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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 348830 matches for " Nancy S. Lee "
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Towards Universal Screening for Colon Cancer: A Cheap, Reliable, Noninvasive Test Using Gene Expression Analysis of Rectal Swabs
Andrew P. Smith,Yanek S. Y. Chiu,Nancy M. Lee
ISRN Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/170210
Abstract:
Towards Universal Screening for Colon Cancer: A Cheap, Reliable, Noninvasive Test Using Gene Expression Analysis of Rectal Swabs
Andrew P. Smith,Yanek S. Y. Chiu,Nancy M. Lee
ISRN Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/170210
Abstract: Though colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the US, it is entirely preventable through early screening to detect and remove adenomatous polyps. Colonoscopy has long been regarded as the “gold standard” but is expensive, invasive, and uncomfortable, and only about half those considered at risk for colon cancer currently submit to colonoscopy or to less reliable alternatives such as fecal occult blood test. Here we describe the use of gene expression analysis to detect altered expression of certain genes associated with not only colon cancer but also polyps. The analysis can be performed on rectal swabs, with specimens provided in a routine doctor's office visit. The existence of this cheap and simple test, together with an active program to encourage individuals to submit to screening, could help eradicate colon cancer. 1. Introduction Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the US and continues to be the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Each year, about 150,000 new cases will be diagnosed and 50,000 patients will die of this disease. These data have not changed much despite increased efforts over the last decade to persuade individuals at risk to undergo screening. In the US, colonoscopy remains the so-called gold standard, because it can detect not only early colorectal cancer but also significant precancerous polyps such as the serrated adenomas or the villotubular adenomas, which can be removed by the same procedure. In principle, then, colon cancer is entirely preventable. Colonoscopy is expensive and invasive, however, and requires a colon preparation prior to surgery. Individuals without health insurance, and of lower socioeconomic status, are less likely to have a colonoscopy. Some of these individuals opt for other recommended screening procedures, including combination of fecal occult test for blood in the stool annually or flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years. These tests are also more common in many countries outside the US, due to financial limitations. Lately, with the US in recession and major cutbacks proposed on health care expenditures, even expert gastroenterologists have suggested that perhaps colonoscopy should not be the gold standard for colon cancer screening [1]. In any case, currently only about 55% of recommended individuals, including all individuals over 50 years old, are screened by any procedure. In February of 2010, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) organized a Consensus Conference, bringing together with a public representative a group of experts representing the fields of
The Inhibition of Anti-DNA Binding to DNA by Nucleic Acid Binding Polymers
Nancy A. Stearns, Jaewoo Lee, Kam W. Leong, Bruce A. Sullenger, David S. Pisetsky
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040862
Abstract: Antibodies to DNA (anti-DNA) are the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and can mediate disease pathogenesis by the formation of immune complexes. Since blocking immune complex formation can attenuate disease manifestations, the effects of nucleic acid binding polymers (NABPs) on anti-DNA binding in vitro were investigated. The compounds tested included polyamidoamine dendrimer, 1,4-diaminobutane core, generation 3.0 (PAMAM-G3), hexadimethrine bromide, and a β-cylodextrin-containing polycation. As shown with plasma from patients with SLE, NABPs can inhibit anti-DNA antibody binding in ELISA assays. The inhibition was specific since the NABPs did not affect binding to tetanus toxoid or the Sm protein, another lupus autoantigen. Furthermore, the polymers could displace antibody from preformed complexes. Together, these results indicate that NABPs can inhibit the formation of immune complexes and may represent a new approach to treatment.
Differences in reproductive risk factors for breast cancer in middle-aged women in Marin County, California and a sociodemographically similar area of Northern California
C Suzanne Lea, Nancy P Gordon, Lee Prebil, Rochelle Ereman, Connie S Uratsu, Mark Powell
BMC Women's Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-9-6
Abstract: A random sample of 1500 middle-aged female members of a large Northern California health plan, half from Marin County (MC) and half from a comparison area in East/Central Contra Costa County (ECCC), were mailed a survey covering family history, reproductive history, use of oral contraceptives (OC) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), behavioral health risks, recency of breast screening, and demographic characteristics. Weighted data were used to compare prevalence of individual breast cancer risk factors and Gail scores. Age-adjusted cumulative breast cancer incidence rates (2000–2004) were also calculated for female health plan members aged 40–64 residing in the two geographic areas.Survey response was 57.1% (n = 427) and 47.9% (n = 359) for MC and ECCC samples, respectively. Women in the two areas were similar in SES, race, obesity, exercise frequency, current smoking, ever use of OCs and HRT, age at onset of menarche, high mammography rates, family history of breast cancer, and Gail scores. However, MC women were significantly more likely than ECCC women to be former smokers (43.6% vs. 31.2%), have Ashkenazi Jewish heritage (12.8% vs. 7.1%), have no live births before age 30 (52.7% vs. 40.8%), and be nulliparous (29.2% vs. 15.4%), and less likely to never or rarely consume alcohol (34.4% vs. 41.9%). MC and ECCC women had comparable 2000–2004 invasive breast cancer incidence rates.The effects of reproductive risks factors, Ashkenazi Jewish heritage, smoking history, and alcohol consumption with regard to breast cancer risk in Marin County should be further evaluated. When possible, future comparisons of breast cancer incidence rates between regions should adjust for differences in income and education in addition to age and race/ethnicity, preferably by using a sociodemographically similar comparison group.The San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) has some of the highest breast cancer incidence rates in the United States [1]. Marin County, California, which lies north a
Relationship of mild fatty liver, β-carotene, vitamins a and e status of periparturient Holstein cows
Rosendo,Oswaldo; McDowell,Lee R; Staples,Charles; Shearer,Jean K; Wilkinson,Nancy S; Seymour,William M;
Revista Científica , 2010,
Abstract: the objectives of this study were to determine the association between mild fatty liver and β-carotene (bc), retinol (rol), and a-tocopherol (at) status. multiparous holstein cows were defined as having mild fatty liver using a threshold of 2% liver triacylglycerol (tag, wet basis) at day (d) 2 after calving. cows with mild fatty liver decreased dry matter intake (dmi) as a % of body weight (bw) from calving to 5th week (wk) of lactation (3.47 vs. 3.99, p = 0.02) and increased plasma nonesterified fatty acids (nefa) concentration (345.0 vs. 266.0 μeq/dl, p = 0.10) as compared to normal cows. fatty liver tended to lower plasma rol (0.20 vs. 0.23 μg/ml, p = 0.10), but had no effect on plasma bc, plasma at, liver bc, and liver rol (p > 0.12) concentrations. however, depression in liver bc at calving was very small (8.0 vs. 68.0%) for fatty liver than for normal cows. liver at concentrations were greater (5.5 vs. 4.0 μg/g, p = 0.06) for cows with more than 2% liver tag concentration. concentration of plasma nefa was positively correlated with plasma bc concentrations (r = 0.18, p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with concentrations of plasma rol (r = -0.36, p < 0.0001) or at (r = -0.35, p < 0.0001). a positive direct relationship between dmi and plasma vitamins status was found to exist only for rol and at, which suggests that stores of rol or at are less labile than stores for bc. at different times from calving, liver bc concentrations were positively correlated with liver tag concentrations in a consistent manner but, correlations among liver rol or liver at concentrations and liver tag concentrations were nonsignificants. the results suggest that the regulatory role of the liver in maintaining retinol concentrations in plasma may be compromise in cows with fatty liver.
Barium Selenate Supplementation of a Crossbred Cattle Herd in Puerto Rico
Rafael Ramos Santana,Lee R. McDowell,Francisco Javier Fuentes,Benjamin Rivera,Nancy S. Wilkinson
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Crossbred beef cows (30) were split into two groups, with half receiving injectable selenium and half serving as the control. The injectable selenium was Deposel multidose. This is a slow realease barium selenate product. Blood was collected four times during the year, with cows receiving the Deposel having higher (P<0.01) serum selenium. Animals receiving the selenium also had higher (P<0.01) liver selenium than controls. Calves from cows receiving the injectable selenium also had higher (P<0.01) serum selenium than controls. During the one year trial barium selenate was effective for elevating selenium status of cattle.
Distinct SUMO Ligases Cooperate with Esc2 and Slx5 to Suppress Duplication-Mediated Genome Rearrangements
Claudio P. Albuquerque,Guoliang Wang,Nancy S. Lee,Richard D. Kolodner,Christopher D. Putnam,Huilin Zhou
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003670
Abstract: Suppression of duplication-mediated gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs) is essential to maintain genome integrity in eukaryotes. Here we report that SUMO ligase Mms21 has a strong role in suppressing GCRs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while Siz1 and Siz2 have weaker and partially redundant roles. Understanding the functions of these enzymes has been hampered by a paucity of knowledge of their substrate specificity in vivo. Using a new quantitative SUMO-proteomics technology, we found that Siz1 and Siz2 redundantly control the abundances of most sumoylated substrates, while Mms21 more specifically regulates sumoylation of RNA polymerase-I and the SMC-family proteins. Interestingly, Esc2, a SUMO-like domain-containing protein, specifically promotes the accumulation of sumoylated Mms21-specific substrates and functions with Mms21 to suppress GCRs. On the other hand, the Slx5-Slx8 complex, a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase, suppresses the accumulation of sumoylated Mms21-specific substrates. Thus, distinct SUMO ligases work in concert with Esc2 and Slx5-Slx8 to control substrate specificity and sumoylation homeostasis to prevent GCRs.
A neuropsychological evaluation of orthorexia nervosa  [PDF]
Nancy S. Koven, Rina Senbonmatsu
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.32019
Abstract:

Orthorexia nervosa (ON) describes a fixation for proper nutrition and healthy foods that leads to die-tary restrictions and nutritional deficiencies over time. Given symptom overlap among ON, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and anorexia nervosa (AN), this study examines whether ON has a unique neuropsychological profile. Participants completed symptom checklists and neuropsychological tests chosen for their sensitivity to AN and OCD. Results showed that, across the full sample, ON is independently associated with self-reported weaknesses in Set-Shifting, Emotional Control, Self-Monitoring, and Working Memory. After controlling for AN and OCD variables, high- and low-ON groups differed in total correct trials on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. These areas of executive functioning, which are explained in the context of ON symptomatology, represent what would be considered the neuropsychological overlap among OCD and AN profiles.


The Influence of Delsarte’s Work in the United States: Late 19th Century and Beyond
Nancy Lee Chalfa Ruyter
Revista Brasileira de Estudos da Presen?a , 2012,
Abstract: This paper discusses the influence of Fran ois Delsarte on bodily motion, theater, and elocution in the United States from the late nineteenth century. It presents his main ideas and how they were developed and transformed in the country since 1870, becoming, in their last phase, which began in the 1880s, a theory that was applied to all aspects of life, independent from its European form. The contributions of Steele Mackaye, Genevieve Stebbins, Henrietta Hovey and others are mentioned.
Prospective Transcriptomic Pathway Analysis of Human Lymphatic Vascular Insufficiency: Identification and Validation of a Circulating Biomarker Panel
Shin Lin, Jeanna Kim, Mi-Joung Lee, Leslie Roche, Nancy L. Yang, Philip S. Tsao, Stanley G. Rockson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052021
Abstract: Background In our previous transcriptional profiling of a murine model, we have identified a remarkably small number of specific pathways with altered expression in lymphedema. In this investigation, we utilized microarray-based transcriptomics of human skin for an unbiased a priori prospective candidate identification, with subsequent validation of these candidates through direct serum assay. The resulting multi-analyte biomarker panel sensitively should sensitively discriminate human lymphedema subjects from normal individuals. Methods and Findings We enrolled 63 lymphedema subjects and 27 normals in our attempt to discover protein analytes that can distinguish diseased individuals from controls. To minimize technical and biologically irrelevant variation, we first identified potential candidates by performing transcriptional microarray analysis on paired diseased and normal skin specimens sampled from the same individuals. We focused our attention on genes with corresponding protein products that are secreted and took these candidates forward to a protein multiplex assay applied to diseased and normal subjects. We developed a logistic regression-based model on an eventual group of six proteins and validated our system on a separate cohort of study subjects. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated to be 0.87 (95% CI : 0.75 to 0.97). Conclusions We have developed an accurate bioassay utilizing proteins representing four central pathogenetic modalities of the disease: lymphangiogenesis, inflammation, fibrosis, and lipid metabolism, suggesting that these proteins are directly related to the pathogenesis of the tissue pathology in lymphatic vascular insufficiency. Further studies are warranted to determine whether this newly-identified biomarker panel will possess utility as an instrument for in vitro diagnosis of early and latent disease; the ultimate applicability to risk stratification, quantitation of disease burden, and response to therapy can easily be envisioned.
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