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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2214 matches for " Naoki Fujimoto-Adamson "
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Translanguaging in Self-Access Language Advising: Informing Language Policy
John Adamson,Naoki Fujimoto-Adamson
Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal , 2012,
Abstract: This study investigates language advising in a self-access center (SAC) with the purpose of informing language policy. This center is located in a new Japanese university and has shifted from an initially teacher-imposed ‘English-only’ language policy into one which encourages “translanguaging” (Blackledge & Creese, 2010, p. 105) between the students’ and center advisors’ (termed as mentors in this center) L1 (Japanese) and their L2 (English). Data from audio-recordings of interaction with advisors and students and between students themselves, interviews with mentors, and student questionnaires all reveal how translanguaging occurs in practice and how it helps to create a learning space in which the “local, pragmatic coping tactics” (Lin, 2005, p. 46) of code-switching offer a more viable approach for learning than under its initial monolingual policy. Mentor interviews and student questionnaires indicate generally positive attitudes towards translanguaging; however, some students still favor an ‘English-only’ policy. Conclusions reveal that a looser language policy in the center is emerging in which mentors now guide students towards their own individualized language policies. It is argued in this paper that this “code choice” (Levine, 2011) in language use is therefore aligned more closely to the principles of student-direction in self-access use.
Co-constructing Understanding of Self Access through Conversational Narrative
John Adamson,Howard Brown,Naoki Fujimoto-Adamson
Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal , 2010,
Abstract: This study has shown how stakeholders of a new Self Access Learning Center (SALC) co-construct views about the center’s development though conversational narratives. Conversational narratives are a means in this study to provide important insights into SALC’s growth and also represent sites of valuable social practice to strengthen collegiality among its participants. This dialogic process illustrates a diversity of perspectives which have emerged over the first year in its growth, and which inform the center’s management on metaphors of self access, language policy, its integration with university curricula, and how it and its staff are positioned in the organization. As part of a larger ethnographic study into the center, these unscripted, free-form dialogues are valued because they mirror the flat hierarchical structure which the center aims to support in its community of practice to legitimize its participants’ voices.
The Effects of Molecular Crowding on the Structure and Stability of G-Quadruplexes with an Abasic Site
Takeshi Fujimoto,Shu-ichi Nakano,Daisuke Miyoshi,Naoki Sugimoto
Journal of Nucleic Acids , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/857149
Abstract: Both cellular environmental factors and chemical modifications critically affect the properties of nucleic acids. However, the structure and stability of DNA containing abasic sites under cell-mimicking molecular crowding conditions remain unclear. Here, we investigated the molecular crowding effects on the structure and stability of the G-quadruplexes including a single abasic site. Structural analysis by circular dichroism showed that molecular crowding by PEG200 did not affect the topology of the G-quadruplex structure with or without an abasic site. Thermodynamic analysis further demonstrated that the degree of stabilization of the G-quadruplex by molecular crowding decreased with substitution of an abasic site for a single guanine. Notably, we found that the molecular crowding effects on the enthalpy change for G-quadruplex formation had a linear relationship with the abasic site effects depending on its position. These results are useful for predicting the structure and stability of G-quadruplexes with abasic sites in the cell-mimicking conditions. 1. Introduction Biomolecules have evolved to function within living cells, which contain a variety of macromolecules including nucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides, and metabolites. These molecules make the intracellular environment extremely crowded; 20–40% of the total volume is physically occupied by biomolecules [1–5]. It has been reported that molecular crowding is a critical factor determining the structure, stability and function of proteins and nucleic acids [6–18]. Because of this importance, molecular crowding effects on the structure and stability of DNA duplexes, triplexes, G-quadruplexes, and other structures have been studied [9–18]. These studies have demonstrated that the molecular crowding effects depend on the patterns of base-base hydrogen bonding in the nucleic acid structure. The stability of DNA duplexes and triplexes comprised of Watson-Crick base pairs decreases by molecular crowding [11–13]. In contrast, molecular crowding stabilizes DNA triplexes and quadruplexes formed by Hoogsteen base pairs [13, 14, 17]. These results suggest that the formation of noncanonical DNA structures such as triplexes and quadruplexes is induced under the molecular crowding conditions. In addition, a recent study has shown that the RNA cleavage activity of a ribozyme composed of noncanonical base-pairs and tertiary interactions was enhanced by molecular crowding [18]. These results indicate that noncanonical structures of nucleic acids can be stabilized by molecular crowding, leading to a
In vitro substrate phosphorylation by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase using guanosine-5′-triphosphate as a phosphate donor
Yurimoto Saki,Fujimoto Tomohito,Magari Masaki,Kanayama Naoki
BMC Biochemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2091-13-27
Abstract: Background Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) phosphorylates and activates particular downstream protein kinases — including CaMKI, CaMKIV, and AMPK— to stimulate multiple Ca2+-signal transduction pathways. To identify previously unidentified CaMKK substrates, we used various nucleotides as phosphate donors to develop and characterize an in vitro phosphorylation assay for CaMKK. Results Here, we found that the recombinant CaMKK isoforms were capable of utilizing Mg-GTP as a phosphate donor to phosphorylate the Thr residue in the activation-loop of CaMKIα (Thr177) and of AMPK (Thr172) in vitro. Kinetic analysis indicated that the Km values of CaMKK isoforms for GTP (400-500 μM) were significantly higher than those for ATP (~15 μM), and a 2- to 4-fold decrease in Vmax was observed with GTP. We also confirmed that an ATP competitive CaMKK inhibitor, STO-609, also competes with GTP to inhibit the activities of CaMKK isoforms. In addition, to detect enhanced CaMKI phosphorylation in brain extracts with Mg-GTP and recombinant CaMKKs, we found potential CaMKK substrates of ~45 kDa and ~35 kDa whose Ca2+/CaM-induced phosphorylation was inhibited by STO-609. Conclusions These results indicated that screens that use STO-609 as a CaMKK inhibitor and Mg-GTP as a CaMKK-dependent phosphate donor might be useful to identify previously unidentified downstream target substrates of CaMKK.
Prothoracicotropic Hormone Acts as a Neuroendocrine Switch between Pupal Diapause and Adult Development
Akira Mizoguchi, Shintaro Ohsumi, Katuji Kobayashi, Naoki Okamoto, Nobuto Yamada, Ken Tateishi, Yoshinori Fujimoto, Hiroshi Kataoka
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060824
Abstract: Diapause is a programmed developmental arrest that has evolved in a wide variety of organisms and allows them survive unfavorable seasons. This developmental state is particularly common in insects. Based on circumstantial evidence, pupal diapause has been hypothesized to result from a cessation of prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) secretion from the brain. Here, we provide direct evidence for this classical hypothesis by determining both the PTTH titer in the hemolymph and the PTTH content in the brain of diapause pupae in the cabbage army moth Mamestra brassicae. For this purpose, we cloned the PTTH gene, produced PTTH-specific antibodies, and developed a highly sensitive immunoassay for PTTH. While the hemolymph PTTH titer in non-diapause pupae was maintained at high levels after pupation, the titer in diapause pupae dropped to an undetectable level. In contrast, the PTTH content of the post-pupation brain was higher in diapause animals than in non-diapause animals. These results clearly demonstrate that diapause pupae have sufficient PTTH in their brain, but they do not release it into the hemolymph. Injecting PTTH into diapause pupae immediately after pupation induced adult development, showing that a lack of PTTH is a necessary and sufficient condition for inducing pupal diapause. Most interestingly, in diapause-destined larvae, lower hemolymph titers of PTTH and reduced PTTH gene expression were observed for 4 and 2 days, respectively, prior to pupation. This discovery demonstrates that the diapause program is already manifested in the PTTH neurons as early as the mid final instar stage.
Reduced Level of the BCL11B Protein Is Associated with Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma
Nobuyuki Kurosawa, Rika Fujimoto, Tatsuhiko Ozawa, Takahiro Itoyama, Naoki Sadamori, Masaharu Isobe
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055147
Abstract: Background Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) develops in a small proportion of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected individuals. However, the mechanism by which HTLV-I causes ATLL has not been fully elucidated. To provide fundamental insights into the multistep process of leukemogenesis, we have mapped the chromosomal abnormalities in 50 ATLL cases to identify potential key regulators of ATLL. Results The analysis of breakpoints in one ATLL case with the translocations t(14;17)(q32;q22-23) resulted in the identification of a Kruppel zinc finger gene, BCL11B, which plays a crucial role in T-cell development. Among the 7 ATLL cases that we examined by immunofluorescence analysis, 4 displayed low and one displayed moderate BCL11B signal intensities. A dramatically reduced level of the BCL11B protein was also found in HTLV-I-positive T-cell lines. The ectopic expression of BCL11B resulted in significant growth suppression in ATLL-derived cell lines but not in Jurkat cells. Conclusions Our genetic and functional data provide the first evidence that a reduction in the level of the BCL11B protein is a key event in the multistep progression of ATLL leukemogenesis.
Identification of N-acetylglucosaminyltranferase-IV as a modifier of Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 activity  [PDF]
Amy L. Adamson
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2013.31001
Abstract:

Epstein-Barr virus is a prevalent human herpesvirus, with about 95% of the world’s adult population positive for anti-EBV antigen antibodies. After the initial infection and production of new virus particles, the virus may enter a latent state within a subset of cells, and therefore can remain within the host indefinitely. Epstein-Barr virus contributes to a variety of diseases, including many types of cancers. We have created a model system in Drosophila melanogaster to study the effect of expression of the Epstein-Barr virus protein BZLF1, and to identify cellular proteins that mediate BZLF1 activity. Here we present the results of a genetic screen that determined that the Drosophila melanogaster CG9384 gene (an N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase) is a significant modulator of BZLF1 activity and EBV early lytic replication.

Time Variability of the Geocoronal Solar Wind Charge Exchange in the Direction of the Celestial Equator
Yuichiro Ezoe,Ken Ebisawa,Noriko Y. Yamasaki,Kazuhisa Mitsuda,Hiroshi Yoshitake,Naoki Terada,Yoshizumi Miyoshi,Ryuichi Fujimoto
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We report the detection of a time variable OVII line emission in a deep 100 ks Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometer spectrum of the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission. The observed line intensity is too strong (11+/-2 line unit or photon cm^-2 s^-1 str^-1) to be emitted inside the heavily obscured Galactic disk. It showed a factor of two time variation which shows a significant (~4 sigma) correlation with the solar wind O^7+ ion flux. The high line intensity and the good time correlation with the solar wind strongly suggests that it originated from geocoronal solar wind charge exchange emission. We discuss the X-ray line intensity considering a line of sight direction and also theoretical distribution models of the neutral hydrogen and solar wind around the Earth. Our results indicate that X-ray observationsof geocoronal solar wind charge exchange emission can be used to constrain these models.
Treatment for Depression with Chronic Neck Pain Completely Cured in 94.2% of Patients Following Neck Muscle Treatment  [PDF]
Takayoshi Matsui, Toshiro Fujimoto
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.22011
Abstract: We report three patients with cervical neuromuscular syndrome (CNMS) who followed similar courses. Autonomic imbalance may occur following neck muscle pain, and a wide variety of somatic symptoms including headache and vertigo appear and a generalized poor condition may continue for long periods. If many such somatic symptoms persist for months to years, symptoms of depression are exacerbated. The patients end up in psychiatric clinics, where they are diagnosed with depression, but they do not respond to antidepressants. Thus, they continue to suffer for many years. These patients eventually were completely cured with the resolution of neck pain by neck muscle treatment, using two types of special low-frequency therapy equipment, far-infrared radiation and acupuncture. When treatment for the neck muscles is initiated, symptoms of depression are quickly relieved, and diverse somatic symptoms disappear one after another as neck muscle tension is gradually alleviated (the number of abnormal neck muscle checkpoints decreases). Such a course suggests that neck muscle tension and chronic pain are closely related to depression. Neck muscle-related depression due to CNMS clearly differs from psychiatric conditions such as major and bipolar depression. In patients with neck muscle-related depression, symptoms of depression are not accompanied by ungrounded anxiety, a sense of emptiness, apathy, or self-rejection. Neck muscle abnormalities leading to CNMS are caused by head injury, whiplash injury, and a prolonged forward-bent-posture due to using a personal computer, playing computer games, texting, and engaging in machine-paced work such as assembly-line operation.
Non-invasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis by tissue strain imaging in chronic hepatitis C patients  [PDF]
Naoki Hotta
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.68A2003
Abstract: The development of fibrosis in hepatitis C patients is associated with increased rates of liver cancer. Assessing hepatic fibrosis during interferon treatment for chronic hepatitis C is thus an important factor in treatment planning. Complications such as bleeding may occur in association with liver biopsy and there are also some reports of sampling error [1,2]. In recent years, however, a number of studies looking at noninvasive means of assessing hepatic fibrosis have appeared in the literature [3-5]. The present study was conducted to determine whether it would be possible to apply an easily performed technique of myocardial examination to hepatic fibrosis. We have already documented our findings for strain rate imaging used to differentiate the normal condition, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver identified by diagnostic imaging and haematology data [6]. In this study, patients identified by liver biopsy were investigated, and a comparative investigation with several fibrosis markers was carried out.
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