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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1880 matches for " Nao Aoki "
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Hemophagocytic Syndrome Associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia
Yuji Koike,Nao Aoki
Case Reports in Pediatrics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/586705
Abstract: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) sometimes causes immunological complications in children. We present a rare case of hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) caused by Mp in a previously healthy 7-year-old Japanese girl. A chest radiograph obtained to evaluate the source of her fever showed infiltration in the lower right lung with mild splenomegaly. We could diagnose the patient with HPS on the basis of the hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis- (HLH) 2004 criteria. She met the criteria for fever, splenomegaly, neutrophil count (<1,000/μL), platelet count (<10.0?×?104/μL), fasting triglyceride level (>265?mg/dL), and ferritin level (>500?ng/mL). Furthermore, a peripheral blood smear showed an increased number of monocytes/macrophages with erythrophagocytosis. Treatment with clarithromycin and prednisolone, which was initiated soon after the diagnosis, was successful. Mp infection might partly progress to HPS in certain conditions. Clinicians should be aware of HPS caused by Mp and start appropriate treatment as soon as possible if the disease is suspected. 1. Introduction Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is well known to cause upper and lower respiratory tracts infections, including pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Mp also causes immunological complications in children, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Kawasaki disease [1], aseptic meningitis, and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). HPS is characterized by abnormal activation of monocytes/macrophages and consequently overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines [2, 3]. Among various types of HPS, secondary HPS is often associated with infections such as virus, bacteria, fungi, and parasites [4]. However, Mp rarely causes secondary HPS, and there have so far been few reports concerning HPS due to Mp [5, 6]. We herein report a 7-year-old girl who was diagnosed as having HPS associated with Mp pneumonia, and we successfully treated her with an appropriate antibiotic along with corticosteroid soon after the diagnosis. 2. Case Presentation A previously healthy 7-year-old Japanese girl presented to her physician with three-day history of fever, cough, and malaise and was referred to our outpatient clinic by the physician for evaluation of fever and leukocytopenia. Physical examinations revealed mild hepatosplenomegaly, however, no lymphadenopathy nor skin rash. Chest auscultation revealed also normal breath sounds. A chest radiograph obtained to evaluate the source of her fever showed infiltration in the lower right lung with mild splenomegaly (Figure 1). Laboratory findings were as follows: white blood
Candida albicans Possesses Sap7 as a Pepstatin A-Insensitive Secreted Aspartic Protease
Wataru Aoki, Nao Kitahara, Natsuko Miura, Hironobu Morisaka, Yoshihiro Yamamoto, Kouichi Kuroda, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032513
Abstract: Background Candida albicans, a commensal organism, is a part of the normal flora of healthy individuals. However, once the host immunity is compromised, C. albicans opportunistically causes recurrent superficial or fatal systemic candidiasis. Secreted aspartic proteases (Sap), encoded by 10 types of SAP genes, have been suggested to contribute to various virulence processes. Thus, it is important to elucidate their biochemical properties for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that how Sap isozymes damage host tissues. Methodology/Principal Findings The SAP7 gene was cloned from C. albicans SC5314 and heterogeneously produced by Pichia pastoris. Measurement of Sap7 proteolytic activity using the FRETS-25Ala library showed that Sap7 was a pepstatin A-insensitive protease. To understand why Sap7 was insensitive to pepstatin A, alanine substitution mutants of Sap7 were constructed. We found that M242A and T467A mutants had normal proteolytic activity and sensitivity to pepstatin A. M242 and T467 were located in close proximity to the entrance to an active site, and alanine substitution at these positions widened the entrance. Our results suggest that this alteration might allow increased accessibility of pepstatin A to the active site. This inference was supported by the observation that the T467A mutant has stronger proteolytic activity than the wild type. Conclusions/Significance We found that Sap7 was a pepstatin A-insensitive protease, and that M242 and T467 restricted the accessibility of pepstatin A to the active site. This finding will lead to the development of a novel protease inhibitor beyond pepstatin A. Such a novel inhibitor will be an important research tool as well as pharmaceutical agent for patients suffering from candidiasis.
Numerical Simulation of Interaction between Supersonic Flow and Backward Inclined Jets Surrounded by Porous Cavity  [PDF]
Nao Kuniyoshi, Minoru Yaga
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2017.73018
Abstract: As one of supersonic mixing techniques, a supersonic mixing technique using a cavity and a porous wall has been proposed. The cavity and the porous wall generate the low speed region in the cavity, which enhances mixing the main flow with the jets. In this study, numerical simulations were conducted to clarify the effects of backward inclined jets on the mixing technique using a porous wall and a cavity. In the numerical simulations, three patterns of jet injections which combined normal jets with backward inclined jets were studied. As a result, the combination of a backward inclined jet and a normal jet generates the suction flow behind the backward inclined jet, which is useful for making the injected jets flow into the cavity. In addition, the introduction of backward inclined jets reduces the total pressure loss. On the other hand, the mass flow rate through the porous holes decreases with increase in the number of the backward inclined jets.
Intermittent pneumatic compression for prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism after gynecologic surgery
Nao Suzuki, Fumio Kataoka, Atsushi Higashiguchi, Takeshi Hirao, Sachiko Ezawa, Hiroyuki Nomura, Akiyo Tomita, Nobuyuki Susumu, Daisuke Aoki
Thrombosis Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-9560-3-18
Abstract: A total of 6,218 patients operated at Keio University Hospital excluding obstetric or infertility-related surgery and uterine cervical conization were evaluated retrospectively to determine the preventive effect of intermittent pneumatic compression on postoperative pulmonary embolism.Pulmonary embolism occurred in 42 patients (0.68%). Multivariate analysis showed that malignancy, blood transfusion, and a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 or ≥28 kg/m2 were independent risk factors for postoperative pulmonary embolism. A significantly lower incidence of pulmonary embolism occurred in patients receiving pneumatic compression postoperatively versus those without it. Among gynecologic malignancies, endometrial cancer was a significant risk factor for pulmonary embolism.Preventive measures, including intermittent pneumatic compression, should be taken to avoid postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism in the gynecology field.Previously, postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) did not attract much attention in Japan because its incidence was lower than in the USA and Europe [1]. However, an increasing number of patients have recently been diagnosed with VTE in Japan along with improved detection thanks to progress in imaging technologies and increasing medical interest in VTE. VTE is associated with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), which causes death in nearly 50% of patients if untreated and which appears to be caused by embolism arising from deep venous thrombosis. According to the statistics compiled by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, the number of deaths due to PTE increased more than 10-fold from 1951 to 2000 [2]. However, a recent report estimated the annual number of PTE patients in Japan at 3,492, which is approximately 1/25 of the number in the USA [3]. Prevention of VTE has been studied intensively in the USA and Europe since the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) Consensus Conference was held in 1985. Development of guidelines for the prev
Simple rules for establishment of effective marine protected areas in the age-structured metapopulation dynamics
Nao Takashina
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: The implementation of effective no-take marine reserves or marine protected areas (MPAs) is a central goal of modern fisheries science. Accordingly, a number of studies have been conducted to understand broad rules for the creation of MPAs and have tested the effects of marine reserves for specific regions of interest. However, there still exist many challenges for implementing effective MPAs. Deducing theoretical conditions guaranteeing that the introduction of MPAs will increase fishing yields in age-structured population dynamics is one such challenge. To derive such conditions, a simple mathematical model is developed that follows the metapopulation dynamics of a sedentary species. The obtained results suggest that moderate recruitment success of an individual's eggs is a necessary condition for an MPA plan to increase biomass yields. Furthermore, numerical simulations of the optimal fishing regime with MPAs aiming at maximizing the fishing yields suggest that biomass yields decrease with the fraction of the MPAs. The optimal fishing mortality rate suddenly jumps to a very high value, leading to a sudden decline in the population biomass, to a lower level than in a fishing regime with a constant fishing mortality rate. The decline in the population biomass is never observed in the fishing regime with a constant fishing mortality.
Hypothesis of Conservation of Particle Number  [PDF]
Kozo Aoki
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2011.11001
Abstract: As for several nuclear reactions, the electroweak interaction is simply explained by a law of conservation of particle number. We find that the positron and electron consist of the three fundamental particles, and , respectively. Furthermore, the members of the second and third generations quark composites consist of the first generation quark and the neutrino of fundamental particles. The particle and its anti- particle pair(or neutrino and its antineutrino pair) have to be an energy quantum (or a photon). The minimum Higgs boson (called “God particle”) might be a neutral pion. The fundamental particles are simply up and down quark, neutrino, muon-neutrino, and those anti-particles.
Second Thoughts about the τ-θ Puzzle  [PDF]
Kozo Aoki
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2012.23006
Abstract: The new parity value of π0 was determined according to the hypothesis of conservation of particle number. The theo-retical pentaquark proton’s parity value was also determined, and it was found that the conservation of parity is account nicely for the τ-θ puzzle.
Til Divorce Do Us Part: Divorce, Sex, and State of Residence among Hmong Americans
Nao Xiong,Ger Xiong
Hmong Studies Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Data from the American Community Survey (ACS) 2008-2010 were used to analyze the relationship between current marital status (divorced versus married) and sex, and to examine how this relationship varies for the Hmong across states. Women, when adjusted for age groupand state of residence, were not significantly more likely than men to report that they were divorced. Those in Minnesota were almost two times more likely than those in California to report being divorced even after controlling for sex and age group. There was no significantdifference in divorce reporting between Wisconsin and California Hmong. The findings suggest that divorced Hmong women, like divorced women in the United States in general, tend to remain unmarried for a longer period of time than their men counterparts.
A review of Tsudayusurika Sasa, 1985 (Diptera: Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae), with the description of a new species
Masaru Yamamoto,Nao Yamamoto
Fauna Norvegica , 2012, DOI: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1401
Abstract: Tsudayusurika Sasa, 1985 is reviewed based on material from Taiwan and Japan. This orthocladiine genus is characterized by having a female antenna with 10 flagellomeres and large and rhombic cerci. The male antenna has 13 flagellomeres and the anal point is transparent, short and prominently wide. Tsudayusurika fudosecunda Sasa, the type species of the genus, and T. multiannulata (Tokunaga) are redescribed. A new species, T. suginoi, from Okinawa Island is described and figured as male and female. Kuroyonyusurika Sasa, 1996 is presented as a new junior synonym of Tsudayusurika and the type species K. kuroheius is transferred to this genus and redescribed. Tsudayusurika cladochaita Wang and T. yufunivea (Sasa et Suzuki) are removed from Tsudayusurika and tentatively placed in Bryophaenocladius. doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1401. Published online: 17 October 2012.
A rigorous setting for the reinitialization of first order level set equations
Nao Hamamuki,Eleftherios Ntovoris
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper we set up a rigorous justification for the reinitialization algorithm. Using the theory of viscosity solutions, we propose a well-posed Hamilton-Jacobi equation with a parameter, which is derived from homogenization for a Hamiltonian discontinuous in time which appears in the reinitialization. We prove that, as the parameter tends to infinity, the solution of the initial value problem converges to a signed distance function to the evolving interfaces. A locally uniform convergence is shown when the distance function is continuous, whereas a weaker notion of convergence is introduced to establish a convergence result to a possibly discontinuous distance function. In terms of the geometry of the interfaces, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for the continuity of the distance function. We also propose another simpler equation whose solution has a gradient bound away from zero.
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