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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2988 matches for " Nancy Buchmeier "
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Drug Discovery Using Chemical Systems Biology: Repositioning the Safe Medicine Comtan to Treat Multi-Drug and Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis
Sarah L. Kinnings ,Nina Liu ,Nancy Buchmeier ,Peter J. Tonge,Lei Xie ,Philip E. Bourne
PLOS Computational Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000423
Abstract: The rise of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) tuberculosis around the world, including in industrialized nations, poses a great threat to human health and defines a need to develop new, effective and inexpensive anti-tubercular agents. Previously we developed a chemical systems biology approach to identify off-targets of major pharmaceuticals on a proteome-wide scale. In this paper we further demonstrate the value of this approach through the discovery that existing commercially available drugs, prescribed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, have the potential to treat MDR and XDR tuberculosis. These drugs, entacapone and tolcapone, are predicted to bind to the enzyme InhA and directly inhibit substrate binding. The prediction is validated by in vitro and InhA kinetic assays using tablets of Comtan, whose active component is entacapone. The minimal inhibition concentration (MIC99) of entacapone for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis) is approximately 260.0 μM, well below the toxicity concentration determined by an in vitro cytotoxicity model using a human neuroblastoma cell line. Moreover, kinetic assays indicate that Comtan inhibits InhA activity by 47.0% at an entacapone concentration of approximately 80 μM. Thus the active component in Comtan represents a promising lead compound for developing a new class of anti-tubercular therapeutics with excellent safety profiles. More generally, the protocol described in this paper can be included in a drug discovery pipeline in an effort to discover novel drug leads with desired safety profiles, and therefore accelerate the development of new drugs.
Investors Perception Regarding Depository Services
Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: Depository is an organization which holds securities of investors in electronic form. The objectives ofdepository system are to reduce the time for transfer of securities, to avoid the risk of settlement of securities, toenhance liquidity and efficiency, to reduce cost of transaction for the investor, to create a system for the centralhandling of all securities, to promote the county's competitiveness by complying with global standards, to provideservice infrastructure in a capital market.In this article, Investigator gave brief overview about depository participants, eligibility criteria for DPsand the legal framework of Depository system in India. In research, investigator has used a structured questionnairefor eliciting the required responses relating to Depository Services from the general public. For the purpose ofsecondary data books, articles, reports, annual reports of the stock exchanges, news papers and internet has beenused.
Predictors of Retention and Passing the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses  [PDF]
Nancy Elkins
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.53026
Abstract: Using Seidman’s retention formula as a theoretical foundation, this study investigated historical data from a Bachelor of Science (BSN) nursing program to determine whether the admission variables of the preprogram grade point averages (GPA), American College Testing (ACT) scores, anatomy and physiology course grades, and/or the Health Education System Inc. (HESI) Exit Exam scores could predict completing the nursing program, as well as passing the NCLEX-RN. A significant relationship (p < 0.01) was identified between the preprogram GPA, ACT scores, anatomy grades, and the HESI Exit Exam scores with the completion of the BSN program and passing the NCLEX-RN.
The viral transmembrane superfamily: possible divergence of Arenavirus and Filovirus glycoproteins from a common RNA virus ancestor
William R Gallaher, Christopher DiSimone, Michael J Buchmeier
BMC Microbiology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-1-1
Abstract: Structural models of the transmembrane glycoproteins (GP-2) of the Arenaviruses, lymphochoriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa fever virus, are presented, based on consistent structural propensities despite variation in the amino acid sequence. The principal features of the model, a hydrophobic amino terminus, and two antiparallel helices separated by a glycosylated, antigenic apex, are common to a number of otherwise disparate families of enveloped RNA viruses. Within the first amphipathic helix, demonstrable by circular dichroism of a peptide fragment, there is a highly conserved heptad repeat pattern proposed to mediate multimerization by coiled-coil interactions. The amino terminal 18 amino acids are 28% identical and 50% highly similar to the corresponding region of Ebola, a member of the Filovirus family. Within the second, charged helix just prior to membrane insertion there is also high similarity over the central 18 amino acids in corresponding regions of Lassa and Ebola, which may be further related to the similar region of HIV-1 defining a potent antiviral peptide analogue.These findings indicate a common pattern of structure and function among viral transmembrane fusion proteins from a number of virus families. Such a pattern may define a viral transmembrane superfamily that evolved from a common precursor eons ago.Findings in a number of laboratories have indicated that the transmembrane (TM) proteins of a number of RNA viruses have common structural and functional elements critical for virus entry. These include a hydrophobic region designated a "fusion peptide", usually at or near the amino-terminus generated by cleavage of a precursor protein, together with fibrous structure defined by two antiparallel alpha helices. These general principles appear to apply to the Orthomyxoviruses, Paramyxoviruses, Retroviruses, Lentiviruses, and Filoviruses [1,2,3,4]. In some cases, such as between Ebola and Rous sarcoma viruses, there is considerable sequence ident
Anomalous antiferromagnetic coupling in Fe/Si/Fe structures with Co “dusting”
R. R. Gareev,M. Buchmeier,M. Kiessling,G. Woltersdorf
AIP Advances , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3665914
Abstract: We report on anomalous antiferromagnetic coupling in Fe/Si/Fe epitaxial structures with interfacial cobalt “dusting”. Antiferromagnetic coupling exceeds 75 μJ/m2 for a 2.0 nm-thick Si spacer and is still detectable for a 2.3 nm-thick spacer at room temperature. From room temperature to T**~150K the magnetization follows Bloch's law and the coupling shows metallic-type behaviour; for lower temperatures the coupling is of insulating type. Below T*~50K an additional magnetic signal arises and the coupling becomes metallic-type again. We relate the observed features to the formation of inter-diffused magnetic FeCo-silicides with a Curie temperature close to 50 K.
Pharmacogenomics: The Significance of Genetics in the Metabolism of Natural Medicines  [PDF]
Nancy W. Hanna
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.34046
Abstract: Natural products have been implemented in medicine through use as herbal medications, chemical compound extraction for prescription medication, or a natural source of food to fight various infections and diseases. Genetics has played a role in identifying various interactions between existing drugs and side effects. In addition, various food allergies have been identified with children in recent years, suggesting genetic associations between certain populations carrying specific genetic alleles. The recent availability of genomic data and our increased understanding of the effects of genetic variations permit a quantitative examination of the contribution of genetic variation to efficacy or toxicity of compounds derived from natural sources. The identification of target molecules relevant for diseases allows screening for natural products capable of inhibiting targets which can lead to the development of rational treatment of various diseases including neurobiological disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases. This allows for more opportunities to predict the response of individual patients. Identification of genetic variations that arose as a consequence of naturally occurring compounds will help identify gene alleles, or protein ligands that can affect the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetics of the natural products in question. In addition, diet modification and precautions to food products can be identified to help consumers limit or increase certain food intake. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions and their modification by genetic variation is expected to result in the development of new drugs that optimize individual health. We expect that strategies for individualized therapies will lead to improved results for patients.
Building Trust: Children Experiences with Food Allergies at Summer Camp  [PDF]
Sydney Leibel, Nancy Fenton
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.814143
Abstract: Introduction: The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of children with food allergies at summer camp. Methods: Qualitative draw-and-tell interviews were conducted with 14 food allergic individuals aged 5 - 12 years to capture their lived experience with food allergies at summer camp. Results: Four key interdependent themes: trust, accommodation, proactive parents and coping strategies were identified in how children perceive their food allergies in unregulated summer camp environments.
Development and Preliminary Validation of the Older Adult Service Usage Assessment  [PDF]
Nancy J. Karlin
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2017.64007
This study provides information on the development and factor scaling, validity, and reliability of a newly developed community service utilization measure (Older Adult Service Usage Assessment-OASUA). Analyzes indicate the OASUA can be used to assess current perceived community service use and satisfaction, as well as providing an indication for future service use and potential service needs with older persons. Additional data collection sites should be identified and a broader sample obtained so as to confirm the psychometric properties of the instrument in conjunction with further development of the OASUA.
LCMV Glycosylation Modulates Viral Fitness and Cell Tropism
Cyrille J. Bonhomme, Kristeene A. Knopp, Lydia H. Bederka, Megan M. Angelini, Michael J. Buchmeier
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053273
Abstract: The glycoprotein (GP) of arenaviruses is glycosylated at 11 conserved N-glycosylation sites. We constructed recombinant lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) featuring either additions or deletions of these N-glycans to investigate their role in the viral life cycle. N-glycosylation at two sites, T87 and S97, were found to be necessary to rescue rLCMV. Three of nine successfully rescued mutants, S116A, T234A, and S373A, under selective pressures in either epithelial, neuronal, or macrophage cells reverted to WT sequence. Of the seven stable N-glycan deletion mutants, five of these led to altered viral fitness and cell tropism, assessed as growth in either mouse primary cortical neurons or bone marrow derived macrophages. These results demonstrate that the deletion of N-glycans in LCMV GP may confer an advantage to the virus for infection of neurons but a disadvantage in macrophages.
Intensity of Brillouin light scattering from spin waves in magnetic multilayers with noncollinear spin configurations: Theory and experiment
M. Buchmeier,H. Dassow,D. E. Bürgler,C. M. Schneider
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.75.184436
Abstract: The scattering of photons from spin waves (Brillouin light scattering -- BLS) is a well-established technique for the study of layered magnetic systems. The information about the magnetic state and properties of the sample is contained in the frequency position, width, and intensity of the BLS peaks. Previously [Phys. Rev. B 67, 184404 (2003)], we have shown that spin wave frequencies can be conveniently calculated within the ultrathin film approach, treating the intralayer exchange as an effective bilinear interlayer coupling between thin virtual sheets of the ferromagnetic layers. Here we give the consequent extension of this approach to the calculation of the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) peak intensities. Given the very close relation of the BLS cross-section to the magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE), the depth-resolved longitudinal and polar MOKE coefficients calculated numerically via the usual magneto-optic formalism can be employed in combination with the spin wave precessional amplitudes to calculate full BLS spectra for a given magnetic system. This approach allows an easy calculation of BLS intensities even for noncollinear spin configurations including the exchange modes. The formalism is applied to a Fe/Cr/Fe/Ag/Fe trilayer system with one antiferromagnetically coupling spacer (Cr). Good agreement with the experimental spectra is found for a wide variety of spin configurations.
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