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Activités insecticides de Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth (Scrophulariaceae) sur Callosobrichus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera : Bruchidae)
Kiendrebeogo M.,Ouedraogo AP.,Nacoulma OG.
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 2006,
Abstract: Insecticidal activities of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth (Scrophulariacecae) on Callobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleptera Bruchidae). This paper deals with insecticidal potentialities of Striga hermonthica (Del.) (Scrophulariaceae) in protection of cowpea Vigna unguculata (L.) Walp against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) during storage. Crude acetone extract at 0,5% w/w (100 mg of extract for 20 g of grain) exhibits 48% of ovicidal effect and then reduces by half emergence rate of adult beetles at the first generation. This extract shows a weak insecticide activity against adults of C. maculatus. Petroleum ether fraction (0,4% w/w ) of the crude extract reveals ovicidal (51%) and larvicidal (72%) effects which reduce the emergence rate of adults to only 9%. LD50 and LD90 are monitored during crude extract fractionation to follow ovicidal and larvicidal compounds and to evaluate their efficacy during the isolation procedure. One fraction, mainly composed of two triterpenoid compounds has been identified as responsible of the ovicidal activity of S. hermonthica while the origin of the larvicidal activity hasn’t been identified.
Leucocyte Phagocytosis In Children With Urinary Schistosomiasis And Asymptomatic Malaria Parasitemia
OG Arinola
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2005,
Abstract: In the participants considered for this study, leucocyte migration, neutrophil candidacidal activity and ability to generate reactive oxygen were determined as percentage migration index (%M. I), candidacidal phagocytic index (%C.I) and bacterial stimulated nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye reduction index (%NBT) respectively. Also, malaria density was counted from thick blood film of glass slide stained with Giemsa stain. The participants were 54 school children having urinary schistosomiasis without malaria parasites (USS-M), 18 children with both urinary schistosomiasis and malaria parasites (USS+M), 46 children with malaria parasites without urinary schistosomiasis (M-USS) and 29 controls. The mean % M.I was least while %NBT index was highest in USS+M subjects but M-USS subjects had least %C.I. Malaria density was higher in M-USS subjects than USS+M subjects. The results of this study showed that low prevalence and reduced severity of malaria parasites in children with urinary schistosomiasis may be due to adequate production of leucocyte migration inhibitory factor (LMIF) and reactive oxygen species.
Abdominal incisions in General Surgery: a review
OG Ajao
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: There is this wrong notion that the only standard abdominal incision is the midline incision. Cases have been seen in which an abdominal incision extends from the xyphoid process to the symphysis pubis just to remove a perforated appendix! It is also not unusual to see a groin incision together with a lower abdominal incision for an obstructed inguinal hernia repair that “slipped” back into the abdominal cavity during preparation for surgery. Even though the trend nowadays in surgery is to opt for laparoscopic and mini-incision surgery, the basic rule in surgery is to have an incision that will be comfortable for the surgeon and provide adequate access to the area of pathology. KEY WORDS: Incisions, Abdomen, General Surgery
Immunological aspects of urinary Schistisomiasis in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria
OG Arinola
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 2005,
β-lactamase Molecular Classes Linked to Production Ways from Clinical Isolates in Burkina Faso/West Africa
Boukare Zeba,Jacques Simpore,Odile Germaine Nacoulma
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: β-lactamase production ways and inhibition patterns were investigated in cell suspensions of clinical isolates. The purpose of this research was prior to investigate the different β-lactamase molecular classes occurring in Burkina Faso owing to the local practice of β-lactam antibiotics. The use of specific inhibitors enabled to draw up an inhibition profile and consequently to assign an enzyme to accurate molecular class of β-lactamase. At the same time, β-lactamase expression ways were explored and correlated to the inhibition profiles. The current results pointed out two main groups of organisms. The first group of isolates secretes β-lactamases mainly by inducible way. Interestingly this bacterial group carries molecular class C of β-lactamase. The second group of isolates uses partial inducible and partial constitutive way for enzyme expression. These bacteria mostly carry molecular class A of β-lactamases. The sole exception encountered during these investigations is an organism, expressing exclusively by the constitutive way an enzyme that is found to belong to molecular class B of β-lactamases.
Case report of a 26 year old primigravida with Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) in heart failure
AA Akintunde, OG Opadijo
African Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Congenital heart disease is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. Pregnancy alters the circulatory and respiratory physiology with attendant deleterious effect on the mother with congenital heart disease and the foetus. Additional insult to the circulatory physiology by other factors coexisting together with congenital heart disease can further reduce the cardiac reserve in pregnancy and precipitate heart failure. These factors include anaemia, thromboembolism, hypertension, multiple pregnancy, strenuous physical activity, extremes of temperature and the normal physiological edema of pregnancy. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can present for the first time in pregnancy. Moderate to large PDA result in significant volume overload, left ventricular dilation and dysfunction. In the woman with a hemodynamically important PDA, pregnancy may precipitate or worsen heart failure. We report a successful pregnancy in a 26 year old primigravida with previously undetected patent ductus arteriosus with preeclampsia who presented in heart failure. This case highlights the importance of intensive careful examination of pregnant patients to identify such conditions.
Removal of copper (II), iron (III) and lead (II) ions from Mono-component Simulated Waste Effluent by Adsorption on Coconut Husk
OO Abdulrasaq, OG Basiru
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The use of coconut husk as a low-cost natural adsorbent for the removal of Cu (II), Fe (III) and Pb (II) from simulated industrial waste effluent was studied. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the effects of varying adsorbent loadings, pH, contact time, metal ion concentration and temperature of adsorption. The adsorption of Pb (II) was found to be maximum (94%±3.2) at pH 5, temperature of 100°C, metal ion concentration of 30 ppm and contact time of 30 min. The adsorption of Cu (II) and Fe (III) were maxima (92%±2.8 and 94%±1.4) at pH range of 5 - 7, metal ion concentration of 50 ppm, temperature of 50°C but at different times of 30 and 90 min respectively. 1 g of the adsorbent material was found to be optimal for all the metal ions; the Freundlich isotherm was found to be suitable for the adsorption of Cu(II) and Fe(III) while the Langmuir isotherm was found to be suitable for the adsorption of Pb(II). The adsorption kinetics was also studied.
Evaluation of the 48 hour, 72 hour and 96 hour readings of tuberculin test for the screening of tuberculosis in cattle
SIB Cadmus, OG Arinola
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2005,
Abstract: In this study, a cattle farm with a history of tuberculosis was examined over a period of three years to determine the usefulness of reading tuberculin tests (single intradermal cervical tuberculin test (SICTT) and single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test (SICCTT)) at 48 hrs, 72 hrs and 96 hrs intervals in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. On the onset, SICTT was conducted on a total of 145 cattle, 52 (35.9%) of these were positive at 48 hours, 56 (38.6%) at 72 hours and 65 (44.8%) at 96 hours (X2=1.54, p=0.46). After one year, 171 cattle were screened using SICCTT, 10 (5.8%) animals were positive at 48 hours, 12 (7.0%) at 72 hours and 14 (8.2%) at 96 hours (X2=0.67, p=0.72). During the third test conducted almost one year after the second test, 136 cattle were screened using SICCTT, 13 (9.6%) were positive at 48 hours, 17 (12.5%) at 72 hours and 17 (12.5%) at 96 hours (X2 = 0.68, p=0.71). With the pattern of this result, there may be need to review the policy which gave the 72 hr reading a preference over the 96 hr reading of tuberculin test. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 223-226
Effects of graded levels of cottonseed cake on performance, haematological and carcass characteristics of broilers fed from day old to 8 weeks of age
GO Adeyemo, OG Longe
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Cottonseed cake (CSC) has been used as a cheaper alternative to soyabean cake (SBC) in livestock feeding and a source of dietary protein. There is, however, paucity of information on its nutritive value in chickens. This study evaluated the performance, haematological and carcass characteristics of chickens in which CSC replaced SBC in a nutritional experiment. One hundred and eighty day old chicks (DOC) were fed with 5 different diets, such that 0% (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100% of CSC replaced SBC from day old to 8 weeks of age. Average weekly gains (AWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and dressed weight (DWT) were monitored. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for differential white blood cell count (lymphocyte) and haemoglobin (Hb). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Values of AWG and DWT ranged from 0.1 to 0.4 kg and 1.1 to 1.8 kg, respectively, with 100% CSC and control having the least and the highest values among the treatments. FCR ranged from 1.6 to 4.9. Values of lymphocyte and Hb ranged from 35.2 to 54.0% and 8.5 to 11.1 g/dl, respectively. Birds on 75% CSC based diets had blood profile comparable to the control than those of other diets. CSC can replace up to 75% SBC without adverse effects on performance, haematological values and carcass quality of the birds. This reveals CSC as a potent source of protein for meeting the crude protein requirements of chickens.
Acute phase proteins in pregnant women with urinary schistosomiasis in Ilie Village, Osun state, Nigeria
L Salawu, OG Arinola
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2004,
Abstract: Background: The acute phase proteins (APPs) are plasma proteins whose concentration rise or reduce in reaction to infection, inflammation or trauma (Baumann and Gauldie, 1990). The circulating concentration of these proteins are related to the severity of the underlying condition, thus quantification of their concentrations provide a ready means of giving valuable clinical information and extent of the disease processes (Thompson et. al., 1992). Materials and Methods: Serum levels of three acute phase proteins (transferrin, á2-macroglobulin and haptoglobin) were determined using single radial immuno-diffusion technique in one hundred and eight Nigerian women aged between 15 and 30 years. They were made up of thirty pregnant women with urinary schistosomiasis (P+USS), thirty-six pregnant women without USS (P-USS), eighteen non-pregnant women with USS (NP+USS), and twenty-four healthy non-pregnant women without USS (NP-USS) as controls. Results: The result shows that transferrin was least in P-USS group and highest in NP+USS. The highest mean value of alpha-2 macroglobulin was found in P+USS group and the least in NP+USS. Haptoglobin was significantly reduced in P+USS compared with other groups. Conclusions: The finding of this study suggests an independent effect of USS and pregnancy on serum levels of APPs, therefore APPs could be used to distinguish P+USS from P-USS
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