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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 412 matches for " Nagappa Divya "
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The cytology of molluscum contagiosum mimicking skin adnexal tumor
Krishnamurthy Jayashree,Nagappa Divya
Journal of Cytology , 2010,
Abstract: Molluscum contagiosum is a cutaneous viral infection presenting as multiple, umbilicated papules and vesicles. The cytology of molluscum contagiosum in an 11-year-old boy, which presented atypically as a solitary nodule over the right cheek, mimicking a skin adnexal tumor is reported here. Fine needle aspiration cytology plays a vital role in establishing the correct diagnosis of clinically unsuspected cases, and hence, the proper management of such lesions. The cytology of molluscum contagiosum is characterized by the presence of numerous large intracytoplasmic basophilic bodies that push the host nucleus to the periphery, giving a signet ring appearance to the superficial epidermal cells.
The cytology of micropapillary variant of colloid carcinoma of breast: A report of two cases
Krishnamurthy Jayashree,Nagappa Divya
Journal of Cytology , 2010,
Abstract: Colloid carcinoma (pure mucinous carcinoma) is an uncommon variant of breast carcinoma with distinctive cytological and histological features. These tumors are characterised by islands of tumor cells floating in a sea of abundant extracellular mucin. We present the cytology of two cases of colloid carcinoma occurring in 80-year-old and 45-year-old females. The fine-needle aspiration cytology helps to subcategorize the tumor type, thereby enhancing the knowledge about the distinctive cytological features of special and uncommon variants of breast carcinoma, their course and prognosis. A distinctive micropapillary variant of pure mucinous carcinoma which is rarely described, is represented in one of the cases. Also we report, here, colloid carcinoma in a female of reproductive age, a relatively uncommon occurrence.
Role of Optimism Bias and Risk Attitude on Investment Behaviour  [PDF]
Divya Gakhar
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.94056

Purpose: The study undertakes to identify individual characteristics and their investment pattern. The individual characteristics include MBTI personality scores, risk taking behaviour, biases and investor demographics. Data and Methodology: A structured questionnaire was administered on 117 respondents in India. The questions were related to demographic variables, optimism bias, investment pattern and MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®) personality assessment. The results were analysed using chi-square and ANOVA. Findings: The results show that presence of optimism bias in investors is influenced by marital status, nature of employment and work experience of investors. The Indian investors are majorly balanced or conservative out of the total sample in terms of risk taking behaviour. Risk taking attitude is affected by personality of individuals. Investment in high risk instruments is different among males and females, various age groups, marital status, and work place activity. Investment in medium risk instruments significantly differ for work experience on gender basis. Investment in low risk instruments does not differ for demographic variables of investors as all investors invest equally in safe investment mode. MBTI personality type is a less significant variable which directly affects investment patterns of Indian investors. The study can be useful for portfolio managers, investment advisors who can use it for designing investment portfolios and products for their clients based on their demographic, and behavioural profiling. Originality: This study identifies relationship between investment pattern, behavioural biases and demographic characteristics of Indian investors. MBTI personality assessment is one new dimension which is less researched in studying investment behaviour in Indian context.

Enzyme based Therapies
Dr. Anantha Naik Nagappa
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2005,
Abstract: Enzymes are biologic catalysts exhibiting remarkable substrate specificity and high efficiency. They are found through out biological systems and are located both side of the cell membrane. Enzymes are mostly proteins (with few exceptions like RNA) that catalyze unique biochemical reactions by lowering the activation energy. Enzyme catalytic activities are essential for carrying out functions of life like cell division, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Highly coordinated biochemical reactions carried synchronized fashion leading to successful events with precision. Enzymes are usually regulated by phosphorylation, proteolytic modifications, binding to stimulatory and inhibitory co proteins and allosteric interactions.To be precise the dynamisms of life depends on activities of the proteins. change in the perturbation of the dynamic, highly linked and synchronized bio systems due to deficiency of enzymes leads to diseased state. It also provides a therapeutic opportunity to restore the bioprocess imbalance by replacement of enzymes. Principles of enzyme-based therapies depend upon identifying the deficient or aberrant enzyme activity leading to clinical symptoms like shortage or excess accumulation of key substrates or end products. The major hurdles of enzyme therapy are development of immune reaction by the host and reduction in efficacy of the enzyme due to repeated administrations.
Hospital-Acquired Anaemia Secondary to Phlebotomy in Elderly Patients  [PDF]
Divya Tiwari, Caroline Rance
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2014.32012

Introduction: Anaemia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in hospitalised patients, yet unnecessary blood tests from inpatients may actually induce a “hospital acquired anaemia” (HAA). This study examines the incidence of phlebotomy-induced anaemia during a hospital admission. Methods: Patients admitted to the Royal Bournemouth Hospital between 2009 and 2011 for a period of more than two weeks were identified. Those with normal haemoglobins on admission (Hb > 130 g/dL in men; Hb > 120 g/dL in women) were selected to be included in the study. One hundred and sixty two patients were randomly selected from this group and their admission and discharge haemoglobin was recorded, and the change in Hb was calculated. The number of blood tests taken during admission was calculated from each patient from which volume of blood lost was determined. Age, sex and co-morbidities, bleeding complications and blood transfusions were noted. T-test for unequal variance was used for analysis. Results: Of the 162 patients, 69 (42.5%) developed a HAA (defined as haemoglobin drop from normal to <110 g/dL). The average number of blood tests taken in the anaemia group was 37, compared to only 23 in the “no-anaemia” group. i.e. 132 mls in the anaemia group vs. only 80.2 mls in no-anaemia group. Further analysis of the anaemia group revealed that 40 patients developed a “mild anaemia” (defined as drop in Hb from normal to <110 g/dL) and 29 developed a moderate/severe anaemia (drop from a normal Hb at admission to <100 g/dL). Significantly higher volume of blood was withdrawn from this moderate/severe anaemia group compared to those that developed a mild anaemia 177.9 mls vs. 121.34 mls (p-Value 0.007, F = 0.001) 95% CI 2.08 to 9.22. Conclusion: This study suggests that patients admitted for inpatient stays of more than two weeks may be at high risk of HAA as a consequence of diagnostic blood loss. This anaemia in turn may have detrimental consequences, especially in patients with pre-existing cardio-respiratory disease. There needs to be increased awareness of the risk posed to patients as a result of diagnostic phlebotomy and further studies are required to study its impact on LOS, morbidity and mortality outcomes.

Investigation of Tolerable Laser Linewidth for Different Modulation Formats in CO-OFDM Systems  [PDF]
Divya Dhawan, Neena Gupta
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2017.75009
Abstract: The ideal behavior of communication system requires a single frequency carrier. In optical communication system, light is used as a carrier. Practical laser source has a finite linewidth due to variations in the frequency of operation, hence, resulting in undesired phase perturbations in the signal whereas the ideal requirement is the delta function spectral shape at the carrier frequency. The spectral shape gets broadened due to phase noise and is modeled as lorentzian shape. Linewidth is a measure of stability of laser phase noise with time. Coherent Optical Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) along with the spectrally efficient Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) formats is emerging as one of the best solutions for future high speed fiber transmission systems. Though the coherent, receivers have advantages in terms of sensitivity and selectivity, laser phase noise is the main limitation of such systems as the laser phase noise further causes common phase rotation of all the subcarriers per symbol and also results in inter carrier interference. QAM formats are also susceptible to laser phase noise. Phase noise in coherent systems is governed by laser linewidth. Hence, it is very important to investigate the impact of laser linewidth in CO-OFDM systems. This paper investigates the tolerable laser linewidths for different QAM formats in a 40 Gbps COOFDM system.
Testability Models for Object-Oriented Frameworks  [PDF]
Divya Ranjan, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.36061
Abstract: Frameworks are time-tested highly reusable architectural skeleton structures. They are designed ‘abstract’ and ‘inco- mplete’ and are designed with predefined points of variability, known as hot spots, to be customized later at the time of framework reuse. Frameworks are reusable entities thus demand stricter and rigorous testing in comparison to one- time use application. The overall cost of framework development may be reduced by designing frameworks with high testability. This paper aims at discussing a few metric models for testability analysis of object-oriented frameworks in an attempt to having quantitative data on testability to be used to plan and monitor framework testing activities so that the framework testing effort and hence the overall framework development effort may be brought down.
Variability-Based Models for Testability Analysis of Frameworks  [PDF]
Divya Ranjan, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.35051
Abstract: Frameworks are developed to capture the recurring design practices in terms of skeletons of software subsystems/ systems. They are designed ‘abstract’ and ‘incomplete’ and are designed with predefined points of variability, known as hot spots, to be customized later at the time of framework reuse. Frameworks are reusable entities thus demand stricter and rigorous testing in comparison to one-time use application. It would be advisable to guaranty the production of high quality frameworks without incurring heavy costs for their rigorous testing. The overall cost of framework development may be reduced by designing frameworks with high testability. This paper aims at discussing various metric models for testability analysis of frameworks in an attempt to having quantitative data on testability to be used to plan and monitor framework testing activities so that the framework testing effort and hence the overall framework development effort may be brought down. The models considered herein particularly consider that frameworks are inherently abstract and variable in nature.
High frequency multiplication of shoots using axillary buds for production of elite lines of Stevia rebaudiana  [PDF]
Kavyashree Rangappa, Divya Shalini Aind
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.47102
Abstract: An efficient repeatable protocol has been developed for rapid clonal multiplication of an endemic, perennial herb Stevia rebaudiana using juvenile axillary buds from in vivo grown seedlings. MS basal medium supplemented with BAP (8.88 μM) and NAA (5.37 μM) was found to be the most suitable medium for initiation of shoots with 92% response. The repeated subculture resulted in high-frequency shoot multiplication (9.82 ± 1.93) at the average rate of 3-fold per subculture. The axenic multiple shoots were rooted ex-vitro on horticultural grate soilrite mix-peat:perlite:vermiculate (1:1:1 v/v) with half strength MS salts fortified with NAA (5.37 μM). The complete plantlets were successfully established in soil with 86% survival frequency. The statistical analysis of the data pertaining to multiple shoots and root formation revealed significant difference between and within the treatments.
Impact of Capital Structure on Firm Value: Evidence from Indian Hospitality Industry  [PDF]
Divya Aggarwal, Purna Chandra Padhan
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.74067
Abstract: This study examines the effect of capital structure and firm quality on firm value of selected BSE listed Indian hospitality firms over a time frame of 2001-15. Variables including firm quality measured through Altman Z score, leverage, size, profitability, tangibility, growth, liquidity along with macro variables of growth in gross domestic product and inflation are taken into consideration for examining their impact on firm value. An empirical study has been carried out through panel data techniques by applying pooled OLS, fixed effects and random effects models. The findings of the study reveal a significant relationship of firm value with firm quality, leverage, liquidity, size and economic growth. The study shows that Modigliani miller theorem of capital structure irrelevance does not hold for Indian hospitality sector. It is of practical significance for hotel owners to reassess their capital structure to improve firm quality and firm’s market performance.
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