Fiber optic sensors dispose of some advantages in the field of electrical current and magnetic field measurement, like large bandwidth, linearity, light transmission possibilities. Unfortunately, they suffer from some parasitic phenomena. The crucial issue is the presence of induced and latent linear birefringence, which is imposed by the fiber manufacture imperfections as well as mechanical stress by fiber bending. In order to the linear birefringence compensation a promising method was chosen for pulsed current sensor design. The method employs orthogonal polarization conjugation by the back direction propagation of the light wave in the fiber. The Jones calculus analysis presents its propriety. An experimental fiber optic current sensor has been designed and realized. The advantage of the proposed method was proved considering to the sensitivity improvement.
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