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Assessment of lubricating oil degradation in small motorcycle engine fueled with gasohol
Nakorn Tippayawong
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Assessment of the degradation of lubricating oil was performed on the lubricants which had been used in a small motorcycle engine fueled with gasohol in comparison with the lubricants from gasoline-run engine. The lubricant properties examined in the assessment were lubricating capacity, viscosity and stability to oxidation. Lubricating capacity was evaluated by accelerated wear test on the Timken tester. Lubricating oils from gasohol-run engine appeared to produce about 10% greater wear than that made in oils from gasoline-run engine. There was no significant difference between the effect of gasohol and gasoline on the viscosity of the used lubricating oils. Moreover, no oxidation products in any used oil samples could be detected.
An overview of differential mobility analyzers for size classification of nanometer-sized aerosol particles
Panich Intra,Nakorn Tippayawong
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: Size classification of nanoparticles is an important process in the electrical mobility particle size analyzer. The differential mobility analyzer (DMA) is one of the most commonly used devices for classifying and measuring nanometersized aerosol particles between 1 nm to 1 μm in diameter, based on their electrical mobility. The DMA can be described as an assembly of two concentrically cylindrical electrodes with an air gap between the walls. In the DMA, air and aerosol flows enter from one end, pass through the annulus and exit the other end. An electric field is applied between the inner and outer electrodes. Particles having a specific mobility exit with the monodisperse air flow through a small slit located at the bottom of the inner electrode. These particles are transferred to a particle counter to determine the particle number concentration. In the past several decades, there have been numerous extensive studies and developments on the DMA. Nonetheless, they are different in terms of specific applications, construction, particle size range, as well as time response and resolution. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art existing cylindrical DMAs for aerosol particle size classification as well as for the generation of monodisperse aerosol in nanometer size range. A description of the operating principles, detailed physical characteristics of these DMAs, including the single-channel and multi-channel DMAs, as well as some examples of applications to nanotechnology are given.
Modified Kinetic Model of Particle Detachment by Aerodynamic Drag and Vibration
Nakorn Tippayawong,Ittichai Preechawuttipong
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2010,
Characterization and Performance of Biofuel from Passion Fruit Processing Residues
Nakorn Tippayawong,Phichet Chumjai
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2012,
Recovery of Value-Added Products from Hydrothermal Carbonization of Sewage Sludge
Pannarai Saetea,Nakorn Tippayawong
ISRN Chemical Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/268947
Abstract: This paper is about the conversion of wet waste stream into valuable products via thermal processing. Hydrothermal carbonization of sewage sludge was carried out at 200°C and 2.1?MPa in a closed reactor for 1–6?h. Main products were in solid and liquid phases. The resulting hydrochar was shown to have H/C and O/C ratios moving towards natural lignite, improved energetic content, and adsorption property in terms of iodine number. The aqueous solution was found to contain high concentration of plant food nutrients, especially nitrogen and potassium. They may be desirable for subsequent fuel and chemical production as well as applications in agriculture. The study shows that valuable products can be generated successfully from sewage sludge using hydrothermal carbonization. 1. Introduction Sewage sludge is generated as an inevitable by-product of wastewater treatment activity. Their production is expected to rapidly increase with urbanization and industrial development. In Thailand, for example, about 4,000 tons per day of dry, treated sewage sludge solids is generated. Sewage sludge consists of mostly offensive and toxic substances. It must be disposed of or managed properly, otherwise, serious effects on humans and ecological systems will occur. Several methods can be adopted for the management of sewage sludge, such as landfill disposal, incineration, and utilization in agriculture, but each of these options has important limitations. Both incineration and landfill are troubled by their lowly public image. There are always concerns regarding associated costs and emissions. Application of sewage sludge to agricultural lands is restricted due to possible contamination of the soil and vegetation as well as hazardous consequences for animals and human. The decline of the traditional disposal routes for sewage sludge has created a strong demand for more cost effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives. This has motivated the research community to search for innovative and beneficial use of sewage sludge for years [1, 2]. A very appealing method is hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), also known as subcritical water or hot compressed water carbonization. It is ideal for high moisture content material such as sewage sludge. HTC can be described as a thermochemical process for converting an organic feedstock into value-added products, at moderate temperatures (180–350°C) and pressures (2–10?MPa) in the presence of liquid water. Hydrothermal degradation of organic matter and synthesis of basic chemicals and fuels have recently gained considerable
Dispersion Modeling of SO2 Emissions from a Lignite Fired Thermal Power Plant using CALPUFF
Paingduan Khamsimak,Sirichai Koonaphapdeelert,Nakorn Tippayawong
Energy and Environment Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/eer.v2n2p127
Abstract: In this work, dispersion of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the vicinity of Mae Moh power plant, the largest fossil fuel power plant in northern Thailand, was investigated using well known air dispersion model. The area of 2,500 km2 around the plant was studied, with spatial resolution of 200 x 200 m2. Publicly available MM5 and CALMET software were used to provide meteorological conditions within the study domain, while CALPUFF was used to simulate the patterns of SO2 dispersion, based on actual plant operations in winter, summer and rainy seasons of the year 2009. Comparison against measurements from monitoring stations was made. Simulated results were found to agree qualitatively and quantitatively well with measured data. Root mean squared errors were found in the range between 2.19 to 8.32 μg/m3. The CALPUFF model can be used for SO2 dispersion prediction with satisfactory accuracy.
Effect of Operating Conditions on Catalytic Gasification of Bamboo in a Fluidized Bed
Thanasit Wongsiriamnuay,Nattakarn Kannang,Nakorn Tippayawong
International Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/297941
Abstract: Catalytic gasification of bamboo in a laboratory-scale, fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of reactor temperature (400, 500, and 600°C), gasifying medium (air and air/steam), and catalyst to biomass ratio (0?:?1, 1?:?1, and 1.5?:?1) on product gas composition, H2/CO ratio, carbon conversion efficiency, heating value, and tar conversion. From the results obtained, it was shown that at 400°C with air/steam gasification, maximum hydrogen content of 16.5%?v/v, carbon conversion efficiency of 98.5%, and tar conversion of 80% were obtained. The presence of catalyst was found to promote the tar reforming reaction and resulted in improvement of heating value, carbon conversion efficiency, and gas yield due to increases in H2, CO, and CH4. The presence of steam and dolomite had an effect on the increasing of tar conversion. 1. Introduction Energy demand has been growing for the past several decades due to rapid industrial and urban development in industry, but fossil fuel reserves have been in decline [1]. Renewable energy has been very popular as an obvious candidate to substitute fossil fuels. Biomass is one of the renewable fuel sources that can claim to have significant environmental benefits with regards to neutral carbon emissions and reduction in global warming [2, 3]. There are many biomass materials that can be utilized for energy [4]. Fast growing plants, which do not compete with food crops, may be used as sustainable energy resources [5, 6] for developed and developing countries. Biomass can be converted to biofuels via several pathways such as biochemical or thermochemical conversion. Gasification process is one of the promising technologies to produce syngas from solid feedstock [2, 7–9]. Producer gas containing simple molecular gas can be used, instead of fossil fuels, in combustion engines. Gas production is dependent on input streams, operating conditions, and gas output conditioning. Input of gasification process is referred to by type and components of feedstock materials and type and flow of gasifying agent. Gas output conditioning is a process involved in cooling and disposing particulate matter and tar in the gas product. Gasification reactions are controlled by operation conditions such as temperature, pressure, and residence time. Reaction temperature is one of the most influential parameters for the gasification operation. Gasification temperature is normally classified into three ranges; low (400–600°C), medium (600–900°C), and high (>900°C). Increasing temperature tends to result
Characterization of biochar from hydrothermal carbonization of bamboo
Daniel Schneider, Marina Escala, Kawin Supawittayayothin, Nakorn Tippayawong
International Journal of Energy and Environment , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents a preliminary investigation on producing biochar from bamboo using a technique of hydrothermal carbonization. Laboratory scale experimentation to produce carbonaceous materials was carried out. The suspended biomass samples in water were subjected to hydrothermal carbonization at 220 C, 2.2 MPa in a closed vessel for six hours. The resulting products were in solid and liquid phase. The coal-like biochar was found to have rough surface and porous structure. The aqueous solution was found to contain a high concentration of nutrients, especially nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The study shows that bamboo is an interesting and adequate biomass for the production of biochar with several applications including carbon sequestration.
Production of charcoal from woods and bamboo in a small natural draft carbonizer
Nakorn Tippayawong, Nakarin Saengow, Ekarin Chaiya, Narawut Srisang
International Journal of Energy and Environment , 2010,
Abstract: There is a strong domestic market for charcoal in Thailand and many developing countries. Charcoal is usually made from biomass materials in small scale, simple kilns. Traditional charcoal making kilns adopts a process that is very inefficient, and damaging to the environment. In this work, an alternative charcoal reactor based on natural draft, pyrolysis gas burning concept was proposed and demonstrated. Tests with longan woods and bamboo showed that good quality charcoal can be produced in shorter time with lower pollution emissions, compared with traditional kilns. The proposed carbonizer proved to be suitable for small scale, charcoal production in rural area.
Reaction Kinetics of Transesterification Between Palm Oil and Methanol under Subcritical Conditions
Anusan Permsuwan,Nakorn Tippayawong,Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat,Churat Thararux
Energy Science and Technology , 2011, DOI: 10.3968/j.est.1923847920110201.672
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate transesterification kinetics for biodiesel production from palm oil under subcritical conditions. Experimental investigation was carried out with palm oil and methanol at molar ratio of 46:1, temperatures between 150-200 °C and pressure around 140-190 atm in a 400 ml batch reactor. The biodiesel products were analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. Area percentage method was used to estimate the methyl esters in the product. Zero- and first-order kinetic models were developed. Apparent activation energy was estimated to be in the range of 91-105 kJ/mol. The reaction rate equation was best approximated by the first order kinetic model with pre-exponential factor of 1.57 x 109. Key words: Biodiesel; Critical fluids; Kinetic equations; Methyl esters; Palm oil; Renewable energy
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