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The SS-SCR Scheme for Dynamic Spectrum Access
Vinay Thumar,Taskeen Nadkar,U. B. Desai,S. N. Merchant
Journal of Computer Networks and Communications , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/851204
Abstract: We integrate the two models of Cognitive Radio (CR), namely, the conventional Sense-and-Scavenge (SS) Model and Symbiotic Cooperative Relaying (SCR). The resultant scheme, called SS-SCR, improves the efficiency of spectrum usage and reliability of the transmission links. SS-SCR is enabled by a suitable cross-layer optimization problem in a multihop multichannel CR network. Its performance is compared for different PU activity patterns with those schemes which consider SS and SCR separately and perform disjoint resource allocation. Simulation results depict the effectiveness of the proposed SS-SCR scheme. We also indicate the usefulness of cloud computing for a practical deployment of the scheme. 1. Introduction 1.1. Cognitive Radio/Dynamic Spectrum Access The emerging Cognitive Radio (CR) technology is an attempt to alleviate the inefficient utilization of the spectrum, created by the current Command-and-Control spectrum access policy. It temporarily allows unused portions of the spectrum (spectrum holes or white-spaces), owned by the licensed users, known as primary users (PUs), to be accessed by unlicensed users, known as secondary users (SUs), without causing intrusive interference to the former’s communication [1]. This is the Sense-and-Scavenge (SS) Model of conventional CR. A CR node is characterized by an adaptive, multi-dimensionally aware, autonomous radio system empowered by advanced intelligent functionality, which interacts with its operating environment and learns from its experiences to reason, plan, and decide future actions to meet various needs [2]. In the SS model of CR, the temporal PU activity patterns have a significant influence on the opportunities for the SUs. The source traffic for the PU alternates between ON (busy) and OFF (idle) periods. The ON/OFF activity is characterized by suitable statistical models, for predictive estimation of the patterns. Exponential [3–6] and log-normal [3–5] distributions are popularly used in the literature to model the ON (and OFF) times of the PU activity. Measurements have also revealed that successive ON and OFF periods are independent, though in some cases long-term correlations exist [4]. 1.2. Symbiotic Cooperative Relaying An interesting paradigm that has surfaced in the research surrounding CR is a symbiotic architecture, which improves the efficiency of spectrum usage and reliability of the transmission links [7–12]. According to this model, which we refer to as Symbiotic Cooperative Relaying (SCR), the PU seeks to enhance its own communication by leveraging other users in its vicinity,
Power allocation, bit loading and sub-carrier bandwidth sizing for OFDM-based cognitive radio
Thumar Vinay,Nadkar Taskeen,Gopavajhula Tej,Desai Uday
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2011,
Abstract: The function of the Radio Resource Management module of a Cognitive Radio (CR) system is to evaluate the available resources and assign them to meet the Quality of Service (QoS) objectives of the Secondary User (SU), within some constraints on factors which limit the performance of the Primary User (PU). While interference mitigation to the PU spectral band from the SU's transmission has received a lot of attention in recent literature; the novelty of our work is in considering a more realistic and effective approach of dividing the PU into sub-bands, and ensuring that the interference to each of them is below a specified threshold. With this objective, and within a power budget, we execute the tasks of power allocation, bit loading and sizing the sub-carrier bandwidth for an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based SU. After extensively analyzing the solution form of the optimization problems posed for the resource allocation, we suggest iterative algorithms to meet the aforementioned objectives. The algorithm for sub-carrier bandwidth sizing is novel, and not previously presented in literature. A multiple SU scenario is also considered, which entails assigning sub-carriers to the users, besides the resource allocation. Simulation results are provided, for both single and multi-user cases, which indicate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms in a CR environment.
Resources Allocation and Failures in Step Topology under Distributed Computing System  [PDF]
Taskeen Zaidi, Vipin Saxena
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.61002

In the past years, distributed computing is gaining the popularity due to reduction in execution time and low cost involvement. On the basis of this, Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is also increasing worldwide with major advantage that it has no involvement of wire and transfer of data can be done by the virtual paths if the existing path is congested. In the present work, MANET is considered in the form of step topology which consists of heterogeneous collection of the devices. The work demonstrates the resources allocation for execution of tasks and it consists of selection of right path if the link failures and by pass link failures. It also consists of the resource management over the new proposed step topology. Entire work is modeled with the help of well known modeling language known as Unified Modeling Language (UML) and model demonstrates the resources allocation for execution of the tasks.

Deadlock Detection and Avoidance in Static Step Topology under Distributed Environment  [PDF]
Taskeen Zaidi, Vipin Saxena
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.62008

During the past years, the distributed computing approach has become very popular due to various advantages over centralized approach. In the distributed approach, the execution of a process has reduced and also it requires low cost for installation. Many of the researchers are using the modeling approach for solution of the software and hardware architecture research problems. The most popular approach of modeling is known as Unified Modeling Language based on the object-oriented technology. In the present work, a method of deadlock detection is explained for the newly proposed static step topology for the distributed network. In the step topology, the processes are taken as a task, sub task, macro, subroutine, etc which are executed in reflexive and symmetric manners when the systems are interconnected to each other under distributed environment and avoidance technique is also presented for the same. The deadlock detection technique is presented through a UML class model.

Sharing of NKN Facilities in Static Step Topology under Distributed Environment  [PDF]
Taskeen Zaidi, Vipin Saxena
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.65032

The government of India has set up distributed network in India for sharing the knowledge among the higher learning Institutions in the year 2009 under Next Generation Services (NGN) and slowly-slowly it is expanding as the distributed computing network becomes very popular now days due to low cost involvement. This network is called as a National Knowledge Network (NKN) whose main purpose is to connect all the Indian universities, research institutions, research labs, digital libraries, countrywide classroom, etc. under one platform. In the present work, sharing of different kinds of facilities under NKN is demonstrated for the static step topology designed by the authors. The different kinds of facilities are connected through step topology and a well known modeling technique i.e. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used for demonstrating the UML class diagram for sharing of all these facilities through step topology. Some experimental results are also demonstrated for the topology.

Modeling and OLAP Cubes for Database of Ground and Municipal Water Supply  [PDF]
Taskeen Zaidi, Annapurna Singh, Vipin Saxena
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2013.23009
Abstract: Modeling plays an important role for the solution of the complex research problems. When the database became large and complex then it is necessary to create a unified model for getting the desired information in the minimum time and to implement the model in a better way. The present paper deals with the modeling for searching of the desired information from a large database by storing the data inside the three dimensional data cubes. A sample case study is considered as a real data related to the ground water and municipal water supply, which contains the data from the various localities of a city. For the demonstration purpose, a sample size is taken as nine but when it becomes very large for number of localities of different cities then it is necessary to store the data inside data cubes. A well known object-oriented Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used to create Unified class and state models. For verification purpose, sample queries are also performed and corresponding results are depicted.
Analysing post-apartheid gender and racial transformation in medical education in a South African province
Taskeen Khan,Leena S. Thomas,Shan Naidoo
Global Health Action , 2013, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v6i0.19810
Abstract: Introduction: In light of global concerns about insufficient numbers of doctors, midwives, and nurses, the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified the scale-up of the production of medical professionals who are competent and responsive to community needs as urgent and necessary. Coincident with this imperative, South African medical schools have also had to consider redressing apartheid-era inequities in access to medical education and changing the racial and gender profile of medical graduates to be representative of the population. In this article, we explore progress and challenges with regard to transformation, defined as intentional and planned changes aimed at addressing historical disadvantages, in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using data on medical school admissions and graduations from the Health and Education Departments for the period 1999–2011. Admission and graduation statistics of 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2011 were analysed according to race and gender. Results: The results show that there has been progress in transforming the race and gender composition of medical students and graduates, in line with the transformation strategies of the South African government. In 1999, black African enrolments and graduates were conspicuously low in two of the three medical schools in the Gauteng province. By 2011, an almost six-fold increase in black African student enrolments was seen in one medical school that was previously designated as a white institution. In contrast, at the historically black medical school, whites only represented 0.40% of enrolments in 1999 and 7.4% in 2011. Since 1999, the number and proportion of female medical enrolments and graduates has also increased substantially. Conclusion: While there has been progress with redressing historical disparities and inequities in terms of race and gender, further efforts are needed to ensure that student intakes and graduations are in line with the South African population profile.
SMURF and NEDD4 interference offers therapeutic potential in chaperoning genome integrity
Ammad A. Farooqi,Qaisar Mansoor,Aamir Rana,Taskeen M. Mashhadi
Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: Fusion transcripts had been acclaimed as the hallmark features of hematological malignancies. However, recently these fusion transcripts have been characterized in the prostate cancer epithelial cells. Prostate cancer is a multifactorial anomaly that arises and exacerbates because of miscellany of key mediators instrumental in disease aggressiveness. These chimeric transcripts are cell type specific and therapeutic interventions to address these “lead astray fused genes” are still incompetent and the resultant oncoproteins are considered by conventional approaches as 'undruggable'. Furthermore it is a well established fact that TGF signaling is an important pathway that has broader implication in prostate cancer progression. SMAD proteins are the main effectors which are degraded by negative regulators of TGF signaling. Lack of activator SMADs because of degradation mediated by SMURF and NEDD (ubiquitin ligase) results in genomic instability. Absence of TGF signaling severely abolishes activation of ATM, which is engaged in monitoring faithful repair of genome. DNA damage in absence of ATM relentlessly challenges integrity of genome and results in genomic rearrangements giving rise to hallmark fusion transcript of prostate cancer, i.e. TMPRSS2-ERG. Methods: In this particular study we have used RNA interference technique to unfold the correlation betweeen TGF signaling and fusion transcript appearance in the LNCaP cell line. We have treated the androgen treated and irradiated cell line with siRNA of NEDD4 and SMURF. Results: There was a successful blockade of both genes at transcriptional level as evidenced by RT PCR study. Simultaneously there was remarkable down regulation in the appearance of fusion transcript. Contrary to this, cells treated with scrambled RNA were insensitive to fusion gene abrogation. Conclusion: The results are indicative of the fact that NEDD4 and SMURF are the major proteins involved in the deviation of core biological systems and combinatorial blockade of these genes or alternatively, drugging negative regulators of TGF pathway will enable us to get a step closer to tailor therapy. [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(1): 43-50]
Clinical and Autoimmune Profile of Scleroderma Patients from Western India
Vandana Pradhan,Anjali Rajadhyaksha,Milind Nadkar,Pallavi Pandit,Prathamesh Surve,Maxime Lecerf,Jagadeesh Bayry,Srinivas Kaveri,Kanjaksha Ghosh
International Journal of Rheumatology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/983781
Abstract: Background. Systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma) is a disorder characterized by fibrosis of skin and visceral organs. Pathogenesis of scleroderma is complex and is incompletely understood as yet. Autoantibodies in SSc represent a serologic hallmark which have clinical relevance, with diagnostic and prognostic potential. Objectives. To study distribution of clinical manifestations and to identify frequency of autoantibodies among subtypes of scleroderma patients from Western India. Methodology. One hundred and ten scleroderma patients were clinically classified according to the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) criteria. All these patients were in active stage of disease. Clinical manifestations were recorded at the time of presentation. Autoantibodies were tested in them by indirect immunofluorescence test and ELISA. Immunoglobulin levels were estimated by nephelometer. These parameters were further correlated with clinical presentation of the disease. Results. Scleroderma patients had M?:?F ratio of 1?:?10 where mean age at evaluation was years and a mean disease duration was months. Clinical subtypes showed that 45 patients (40.9%) had diffused cutaneous (dcSSc) lesions, 32 patients (29.1%) had limited cutaneous (lcSSc) lesions, and 33 patients (30%) had other autoimmune overlaps. The overall frequency of ANA in SSc patients studied was 85.5%. The frequency of anti-Scl70, anti-centromere, anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA), and anti-keratinocyte antibodies (AKA) was 62.7%, 22.7%, 30%, and 40.9%, respectively. Anti-Scl70 antibodies were significantly high (75.6% versus 46.9%) among dcSSc patients () whereas anti-centromere antibodies were significantly high (9% versus 38%) among lcSSc patients when these two subtypes were compared (). Conclusion. This study supports that there are geoepidemiological variations among scleroderma patients for their clinical presentation, autoantibody profile, and immune parameters across the country. 1. Introduction Scleroderma or systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex autoimmune disease affecting 1/100,000 individuals among the Caucasian population. The prevalence rate of this disease is around 5/100,000 with an incidence of 1/100,000. Higher rates have been reported in USA, Australia, and Eastern Europe and lower rates have been reported in Northern Europe and Japan [1]. Even though current clinical and diagnostic utilities have led to a better understanding of the disease, its pathogenesis still remains unknown. Scleroderma is a heterogeneous disease with a wide range
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