The velocity anisotropy parameters and elastic constants play a very important role to estimate
Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratios accurately. For geomechanics applications
such as hydraulic fracturing design, analysis of wellbore stability and rock
failure, determination of in situ stress and assessment of the response of reservoirs and surrounding rocks to
changes in pore pressure and stress, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratios play a very important role. Four rock
samples were collected from four different wells situated in study area. The
ultrasonic transmission method has been used to measure P-wave, Sh-wave and Sv-wave travel times as a function of
orientation and confining pressure. The five independent stiffnesses constants,
Young’s moduli, Poisson’s ratios and Bulk moduli of the samples were estimated.
The Poisson’s ratios ( and ) are
varying as the confining pressure is changed. The axial strain is larger than
the lateral strain, resulting . For
shales, the Young’s modulus measured parallel to bedding E1 is
usually greater than the Young’s modulus measured perpendicular to bedding E3.
Through this study it has been observed that, there is a strong effect of
anisotropy parameters on Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio.
Here, we have synthesized the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using the soil fungus Aspergillus niger 2587. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The synthesized silver nanoparticles have also been tested against the larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The efficacy test was performed at different concentrations for a period of different hours by the probit analysis. The larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus have shown the 100% mortality to the synthesized AgNPs after 1 h of exposure, while the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti were found less susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs. The pupa of Ae. aegypti has shown the efficacy LC50 4, LC90 12 and LC99 19 ppm after 2 h of exposure of the synthesized AgNPs, while, the pupae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi were found less susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs. By this approach, it is suggestive that this rapid synthesis of nanoparticles would be proper for developing a biological process for mosquito control.
capacity in all the 3 extrudates was very low. Rice flour incorporated with sweet potato wasjudged the best on sensory evaluation. Thestudy has shown that both sweet potato and greater yam tubers can be commercially exploited for the development of ready-to-eat (RTE) products.