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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 152907 matches for " Nancy H. Bryant "
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Addressing Social Determinants of Health by Integrating Assessment of Caregiver-Child Attachment into Community Based Primary Health Care in Urban Kenya
John H. Bryant,Nancy H. Bryant,Susanna Williams,Racheal Nduku Ndambuki,Paul Campbell Erwin
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9103588
Abstract: A principle strategic insight of the Final Report for WHO’s Commission on Social Determinants of Health (SDOH) is that the nurturant qualities of the environments where children grow up, live, and learn matter the most for their development. A key determinant of early childhood development is the establishment of a secure attachment between a caregiver and child. We report initial field-tests of the integration of caregiver-child attachment assessment by community health workers (CHWs) as a routine component of Primary Health Care (PHC), focusing on households with children under 5 years of age in three slum communities near Nairobi, Kenya. Of the 2,560 children assessed from July–December 2010, 2,391 (90.2%) were assessed as having a secure attachment with a parent or other caregiver, while 259 (9.8%) were assessed as being at risk for having an insecure attachment. Parent workshops were provided as a primary intervention, with re-enforcement of teachings by CHWs on subsequent home visits. Reassessment of attachment by CHWs showed positive changes. Assessment of caregiver-child attachment in the setting of routine home visits by CHWs in a community-based PHC context is feasible and may yield valuable insights into household-level risks, a critical step for understanding and addressing the SDOH.
Is the apparent period-doubling in Blazhko stars actually an illusion?
Paul H. Bryant
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The light curves of many Blazhko stars exhibit intervals in which successive pulsation maxima alternate between two levels in a way that is characteristic of period-doubling. In addition, hydrocode models of these stars have clearly demonstrated period-doubling bifurcations. As a result, it is now generally accepted that these stars do indeed exhibit period-doubling. Here we present strong evidence that this assumption is incorrect. The alternating maxima likely result from the presence of one or more near-resonant modes which appear in the stellar spectra and are slightly but significantly offset from 3/2 times the fundamental frequency. We show that a previously proposed explanation for the presence of these peaks is inadequate. The phase-slip of the dominant near-resonant peak in RR Lyr is shown to be fully correlated with the parity of the observed alternations, providing further strong evidence that the process is nonresonant and cannot be characterized as period-doubling. The dominant near-resonant peak in V808 Cyg has side-peaks spaced at twice the Blazhko frequency. This apparent modulation indicates that the peak corresponds to a vibrational mode and also adds strong support to the beating-modes model of the Blazhko effect which can account for the doubled frequency. The modulation also demonstrates the "environment" altering effect of large amplitude modes which is shown to be consistent with the amplitude equation formalism.
A Hybrid Mode Model of the Blazhko Effect, Shown to Accurately Fit Kepler Data for RR Lyr
Paul H. Bryant
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/783/1/L15
Abstract: The waveform for Blazhko stars can be substantially different during the ascending and descending parts of the Blazhko cycle. A hybrid model, consisting of two component oscillators of the same frequency, is proposed as a means to fit the data over the entire cycle. One component exhibits a sawtooth-like velocity waveform while the other is nearly sinusoidal. One method of generating such a hybrid is presented: a nonlinear model is developed for the first overtone mode, which, if excited to large amplitude, is found to drop strongly in frequency and become highly non-sinusoidal. If the frequency drops sufficiently to become equal to the fundamental frequency, the two can become phase locked and form the desired hybrid. A relationship is assumed between the hybrid mode velocity and the observed light curve, which is approximated as a power series. An accurate fit of the hybrid model is made to actual Kepler data for RR Lyr. The sinusoidal component may tend to stabilize the period of the hybrid which is found in real Blazhko data to be extremely stable. It is proposed that the variations in amplitude and phase might result from a nonlinear interaction with a third mode, possibly a nonradial mode at 3/2 the fundamental frequency. The hybrid model also applies to non-Blazhko RRab stars and provides an explanation for the light curve bump. A method to estimate the surface gravity is also proposed.
Is the Blazhko effect the beating of a near-resonant double-mode pulsation?
Paul H. Bryant
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/802/1/52
Abstract: In this paper it is shown that the Blazhko effect may result from a near-resonant type of multi-mode pulsation, where two (or sometimes more) periodic oscillations with slightly different frequencies gradually slip in phase, producing a beat frequency type of modulation. Typically one of these oscillations is strongly non-sinusoidal. Two oscillations are sufficient for the standard Blazhko effect; additional oscillations are needed to explain multi-frequency modulation. Previous work on this hypothesis by Arthur N. Cox and others is extended in this paper by developing a simple (non-hydro) model that can accurately reproduce several important features found in Kepler data for RR Lyr, including the pulsation waveform, the upper and lower Blazhko envelope functions and the motion, disappearance and reappearance of the bump feature. The non-sinusoidal oscillation is probably generated by the fundamental mode and the other oscillations are probably generated by nonradial modes. This model provides an explanation for the strong asymmetry observed in the side peak spectra of most RR Lyrae stars. The motion and disappearance of the bump feature are shown to be an illusion, just an artifact of combining the oscillations. V445 Lyr is presented as an example with dual modulation. The mysterious double-maxima waveform observed for this star is explained, providing additional strong evidence that this beating-modes hypothesis is correct. Problems with other recent explanations of the Blazhko effect are discussed in some detail.
On the Interaction of Near-Resonant Modes and the Generation of Asymmetric Triplets with Application to the Blazhko Effect
Paul H. Bryant
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: This paper considers a nonlinear coupling between a radial and a nonradial mode of nearly the same frequency. The results may be of general interest, but in particular have application to the beating-modes model of the Blazhko effect which was recently shown to accurately reproduce the light curve of RR Lyr. For weak coupling, the two modes do not phase-lock and they retain separate frequencies, but the coupling nevertheless has important consequences. Upon increasing the coupling strength from zero, an additional side-peak emerges in the spectrum forming an asymmetric triplet centered on the fundamental. As the coupling is further increased, the amplitude of this side-peak increases and the three peaks are also pulled towards each other, decreasing the Blazhko frequency. Beyond a critical coupling strength, phase-locking occurs between the modes. With appropriate choice of coupling strength, this interactive beating-modes model can match the side-peak amplitude ratio of any star. The effects of nonlinear damping are also explored and found to generate additional side-peaks of odd order. Consistent with this, the odd side-peaks are found to be favored in V808 Cyg. It is also shown that the Blazhko effect generates a fluctuating environment that can have a modulatory effect on other excited modes of the star. An example is found in V808 Cyg where the modulation is at double the Blazhko frequency. An explanation is found for this mysterious doubling, providing additional evidence in favor of the model.
Bench-to-bedside review: Outcome predictions for critically ill patients in the emergency department
Jenny Hargrove, H Bryant Nguyen
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc3518
Abstract: The landscape of critical care delivery in the emergency department (ED) is rapidly changing. The phenomena of hospital and ED overcrowding are increasing in severity and remain unresolved. In the USA there are more than 110 million ED visits per year [1]. The proportion of critically ill patients presenting to the ED and admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) has also risen. In California alone there was a 59% increase in the number of visits of critically ill patients to the ED from 1990 to 1999 [2]. Inpatient telemetry and ICU beds continue to be fully occupied for a significant amount of the time in many hospitals and is a primary cause of overcrowding in the ED [3,4]. As hospital census approaches 100%, the ED unavoidably becomes a surrogate ICU. Unfortunately, resources are often limited, and critical care delivery in the ED setting is fraught with inadequate space and medical equipment and lack of staffing. Increasingly stringent nurse-patient ratios are being mandated and enforced on the inpatient ward, consequently worsening the overcrowding problem, with ED nurses often far extended over their patient care capacity. ED physicians are often over-extended as well, and adequate critical care is often difficult to provide and sometimes overlooked in a busy ED. Early disease recognition and prognostication of outcome with the aid of physiologic scoring systems is a potentially valuable tool for the multitasking ED physician, and may result in improved critical care when intensive care expertise is not yet available.In addition to the increasing focus on critical care in the ED, the framework of critical care within the ICU is evolving. The evolution of scoring systems has extended beyond just prognostication. Scoring systems now encompass critical care illness as a continuum that extends from the inciting event and treatment (often begun in the ED) to the post-ICU recovery and rehabilitation processes. Physiologic scoring systems are being utilized by clinic
Search for the shape resonance in the negative ion of hydrogen in astrophysical plasmas
Stanley Cohen,H. C. Bryant
Revista mexicana de astronomía y astrofísica , 2000,
Abstract: El espectro de absorci on en el visible y cercano infrarrojo del i on negativo del hidr ogeno (H
Differential Relationships among Facets of Alexithymia and BDNF- and Dopamine-Related Polymorphisms  [PDF]
Nancy S. Koven, Leah H. Carr
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2012.31002
Abstract: Alexithymia refers to a cluster of emotion-related deficits such as difficulty attending to and identifying one’s feelings. Although not a diagnosable psychiatric condition, alexithymia is considered a personality risk factor for multiple pathologies, including somatoform, substance use, eating, and mood disorders. Evidence suggests heritability, but few studies have examined the influence of specific genes on alexithymic traits. Candidate genes explored thus far include those involved in modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine, two neurotransmitters whose functions have been implicated in human emotion processing. This study investigated the relationship between the C270T polymorphism of the BDNF gene, facets of alexithymia, and possible interactions with the COMT, DAT1, and ANKK1 genes in a sample of 130 healthy adults. Given the multidimensionality of the alexithymia construct and its overlap with the related constructs of emotional intelligence and mood awareness, we used principal components analysis to derive Clarity of Emotion and Attention to Emotion as specific facets of alexithymia. Results showed that the C270T C/C genotype group had lower Clarity of Emotion scores relative to the C/T genotype group, even after covarying for COMT, DAT1, and ANKK1 genotypes. Dopamine-related genes had no association with alexithymia dimensions, nor did they interact with the C270T polymorphism to predict Clarity of Emotion. Although the molecular mechanisms by which this polymorphism influences BDNF are unknown, this study suggests a role for BDNF in modulating aspects of alexithymia. We discuss these results in the context of BDNF’s trophic effects in the nervous system.
Counselling a Woman Traumatized by Severe Abuse  [PDF]
Jodi Bryant
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.57083

The manuscript is a case report on a newly married Christian wife and mother of 3 children who sought help at a college counselling service for substance dependence and marital problems. Her past sexual trauma had manifested as severe traumatic reactions, which had contributed to a chronic emotionally distressed life, sexual promiscuity, and substance dependence, and she was unable to function appropriately in most spectrums of vitality. After the case issues and counselling approaches were researched, family members attended 11 Christ-centered or Spirituotherapy counselling sessions during which theistic and CBT interventions were used. The client gained insight into her past and current issues; grew spiritually; decreased her substance use; gained better communication skills, parenting, and coping methods; maintained a part-time job; and learned relapse prevention and management strategies. It was recommended that she continue theistic counselling.

Developing and validating predictive decision tree models from mining chemical structural fingerprints and high–throughput screening data in PubChem
Lianyi Han, Yanli Wang, Stephen H Bryant
BMC Bioinformatics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-401
Abstract: In this study, Decision Trees (DT) based models were developed to discriminate compound bioactivities by using their chemical structure fingerprints provided in the PubChem system http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov webcite. The DT models were examined for filtering biological activity data contained in four assays deposited in the PubChem Bioassay Database including assays tested for 5HT1a agonists, antagonists, and HIV-1 RT-RNase H inhibitors. The 10-fold Cross Validation (CV) sensitivity, specificity and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) for the models are 57.2~80.5%, 97.3~99.0%, 0.4~0.5 respectively. A further evaluation was also performed for DT models built for two independent bioassays, where inhibitors for the same HIV RNase target were screened using different compound libraries, this experiment yields enrichment factor of 4.4 and 9.7.Our results suggest that the designed DT models can be used as a virtual screening technique as well as a complement to traditional approaches for hits selection.High-throughput screening (HTS) is an automated technique and has been effectively used for rapidly testing the activity of large numbers of compounds [1-3]. Advanced technologies and availability of large-scale chemical libraries allow for the examination of hundreds of thousands of compounds in a day via HTS. Although the extensive libraries containing several million compounds can be screened in a matter of days, only a small fraction of compounds can be selected for confirmatory screenings. Further examination of verified hits from the secondary dose-response assay can be eventually winnowed to a few to proceed to the medicinal chemistry phase for lead optimization [4,5]. The very low success rate from the hits-to-lead development presents a great challenge in the earlier screening phase to select promising hits from the HTS assay [4]. Thus, the study of HTS assay data and the development of a systematic knowledge-driven model is in demand and useful to facilitat
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