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The effect of bonding agents on the microleakage of sealant following contamination with saliva
Askarizadeh Nahid,Norouzi Negar,Nemati Saeed
Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry , 2008,
Abstract: Aims : An issue of concern in dentistry is the inadequacy of adhesion and proper sealing following restoration of a tooth, which can lead to marginal leakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a bonding agent on the microleakage of a sealant material following contamination with saliva. Materials and Methods : In this experimental research, 48 sound premolars were divided into two groups. The first group received sealant without bonding and the other group was given sealant with bonding. After prophylaxis, the occlusal surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel and the teeth were then placed in fresh human saliva for l0 s. Following this, in the first group fissure sealant (Kerr) was applied directly and cured; for the second group sealant was placed and cured after bonding (Single Bond; 3M). All samples were thermocycled (500 cycles; between 5°C and 55°C; dwell time of 30 s). Silver nitrate was used as the leakage tracer. The teeth were sectioned. Microleakage evaluation was made by stereomicroscope at 40x magnification and the results were evaluated with the Mann-Whitney U test. Results : In the group that received sealant without bonding extensive microleakage was seen; placement of sealant with bonding significantly reduced microleakage. Conclusion : In the presence of contamination with saliva, use of bonding under the fissure sealant can reduce microleakage
Evaluation and Comparison of Clinical and Para- Clinical Diagnosis of Trichomonas Vaginitis in Women Referred to Shahroud City Health Care Centers
Nahid Bolbol-Haghighi,Hosein Ebrahimi,Piraste Norouzi,Mehri Delvarianzadeh
Knowledge & Health Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Introduction: Trichomonas is a sexually transmitted disease and its agent is a flagellated parasite called trichomonas vaginitis. This is the third common reason of vaginities and 180 millions women at world and 2-3 millions at U.S suffer from it. Because of its high prevalence and expensive treatment, we decided to evaluate its clinical and para- clinical diagnosis. Methods: This is an analytic cross-sectional study and carried out on 300 women with signs of vaginitis infections and had indication for Pap smear which referred to shahrood city heath care centers. In this study we took two samples of secretion from both endocervix and exocervix by speculum spred them on two lame contemporaneous, and one sample from posterior koldosace secretions with cotton soup and entered to tube with sterilized physiological serum. Questionnaires were filled among patients by midwife. The cases were followed by taking Pap smear and wet smear, calturing and filling the second questionnaire. Finally, the results in medical, microbiological and cytological diagnosis were compared. The sensivity and specifity of each diagnostic method were evaluated using statistical methods. Results: Results of the study showed that the most outbreaks of trichomonas vaginitis were at age group between 21 to 35 (52.6%) and the lowest prevalence was among women less than 20(5.3%) years old. It is reported 78 cases of trichomonas in clinical examination, but none of culture medias has demonstrated trichomonas. Percentage of false positive at clinical diagnosis method was 26% more than culture method and 25.7 % more than wet smear and Pap smear methods. Conclusion: Paraclinic with clinical examination play an important role in diagnosis and treatment of vaginitis. Thus for preventing of unnecessary drug prescription and preventing it,s side effects, it is recommended para- clinical examination in suspect patients.
Loneliness and internet addiction in students of Hamadan University of medical sciences
Ali Rafat,Nahid Norouzi,Mohammad Javad Khademi,Vahid Rashedi
Pajouhan Scientific Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: This study intends to determine the relationship between loneliness and internet addiction in students of Hamadan University of medical sciences in 2013.Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study, students of Hamadan University of medical sciences were research population that sample involved 130 people which have been selected through random sampling. To gather the data, Loneliness Scale and Internet Addiction Questionnaire was used as well as demographic variables questionnaire. To analyze the data SPSS was used.Results: The findings revealed the characteristics of the research population as follows: high internet addiction and relatively loneliness. Results showed significant relationship between the internet addiction and age, term and level of education, also factors such as marital status, gender and occupation have no significant relation with internet addiction. Analysis indicated there were no statistically significant differences between loneliness and age, term, level of education, marital status, gender and occupation.Discussion: Due to the relatively high rate of Internet addiction in the study population, the findings will be reported to relevant managers and officials, to be considered in planning future.
Suggested Strategies in Water Treatment by Using Situ Pressure in Reverse Osmosis  [PDF]
Susan Norouzi
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.55033
Abstract: Nowadays desalination is one of the main resources to obtain water in many areas. The most advanced method for water filtration is reverse osmosis. In this system, water is injected into semi-membranes by using power pumping, and its salt water is taken away from the solution. This paper has tried to offer guidelines to use the pressure createdin situof harvesting water, instead of utilizing power pump, which produces the necessary pressure for the reverse osmosis. These guidelines have been divided into 2 main groups: Using the created natural pressure, and the other way is using the pressures that are caused by the constructions built for harvesting water.
Effects of robot-assisted therapy on stroke rehabilitation in upper limbs: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature
Nahid Norouzi-Gheidari, MSc, OT,Philippe S. Archambault, PhD; Joyce Fung, PhD
Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development , 2012,
Abstract: We systematically reviewed and analyzed the literature to find randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that employed robotic devices in upper-limb rehabilitation of people with stroke. Out of 574 studies, 12 matching the selection criteria were found. The Fugl-Meyer, Functional Independence Measure, Motor Power Scale, and Motor Status Scale outcome measures from the selected RCTs were pooled together, and the corresponding effect sizes were estimated. We found that when the duration/intensity of conventional therapy (CT) is matched with that of the robot-assisted therapy (RT), no difference exists between the intensive CT and RT groups in terms of motor recovery, activities of daily living, strength, and motor control. However, depending on the stage of recovery, extra sessions of RT in addition to regular CT are more beneficial than regular CT alone in motor recovery of the hemiparetic shoulder and elbow of patients with stroke; gains are similar to those that have been observed in intensive CT.
Throughput Maximizing Frequency and Power Scheduling for Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks in the Low-SINR Regime  [PDF]
Nahid Saberi
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2012.33017
Abstract: We study the problem of frequency and power allocation and scheduling at a time-slotted cognitive ad-hoc wireless network, where cognitive nodes share a number of frequency bands and frequency reuse is allowed. In such a network the throughput maximization problem generally results in a mixed zero-one nonlinear non-convex problem. Interestingly, in the low-SINR regime, the power allocation policy that maximizes the total throughput follows an “on/off” strategy with maximum power usage in the “on” state. In this paper we show that the on/off strategy in the low-SINR regime is also optimal with respect to throughput when scheduling users over time and frequency subject to minimum SINR requirements. We show that these additional constraints will not change the optimum strategy, but may affect the set of “on” or “off” transmitters. Also we present an approach that transforms the mixed zero-one nonlinear problem to an equivalent mixed zero-one linear problem at the expense of extra variables.
An Integrative Comparison of Energy Efficient Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network  [PDF]
Ali Norouzi, Abdul Halim Zaim
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2012.43010
Abstract: Many advances have been made in sensor technologies which are as varied as the applications; and many more are in progress. It has been reasonable to design and develop small size sensor nodes of low cost and low power. In this work, we have explored some energy-efficient routing protocols (LEACH, Directed Diffusion, Gossiping and EESR) and their expansions (enhancements), and furthermore, their tactics specific to wireless sensor network, such as data aggregation and in-network processing, clustering, different node role assignment, and data-centric methods. After that we have compared these explored routing protocols based on different metrics that affect the specific application requirements and WSN in general.
The Relationship between Locus of Control, Test Anxiety, and Religious Orientation among Iranian EFL Students  [PDF]
Mina Rastegar, Nahid Heidari
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.31009
Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between locus of control (LOC), religious orientation (RO) and test anxiety (TA) among Iranian EFL learners. Furthermore, it scrutinized the role of gender on these variables. To achieve such goals, 100 Iranian EFL students (57 females, 43 males) studying English at Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman participated in the study. These students were randomly selected from among junior and senior students majoring in English Translation and English Literature. In order to obtain the required data, three questionnaires were utilized: Rotters’s (1966) locus of control scale (LOCS) to measure participants’ level of LOC, Sarason’s (1975) test anxiety scale (TAS) to measure participants’ TA, and Allport and Ross’s (1967) Religious Orientation Scale (ROS) to determine participants’ intrinsic or extrinsic religious orientation. For analysis of data, the Pearson Product Moment Correlation and T-test were used. The results revealed that there was a significant negative relationship between ILOC and TA and a significant positive relationship between ELOC and TA. Furthermore, there was a significant positive relationship between ILOC and IRO and a significant positive relationship between ELOC and ERO. Also, there was a significant negative relationship between ILOC and TA, and a significant positive relationship between ELOC and TA. Finally, there were not any significant differences among males and females regarding ILOC, ELOC, TA, IRO, and ERO.

A Tree Based Data Aggregation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Using GA  [PDF]
Ali Norouzi, Faezeh Sadat Babamir, Zeynep Orman
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2012.48028
Abstract: Energy is one of the most important items to determine the network lifetime due to low power energy nodes included in the network. Generally, data aggregation tree concept is used to find an energy efficient solution. However, even the best aggregation tree does not share the load of data packets to the transmitting nodes fairly while it is consuming the lowest possible energy of the network. Therefore, after some rounds, this problem causes to consume the whole energy of some heavily loaded nodes and hence results in with the death of the network. In this paper, by using the Genetic Algorithm (GA), we investigate the energy efficient data collecting spanning trees to find a suitable route which balances the data load throughout the network and thus balances the residual energy in the network in addition to consuming totally low power of the network. Using an algorithm which is able to balance the residual energy among the nodes can help the network to withstand more and consequently extend its own lifetime. In this work, we calculate all possible routes represented by the aggregation trees through the genetic algorithm. GA finds the optimum tree which is able to balance the data load and the energy in the network. Simulation results show that this balancing operation practically increases the network lifetime.
NEW TRENDS IN LEGAL EDUCATION AT BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY
Nahid FERDOUSI
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2008,
Abstract: In Bangladesh, Formal legal education is provided by either a department of a university or an affiliated college. There are four public universities and above twenty six private universities in our country with law as a regular subject of teaching. Besides, the National University imparts teaching of law through law colleges in the country. All public and private universities providing law graduate degree by conventional system but many people deprived from this opportunities. Thus to increase equitable access to education and to develop the human resources of the country the Bangladesh Open University playing significant role. Large numbers of students of rural areas, particularly women, out of school and adults who must do work to support their families are include with the university. Bangladesh Open University is the only institution in Bangladesh which imparts education in open and distance mode and offers 23 formal programmes, the demand for the introduction of LL.B programme for the benefit of those who have been, for various reasons, deprived of the opportunity of undertaking graduate course in law in conventional mode of education. The decision to offer the programme in distance mode is being taken in response to the earnest desire of the relevant quarters expressed in various dailies and formal applications submitted to the university authority as the learners in the open and distance mode learn at his own place and any time whenever he feels convenient to learn and is not for restricted by time, space or age. Distance learning is, indeed, presently considered as a viable alternative of the conventional system of education to fulfill the growing demand for legal education.This paper presents the new academic trends in Bangladesh Open University by distance learning Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree and modern aspects of the legal education at School of Law in Bangladesh Open University.
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