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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 127 matches for " Nabilah Ibnat Baby "
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Shift in Phenotypic Characteristics of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Isolated from Diarrheal Patients in Bangladesh
Yasmin Ara Begum,Nabilah Ibnat Baby,Abu S. G. Faruque,Nusrat Jahan,Alejandro Cravioto,Ann-Mari Svennerholm,Firdausi Qadri
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003031
Abstract: Background Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most common causes of bacterial diarrhea. Over the last decade, from 1996 to 2012, changes in the virulence antigen properties of ETEC such as heat labile (LT) and heat stable (ST) toxins, colonization factors (CFs), and ‘O’-serogroups have been observed. The aim of this prospective study was to compare changes in antigenic profiles of ETEC strains isolated from a 2% surveillance system at the icddr,b hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh between 2007–2012 and an earlier time period of 1996–1998 conducted at the same surveillance site. Methodology In the surveillance system every 50th patient attending the hospital was screened for major enteric pathogens including ETEC, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. from January 2007 to December 2012. Principal Findings Of the 15,152 diarrheal specimens tested between 2007–2012, the overall rate of ETEC isolation was 11%; of these, 43% were LT/ST, 27% LT and 30% ST positive. Isolation rate of ST-ETEC (p<0.009) and LT/ST ETEC (p<0.011) during 2007–2012 period differed significantly compared to those seen between 1996–1998. In comparison to the 1996–1998 period, difference in CF profile of ETEC isolates during 2007–2012 was observed particularly for strains expressing CS7 (12.4%), CS14 (9.5%) and CS17 (10.0%). The predominant CF types were CS5+CS6, CFA/I, CS7, CS17, CS1+CS3, CS6 and CS14. The most common serogroups among the CF positive ETEC isolates were O115, O114, O6, O25 and O8. A strong association was found between CFs and ‘O’ serogroups i.e. between CS5+CS6 and (O115 and O126); CS7 and (O114), CFA/I and (O78 and O126), CS17 and (O8 and O167) and CS1/CS2+CS3 and (O6). Conclusion The analyses show a shift in prevalence of antigenic types of ETEC over the study period; the information is important in designing effective ETEC vaccines with broad protective coverage.
Impact of Rapid Urbanization on the Rates of Infection by Vibrio cholerae O1 and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Fahima Chowdhury,Mohammad Arif Rahman,Yasmin A. Begum,Ashraful I. Khan,Abu S. G. Faruque,Nirod Chandra Saha,Nabilah Ibnat Baby,M. A. Malek,Anisha Rajeev Kumar,Ann-Mari Svennerholm,Mark Pietroni,Alejandro Cravioto,Firdausi Qadri
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000999
Abstract: Background In Bangladesh, increases in cholera epidemics are being documented with a greater incidence and severity. The aim of this prospective study was to identify the prevalence and importance of V. cholerae O1 and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) as causal agents of severe diarrhea in a high diarrhea prone urban area in Dhaka city. Methodology Systematic surveillance was carried out on all diarrheal patients admitted from Mirpur between March 2008 to February 2010 at the ICDDR, B hospital. Stool or rectal swabs were collected from every third diarrheal patient for microbiological evaluation. Principal Findings Of diarrheal patients attending the hospital from Mirpur, 41% suffered from severe dehydration with 39% requiring intravenous rehydration therapy. More diarrheal patients were above five years of age (64%) than those below five years of age (36%). About 60% of the patients above five years of age had severe dehydration compared with only 9% of patients under five years of age. The most prevalent pathogen isolated was Vibrio cholerae O1 (23%) followed by ETEC (11%). About 8% of cholera infection was seen in infants with the youngest children being one month of age while in the case of ETEC the rate was 11%. Of the isolated ETEC strains, the enterotoxin type were almost equally distributed; ST accounted for 31% of strains; LT/ST for 38% and LT for 31%. Conclusion V. cholerae O1 is the major bacterial pathogen and a cause of severe cholera disease in 23% of patients from Mirpur. This represents a socioeconomic group that best reflects the major areas of high cholera burden in the country. Vaccines that can target such high risk groups in the country and the region will hopefully be able to reduce the disease morbidity and the transmission of pathogens that impact the life and health of people.
Decidability for semigroups which are disjoint unions of finitely many copies of the free monogenic semigroup
Nabilah Abughazalah
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Every semigroup which is a finite disjoint union of copies of the free mono- genic semigroup (natural numbers under addition) has soluble word problem and soluble membership problem
Effect of Non-Uniform Temperature Gradient on the Onset of Rayleigh-Bénard Electro Convection in a Micropolar Fluid  [PDF]
Subbarama Pranesh, Riya Baby
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.35067
Abstract: The effects of electric field and non-uniform basic temperature gradient on the onset of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a micropolar fluid are studied using the Galerkin technique. The eigenvalues are obtained for free-free, rigid-free and rigid-rigid velocity boundary combinations and for isothermal and/or adiabatic temperature boundaries. The microrotation is assumed to vanish at the boundaries. A linear stability analysis is performed. The influence of various micropolar fluid parameters and electric Rayleigh number on the onset of convection has been analyzed. One linear and five non-uniform temperature profiles are considered and their comparative influence on onset is discussed.
Linear growth for semigroups which are disjoint unions of finitely many copies of the free monogenic semigroup
Nabilah Abughazalah,Pavel Etingof
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We show that every semigroup which is a finite disjoint union of copies of the free monogenic semigroup (natural numbers under addition) has linear growth. This implies that the the corresponding semigroup algebra is a PI algebra.
On properties of the lower central series of associative algebras
Nabilah Abughazalah,Pavel Etingof
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We give an accessible introduction into the theory of lower central series of associative algebras, exhibiting the interplay between algebra, geometry and representation theory that is characteristic for this subject, and to discuss some open questions. In particular, we provide shorter and clearer proofs of the main results of this theory. We also discuss some new theoretical and computational results and conjectures on the lower central series of the free algebra in two generators modulo a generic homogeneous relation.
Canales de Distribución con Orientación hacia el mercado. CASO DE LOS MEDICAMENTOS EN LA CIUDAD DE MEDELLíN, 2001 Canales de Distribución con Orientación hacia el mercado. CASO DE LOS MEDICAMENTOS EN LA CIUDAD DE MEDELLíN, 2001
Jaime Baby
AD-minister , 2003,
Abstract: Este artículo presenta, en forma resumida, parte del trabajo de investigación “Elementos para la Toma de Decisiones sobre la Naturaleza de los Canales de Distribución desde la Perspectiva del Fabricante, en la Ciudad de Medellín. (Caso medicamentos)" (Baby, 2001).Se refiere a los canales de distribución en el mercado de consumo de medicamentos en la ciudad de Medellín. Se ilustra la aplicación de algunos pasos de un procedimiento o enfoque para dise ar o revisar la naturaleza de los canales de distribución de una empresa. El procedimiento toma las exigencias del mercado como motor parcial de las decisiones de la empresa fabricante acerca de sus canales de distribución. En consecuencia, se muestranalgunos hábitos de compra y exigencias o atributos importantes al momento de la compra, tanto de los compradores finales, como de los minoristas y de los mayoristas. De igual manera, se muestra cómo, a partir de ese conjunto de hábitos y exigencias, se pueden llevar a cabo análisis fundamentales para el dise o de estrategias y acciones de mercadeo dirigidas a los tres grupos investigados. This article summarizes part of the research proyect "Decision Making Criteria About theNature of the Distribution Channels, from the Manufacturer's Perspective, in Medellín,2001 (Pharmaceutical products)" (Baby, 2001). The article focuses on the channels ofdistribution in the pharmaceutical consumer market in Medellín. An illustration of theimplementation of some steps of a procedure or approach to design or review the nature ofthe distribution channels of the firm, is presented. The procedure assumes market requirements to be one of the driving forces shaping the decisions made by firms, regarding channels of distribution. Thus, buying behavior and service requirements of final consumers,retailers and wholesalers are shown. The article also shows how to carry out basic analysisleading to the design of marketing strategies and actions directed to the three groups thatwere investigated.
Latinoamérica: un desvío necesario? Baltasar Garzón, de Pinochet a Franco
Sophie Baby
Amnis , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/amnis.1485
Abstract: Este artículo nace ante la evidencia de un símil –el reciente movimiento de exhumación de cuerpos de fosas comunes en Espa a se asemeja a la búsqueda de los desaparecidos en Argentina y Chile- y de una transferencia a la inversa -Espa a, después de representar un modelo de transición para las naciones del Cono Sur, aprende hoy la lección que le han dejado sus hijas americanas y vuelve sobre el consenso silencioso que fundó la reconciliación nacional en los a os 1970-1980, como lo demu...
Assessing and Evaluating Anthropogenic Activities Causing Rapid Evolution in the Coastal Morphological Landscape Changes (CMLC) of Kuwait Using RIAM
S. Baby
Environment and Natural Resources Research (ENRR) , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/enrr.v1n1p152
Abstract: Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM), developed by DHI, is a preliminary assessment and scoping tool that was applied for performing the task of Rapid Assessment Procedure (RAP) in order to study the Coastal Morphological Landscape Changes (CMLC) for the coast of Kuwait. The obtained RIAM results were evaluated by conducting ? of Environmental Score (ES); Range Values Frequency Balance; Segregating Range Value and Environmental Score; and Histogram Evaluation. The RIAM study gives clear indication that the anthropogenic activities in Kuwait has been and is interfering with environmental components; thereby bringing changes or modifying or altering the natural CML. The activities of oil refineries, oil terminals, petrochemical industries, power stations and desalination plant have had more impact in changing the coastal morphology from the time oil was first discovered till now. They have changed the geomorphologic landforms and have interacted with salt marshes, swamps, tidal and intertidal flats of Kuwait. Apart from that the activities of dredging, dumping, reclamation, shore and beach nourishment, beach repair and construction have induced unpredicted erosion and accretion along the coast. The limited natural CML resources of the coastal area in Kuwait which lies along the 325 kilometers of shoreline of mainland inaddition, the coastal area of nine islands would become extinct within the next few decades if such acceleration of coastal exploitation goes on without any stringent preservation and conservation strategies. The total shoreline including all the nine islands is about 500 kilometers in length. The most vulnerable coast of Kuwait is around the Kuwait Bay, Khor Subiya Creek, and lslands of Bubiyan, and Warba.
Correlative Analysis of Data and Functions of Neuronal Synapse  [PDF]
T. R. Gopalakrishnan Nair, A. Baby Jerald
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.32027

Until recently, the synaptic transmission and excitatory amino acid transporters activation of neurons are very well discussed in the previous studies and are considered to be the two distinct features of Synapse. It is also found that a large number of interactions take place in the domain of ionic exchanges and protein interactions in synapses. It is evolutionary to have destined to release of Neurotransmitters to conduct an impulse to the other consecutive neurons, which forms the most important characteristic of synapse. From the popular perspective, it has been identified that detailed theoretical closer correlation of data produced through various studies about synapse can unravel many mysteries related to functions of synapse. Hence, this research paper tries to concentrate on a selected group of prominent characteristics and properties of synapse and also highlights some noteworthy discoveries, emphasizing the influential capabilities of them in the thought process and improving the knowledge of the field. It also highlights the expressive properties and forms of synapse brought out through the evidences available in sparse to dense data in a correlational way.

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