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Watermelon Sudden Decay in Tunisia: Identification of Pathogenic Fungi and Determination of Primary Agents
Naima Boughalleb,Mohamed El Mahjoub
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Isolation from infected watermelon samples has demonstrated the presence of some fungal complex including Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Rhizoctonia bataticola, R. solani, Monosporascus cannonballus, Pythium ultimum and P. echinulatum. These fungal species are different in their distribution among the infected plants and areas surveyed. However, F. oxysporum and F. solani are always predominant. These results showed the almost-presence of the two Fusarium disease of watermelon: Fusarium wilt to F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and the collars and/or root rot caused by F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae which are the primary fungi of sudden wilt. Analysis in main component of isolation frequency of different fungi showed that their association in homogeneous groups seemed not affected by geographic origin and surveyed year.
Effect of Fungicides on in vitro Infestation Level of Radish, Carrot and Pepper Seeds
Naima Boughalleb,Neji Tarchoun,Wided Dallagi
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Through incubation of radish (Raphanus sativus), carrot (Daucus carota) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) seed samples on potato dextrose agar at 25°C, six species of fungi were determined as seedborne in these crops. Alternaria dauci, A. Tenuissima, A. tenuis and Epicoccum sp. were found to be transmitted by radish seed. For carrot seed, A. Tenuissima, A. dauci, A. tenuis, Epicoccum sp. and Fusarium oxysporum were identified. However, Alternaria tenuissima and Botrytis cinerea were isolated from pepper seeds. Seed treated with fungicides such as Maneb, Mancozeb, Benomyl and Thiophanate methyl could reduce the infestation levels of tested crops.
Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Volatiles from Three Opuntia Species Growing in Tunisia
Afifa Bergaoui,Naima Boughalleb,Hichem Ben Jannet,F. Harzallah-Shiric
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The chemical composition of the volatiles isolated by steam distillation from leaves, flowers and fruits of Opuntia lindheimeri var. linguiformis L. Benson, leaves and flowers of Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm and leaves of Opuntia microdasys (Lehmann) gathered in the sea cliff of Monastir town (Tunisia), has been studied by GC and GC-MS. Remarkable differences were noted between the composition and the constituent percentage of the different studied organs. The most important compounds found in leaves, flowers and fruits of Opuntia lindheimeri var. linguiformis were tetradecanoic acid (3.15-13.57%), hexadecanoic acid (8.5-17.33%), butyl tetradecanoate (8.05-21.47%) and (E)-3-Butyldiene phthalide (6.92-15.77%). In the flowers volatile extract of Opuntia macrorhiza, the main compound found was Butyl tetradecanoate (21.14%). The volatile extract from Opuntia microdasys leaves was mainly rich in hexadecanoic acid (13.13%), (E)-3-Butyldiene phthalide (21.4%) and butyl tetradecanoate (5.91%). Volatile components extracts were tested against the fungi Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium solani f. sp cucurbitae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum, Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani. The strongest inhibitory effect of the all volatile extracts was observed against Alternaria solani.
Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts Obtained from Crataegus azarolus L. var. aronia (Willd.) Batt. Ovaries Calli
Radhia Bahri-Sahloul,Radhia Ben Fredj,Naima Boughalleb,Jihène Shriaa,Saad Saguem,Jean-Louis Hilbert,Francis Trotin,Saida Ammar,Sadok Bouzid,Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri
Journal of Botany , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/623651
Abstract: Objective. Plant cell culture is an innovative technology to produce a variety of substances. Numerous plants synthesize among their secondary metabolites phenolic compounds which possess antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. Hawthorn (Crataegus) is one of these plants which has long been used in folk medicine and is widely utilized in pharmaceutical preparations mainly in neuro- and cardiosedative actions. Methods and Results. The production of polyphenol by fifty-two-week-old Crataegus azarolus var. aronia calli was studied in relation to growth variation and antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity within a subcultured period. The DPPH and ABTS+ assays were used to characterize the antioxidant actions of the callus cultures. Antimicrobial activity was tested by using disc diffusion and dilution assays for the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of each active extract. High TEACDPPH, TEACABTS, and antimicrobial activity was observed when maximal growth was reached. An optimum of total phenol, proanthocyanidins, flavonoid, (?)-epicatechin, procyanidin B2, chlorogenic acid, and hyperoside was produced during this period. Conclusion. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were strongly correlated with total phenols and total flavonoids. Crataegus azarolus var. aronia cells culture represents an important alternative source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. 1. Introduction In recent years considerable attention has been devoted to medicinal plants with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The antioxidant properties are commonly postulated to play an important role in preventing diseases caused by oxidative stress, such as cancer, coronary arteriosclerosis, and the ageing processes [1]. Phenolic compounds are known to possess different pharmacological activities among which antioxidant and antimicrobial effects have recently received more intention. There is much literature concerning the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of many species from genus Crataegus L. (hawthorn). The genus Crataegus, known as “Zaarour” in Tunisia, is represented by two species in the flora of Tunisia: C. oxyacanthus ssp. monogyna (Jacq.) Rouy and Camus and Crataegus azarolus L. [2]. Crataegus azarolus is represented by two varieties: Crataegus azarolus var. aronia (Willd.) Batt. and C. azarolus var. eu-azarolus Maire; they differ by the color of fruit: yellow fruits for the former and red ones for the latter. The chemistry and pharmacology of hawthorn is well documented [3–13].
Improving the Reliability of Unmanned Aircraft System Wireless Communications through Cognitive Radio Technology  [PDF]
Hector Reyes, Naima Kaabouch
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.53027
Abstract:

Unmanned Aircraft System networks are a special type of networks where high speeds of the nodes, long distances and radio spectrum scarcity pose a number of challenges. In these networks, the strength of the transmitted/received signals varies due to jamming, multipath propagation, and the changing distance among nodes. High speeds cause another problem, Doppler Effect, which produces a shifting of the central frequency of the signal at the receiver. In this paper we discuss a modular system based on cognitive to enhance the reliability of UAS networks.

In Vitro Germination and Plantlet Establishment of Wild Chamomile of Morocco Cladanthus mixtus (L.) Oberpr. and Vogt  [PDF]
Naima Harras, Ahmed Lamarti
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.518277
Abstract:

In vitro seeds germination and plantlets establishment of Cladanthus mixtus (L.) Oberpr. and Vogt were studied in this report. A reliable protocol was developed for in vitro seed germination, multiplication and plantlet regeneration of Cladanthus mixtus. The seeds were sterilized and cultured in different media. Among the two basal media evaluated for symbiotic seed germination, gelled distilled water was found to be the best with a high percentage of seeds germination (100%) after 33 hours of culture. Seedlings were further transferred to different types of media. Result observed after 4 weeks showed that MS medium promotes the highest growth with an average of 2.75 ± 0.12 cm shoot length and 2.60 ± 0.29 shoots per explants, and the mean number of roots achieved 3.33 ± 0.17 root per explants with a length of 2.42 ± 0.16 cm. This study showed that macroelements of MS (1962) medium is essential for in vitro shoot multiplication, growth and rooting of shoots of Cladanthus mixtus L.

Physiological and Biochemical Changes of Two Halophytes, Nitraria retusa (Forssk.) and Atriplex halimus (L.) Under Increasing Salinity
Faycal Boughalleb,Mounir Denden
Agricultural Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/aj.2011.327.339
Abstract: The effect of NaCl stress on the growth, nutriments contents and antioxidative activities were investigated in two xero-halophytes Nitraria retusa and Atriplex halimus. Plants were grown in 0-800 mM NaCl for 120 days under glasshouse conditions. Both xero-halophytic species showed positive plant growth for low levels of salinity. Increasing concentrations of salinity from 400-800 mM NaCl induced decrease in plant growth and chlorophyll content in the two species, especially in A. halimus. In addition both species were able to accumulate a large quantity of Na+ and to maintain a higher leaf water content which was probably associated with a greater capacity for osmotic adjustment whereas the contents of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ decreased significantly at diverse degree, resulting in an increase in the Na+/K+ ratio when NaCl concentrations increased. At higher salinity, it appears that salt excretion was involved in the strategies for salt tolerance in both xero-halophytic species, especially in N. retusa. A significant variability to the response to oxidative stress induced by salinity was found between both species. The relative better salt tolerance of N. retusa compared to A. halimus plants may be related to their higher polyphenols and carotenoids accumulation and antioxidant activity, associated with lower Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration. In A. halimus, the secondary metabolites contribution in the restriction of oxidative damages caused by salt stress was disputed. As a whole, the data suggest that both N. retusa and A. halimus salt stressed plants might represent potential sources of polyphenols for economical use. But there is distinction in the implication of non-enzymatic antioxidants to limit oxidative damage.
Possible Involvement of Proline and the Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Drought Tolerance of Three Olive Cultivars Grown under Increasing Water Deficit Regimes
Faycal Boughalleb,Mahmoud Mhamdi
Agricultural Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/aj.2011.378.391
Abstract: The possible involvement organic metabolites and the antioxidative defence system in water drought tolerance were investigated in three olive cultivars. About 2 years old olive trees, grown in pots in greenhouse were subjected to increasing Water Deficit (WD) regime (5, 10, 20 and 40 days). After 40 days without irrigation, the biomass production, osmotic potential (Ψs) and turgor Potential (P) were decreased in the three olive cultivars and the lower reduction was observed in Zalmati. Under WD conditions, Chemlali and Zalmati showed a greater accumulation of proline associated with the better maintenance of plant water status and biomass production. Different cultivars developed certain antioxidative defense mechanisms including the accumulation of phenolic compounds and increased antioxidative enzymes activities. However, differences were observed between the three cultivars for these enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Zalmati leaves accumulated the larger quantities of phenolic compounds followed by Chemlali which can improve their antioxidant responses. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity was more enhanced in Zalmati than in Chemlali under water stress but was decreased in Chetoui. Catalase (CAT) activity was more enhanced in Chetoui under water stress. The activity of Peroxidase (POD) and Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) increased under water stress and the higher levels were reached in Zalmati followed by Chemlali. In contrast, Polyphenol Oxidases (PPO) activity decreased under WD conditions in Chemlali and Zalmati, however this reduction was slightly in Chetoui. The lower increase in malondialdehyde content and H2O2 generation suggest that Zalmati was more able to maintain leaf cell integrity than Chemlali, especially Chetoui under severe water stress because of the more efficient osmoprotection and antioxidant defense systems. Thus, the great accumulation of phenolic compounds, the increased activity of SOD and the higher POD, especially APX activity might be linked to the better performance of the antioxidant defense in Zalmati olive cultivar under severe water deficit.
Scientific Preoccupations of Tlemcen scholars in Fez: During the eighth century AH / fourteenth century AD : /
Naima Boukridimi
Historical Kan Periodical , 2011,
Abstract: / . : ( ) . : ( 784 /1347 ). / (681 757 /1282 1356 ) ( 818 /1415 ). ( 789 /1387 ) (732 808 /1331 1405 ). ( ) ( 791 /1389 ). / .
In vitro Determination of Fusarium spp. Infection on Watermelon Seeds and their Localization
N. Boughalleb,M. El Mahjoub
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: In this study, we used direct incubation of watermelon dissected seeds on Komada`s selective medium for Fusarium spp. and incubation of entire seed on the same medium or on 2% agar medium. Identification of fungi was based on morphological criteria and also according to Koch`s postulate. Isolates from dissected seed were identified as F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae. These fungi were found to be externally and internally seed borne in watermelon. This is the first report of localization of Fusarium spp. transmitted by watermelon seeds in Tunisia.
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