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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 813 matches for " Nadeem Javaid "
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M-ATTEMPT: A New Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks
Nadeem Javaid
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: This paper presents an energy efficient routing algorithm for heterogeneous Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs). A prototype is defined for employing heterogeneous sensors on human body. Direct communication is used for real-time traffic (critical data) and on-demand data while multi-hop communication is used for normal data delivery in this proposed routing algorithm. One of the prime challenges in WBASNs is sensing of heat generated by implanted sensor nodes. The proposed routing algorithm is thermal-aware which sense the link Hot-spot and routes the data away from these links. Continuous mobility of human body causes disconnection between previous established links. We introduce mobility support and energy-management to overcome the problem of disconnection due to continuous mobility of human body. MATLAB simulations of proposed routing algorithm are performed for lifetime and reliability in comparison with multi-hop communication. The results show that the proposed routing algorithm has less energy consumption and more reliable as compared to multi-hop communication.
Study of Pakistan Election System as Intelligent e-Election
Muhammad Nadeem,Javaid R. Laghari
Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: The proposed election system lies in ensuring that it is transparent and impartial.Thus while the electoral system may vary from country to country, It has to take into account the peculiarities of every society while at the same time incorporating remedies to problems prevailing in the system. The Electoral process expressed serious concerns regarding the independence of the Election Commission of Pakistan, the restrictions on political parties and their candidates, the misuse of state resources, some unbalanced coverage in the state media, deficiencies in the compilation of the voting register and significant problems relating to the provision of ID cards. The holding of a general election does not in itself guarantee the restoration of democracy. The unjustified interference with electoral arrangements, as detailed above, irrespective of the alleged motivation, resulted in serious flaws being inflicted on the electoral process. Additionally, questions remain as to whether or not there will be a full transfer of power from a military to civilian administration. The Independent study research has following modules: Login/Subscription Module Candidate Subscription Module Vote casting Module Administration Module Intelligent decision data analysis Module
Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Proactive Routing Protocols
Nadeem Javaid,Ayesha Bibi,Akmal Javaid,Shahzad A. Malik
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, we present a detailed framework consisting of modeling of routing overhead generated by three widely used proactive routing protocols; Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The questions like, how these protocols differ from each other on the basis of implementing different routing strategies, how neighbor estimation errors affect broadcast of route requests, how reduction of broadcast overhead achieves bandwidth, how to cope with the problem of mobility and density, etc, are attempted to respond. In all of the above mentioned situations, routing overhead and delay generated by the chosen protocols can exactly be calculated from our modeled equations. Finally, we analyze the performance of selected routing protocols using our proposed framework in NS-2 by considering different performance parameters; Route REQuest (RREQ) packet generation, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) with respect to varying rates of mobility and density of nodes in the underlying wireless network.
Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Reactive Routing Protocols
Nadeem Javaid,Ayesha Bibi,Akmal Javaid,Shahzad A. Malik
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, we have modeled the routing over- head generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficient routing is sum of the cost paid in the form of energy consumed and time spent. These protocols majorly focus on the optimization performed by expanding ring search algorithm to control the flooding generated by the mechanism of blind flooding. So, we have modeled the energy consumed and time spent per packet both for route discovery and route maintenance. The proposed framework is evaluated in NS-2 to compare performance of the chosen routing protocols.
Performance Study of ETX based Wireless Routing Metrics
Nadeem Javaid,Akmal Javaid,Imran Ali Khan,Karim Djouani
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Being most popular and IETF standard metric, minimum hop count is appropriately used by Ad hoc Networks, as new paths must rapidly be found in the situations where quality paths could not be found in due time due to high node mobility. There always has been a tradeoff between throughput and energy consumption, but stationary topology of WMNs and high node density of WSN's benefit the algorithms to consider quality-aware routing to choose the best routes. In this paper, we analytically review ongoing research on wireless routing metrics which are based on ETX (Expected Transmission Count) as it performs better than minimum hop count under link availability. Performances over ETX, target platforms and design requirements of these ETX based metrics are high-lighted. Consequences of the criteria being adopted (in addition to expected link layer transmissions & retransmissions) in the form of incremental: (1) performance overheads and computational complexity causing inefficient use of network resources and instability of the routing algorithm, (2) throughput gains achieved with better utilization of wireless medium resources have been elaborated.
Maximizing the Lifetime of Multi-chain PEGASIS using Sink Mobility
Mohsin Raza Jafri,Nadeem Javaid,Akmal Javaid,Zahoor Ali Khan
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper, we propose the mobility of a sink in improved energy efficient PEGASIS-based protocol (IEEPB) to advance the network lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The multi-head chain, multi-chain concept and the sink mobility affects largely in enhancing the network lifetime of wireless sensors. Thus, we recommend Mobile sink improved energy-efficient PEGASIS-based routing protocol (MIEEPB); a multi-chain model having a sink mobility, to achieve proficient energy utilization of wireless sensors. As the motorized movement of mobile sink is steered by petrol or current, there is a need to confine this movement within boundaries and the trajectory of mobile sink should be fixed. In our technique, the mobile sink moves along its trajectory and stays for a sojourn time at sojourn location to guarantee complete data collection. We develop an algorithm for trajectory of mobile sink. We ultimately perform wide-ranging experiments to assess the performance of the proposed method. The results reveal that the proposed way out is nearly optimal and also better than IEEPB in terms of network lifetime.
Identifying Design Requirements for Wireless Routing Link Metrics
Nadeem Javaid,Muti Ullah,Karim Djouani
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, we identify and analyze the requirements to design a new routing link metric for wireless multihop networks. Considering these requirements, when a link metric is proposed, then both the design and implementation of the link metric with a routing protocol become easy. Secondly, the underlying network issues can easily be tackled. Thirdly, an appreciable performance of the network is guaranteed. Along with the existing implementation of three link metrics Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Minimum Delay (MD), and Minimum Loss (ML), we implement inverse ETX; invETX with Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) using NS-2.34. The simulation results show that how the computational burden of a metric degrades the performance of the respective protocol and how a metric has to trade-off between different performance parameters.
Interference and Bandwidth Adjusted (ETX) in Wireless Multi-hop Networks
Nadeem Javaid,Ayesha Bibi,Karim Djouani
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new quality link metric, interference and bandwidth adjusted ETX (IBETX) for wireless multi-hop networks. As MAC layer affects the link performance and consequently the route quality, the metric therefore, tackles the issue by achieving twofold MAC-awareness. Firstly, interference is calculated using cross-layered approach by sending probes to MAC layer. Secondly, the nominal bit rate information is provided to all nodes in the same contention domain by considering the bandwidth sharing mechanism of 802.11. Like ETX, our metric also calculates link delivery ratios that directly affect throughput and selects those routes that bypass dense regions in the network. Simulation results by NS-2 show that IBETX gives 19% higher throughput than ETX and 10% higher than Expected Throughput (ETP). Our metric also succeeds to reduce average end-to-end delay up to 16% less than Expected Link Performance (ELP) and 24% less than ETX.
Preventive Care Resource Allocation in Developing Countries: Can Rational Planning Techniques Help in Allocating Vaccinators in Dera Ismail Khan District of Pakistan?
Mohammad Ishfaq,Faran Ahmad Qadri,Nadeem Javaid
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Preventive care service delivery faces immense challenges when it comes to the level of coverage. Within this context, the case of child immunization is presented by applying operations management tools. This paper explores the application of integer programming techniques to support the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) service in the Dera Ismail Khan District of Pakistan. The main concern here is equitable service delivery to decentralized localities based on two criteria: (1) achieving the highest possible level of vaccination among the target population; and 2) ensuring equality among geographically scattered populations, especially in rural dwellings. For this purpose two integer programming models have been applied on the basis of (1) sub-dividing health district into localities and allocating vaccinators to visit and vaccinate children within their administrative boundaries, and (2) within the localized planning system allowing vaccinators to visit and vaccinate children across the administrative boundaries subject to savings in travel time. Both models show interesting results in terms of need satisfaction and travel-time savings with a minimum level of deviation from equity. The solutions provide a trade-off between alternative organizational tactics, and the argument is made that rational planning methods applied interactively can contribute to the delivery of an immunization service that is equitable and cost effective.
Object Oriented Model for Evaluation of On-Chip Networks
Sheraz Anjum,Ehsan Ullah Munir,Waqas Anwar,Nadeem Javaid
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The Network on Chip (NoC) paradigm is rapidly replacing bus based System on Chip (SoC) designs due to their inherent disadvantages such as non-scalability, saturation and congestion. Currently very few tools are available for the simulation and evaluation of on-chip architectures. This study proposes a generic object oriented model for performance evaluation of on-chip interconnect architectures and algorithms. The generic nature of the proposed model can help the researchers in evaluation of any kind of on-chip switching networks. The model was applied on 2D-Mesh and 2D-Diagonal-Mesh on-chip switching networks for verification and selection of best out of both the analyzed architectures. The results show the superiority of 2D-Diagonal-Mesh over 2D-Mesh in terms of average packet delay.
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