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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 298423 matches for " Nabil J. Azar "
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Marked Seizure Reduction after MCT Supplementation
Raed Azzam,Nabil J. Azar
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/809151
Abstract: We report the case of a 43-year-old man with history of nonsurgical partial epilepsy who previously failed multiple trials of antiepileptic drugs. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) were added to his regular diet in the form of pure oil. Subsequently, his seizure frequency was markedly reduced from multiple daily seizures to one seizure every four days. His seizures recurred after transient discontinuation of MCT over a period of ten days. His seizure improvement was achieved at a dose of four tablespoons of MCT twice daily with no reported side effects. He developed significant diarrhea and flatulence at higher doses. We conclude that MCT oil supplementation to regular diet may provide better seizure control in some patients. MCT oil supplementation may be a more tolerable alternative to the standard ketogenic diet. 1. Introduction The ketogenic diet was proven to be effective in treating patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. However, its sustained efficacy requires strict adherence to a high fat diet that can limit patient compliance. The fat intake can be derived either from long- or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) [1]. One major component of MCT is caprylic acid which was recently FDA approved as a food supplement for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease [2]. While maintaining a regular diet, MCT supplementation demonstrated increased ketosis, suggesting a possible role in the treatment of epilepsy. In this case, we report a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced marked seizure reduction after the addition of MCT oil to his regular diet. 2. Case A 43-year-old Caucasian right-handed man presented to our clinic with longstanding history of drug-resistant partial epilepsy. His first seizure occurred at the age of five years. Since then, he was treated with multiple antiepileptic drugs resulting only in short periods of seizure freedom. He reported daily seizures averaging six per day, in spite of an adequate dosage of levetiracetam, lamotrigine, and phenytoin. He described stereotypical episodes of an initial “closing-in” sensation followed by a variable degree of loss of awareness or staring as reported by his wife. His seizures rarely progressed into secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. His seizure risk factors included a history of premature birth and a paternal uncle with epilepsy. His past medical history included gastroesophageal reflux disease treated with famotidine. His general and neurological examinations were normal. As part of a presurgical evaluation, a five-day inpatient video-EEG study recorded 12
Levetiracetam Extended Release as Adjuvant Therapy for the Control of Partial-onset Seizures
Hasan H. Sonmezturk and Nabil J. Azar
Journal of Central Nervous System Disease , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/JCNSD.S4126
Abstract: Extended release (XR) formulation of levetiracetam (LEV) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration as an add-on to other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for adults with partial onset seizures. This is based on class-I evidence demonstrating significant seizure reduction in once daily dosing. Keppra-XR is marketed with the brand name of Keppra XR since 2008 (UCB Pharma). Its original immediate release (IR) formulation has been in the market since 2000. LEV has a unique molecular structure which is chemically unrelated to existing AEDs. The precise mechanism of action is unknown. Animal studies showed binding to synaptic vesicle protein SV2A, thought to be involved in modulating synaptic neurotransmitter release. LEV-IR is proven effective as adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures, primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures and myoclonic seizures. It was shown to be equivalent to carbamazepine as first-line treatment for partial-onset seizures. The extended release formulation added advantages such as better tolerance and increased compliance.
Levetiracetam Extended Release as Adjuvant Therapy for the Control of Partial-onset Seizures
Hasan H. Sonmezturk,Nabil J. Azar
Journal of Central Nervous System Disease , 2011,
Abstract:
Temporal Epilepsy Causing Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Adults  [PDF]
Hassan Al-Hail, Stacy Schantz Wilkins, Boulenouar Mesroua, Gayane Melikyan, Nabil Azar, Naim Haddad, Basim Uthman, Maria Siddiqi, Ameer Jan, Rana Babur, Abdulraheem Alrabi, Dirk Deleu, Gonzalo Alarcón
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2018.82021
Abstract: Abdominal epilepsy is often unrecognised as an epilepsy condition, particularly in adults. We present a rare adult patient who suffers daily episodes of abdominal pinching pain described lasting for 30 seconds, often evolving to loss of consciousness. Scalp EEG-video monitoring showed interictal left temporal slowing and frequent left temporal epileptiform discharges. Three stereotypical complex partial seizures consistent with her habitual attacks were recorded. Two seizures showed a left temporal onset and whereas the third one appeared to start on the right temporal lobe. In patients with paroxysms of abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, abdominal epilepsy should be considered after exclusion of the most common aetiologies for gastrointestinal conditions.
Improving Rule Base Quality to Enhance Production Systems Performance  [PDF]
Nabil Arman
International Journal of Intelligence Science (IJIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2013.31001
Abstract: Production systems have a special value since they are used in state-space searching algorithms and expert systems in addition to their use as a model for problem solving in artificial intelligence. Therefore, it is of high importance to consider different techniques to improve their performance. In this research, rule base is the component of the production system that we aim to focus on. This work therefore seeks to investigate this component and its relationship with other components and demonstrate how the improvement of its quality has a great impact on the performance of the production system as a whole. In this paper, the improvement of rule base quality is accomplished in two steps. The first step involves re-writing the rules having conjunctions of literals and producing a new set of equivalent rules in which long inference chains can be obtained easily. The second step involves augmenting the rule base with inference short-cut rules devised from the long inference chains. These inference short-cut rules have a great impact on the performance of the production system. Finally, simulations are performed on randomly generated rule bases with different sizes and goals to be proved. The simulations demonstrate that the suggested enhancements are very beneficial in improving the performance of production systems.
On the relationship between metrics to compare greenhouse gases – the case of IGTP, GWP and SGTP
C. Azar ,D. J. A. Johansson
Earth System Dynamics (ESD) & Discussions (ESDD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/esd-3-139-2012
Abstract: Metrics for comparing greenhouse gases are analyzed, with a particular focus on the integrated temperature change potential (IGTP) following a call from IPCC to investigate this metric. It is shown that the global warming potential (GWP) and IGTP are asymptotically equal when the time horizon approaches infinity when standard assumptions about a constant background atmosphere are used. The difference between IGTP and GWP is estimated for different greenhouse gases using an upwelling diffusion energy balance model with different assumptions on the climate sensitivity and the parameterization governing the rate of ocean heat uptake. It is found that GWP and IGTP differ by some 10% for CH4 (for a time horizon of less than 500 yr), and that the relative difference between GWP and IGTP is less for gases with a longer atmospheric life time. Further, it is found that the relative difference between IGTP and GWP increases with increasing rates of ocean heat uptake and increasing climate sensitivity since these changes increase the inertia of the climate system. Furthermore, it is shown that IGTP is equivalent to the sustained global temperature change potential (SGTP) under standard assumptions when estimating GWPs. We conclude that while it matters little for abatement policy whether IGTP, SGTP or GWP is used when making trade-offs, it is more important to decide whether society should use a metric based on time integrated effects such as GWP, a "snapshot metric" as GTP, or metrics where both economics and physical considerations are taken into account. Of equal importance is the question of how to choose the time horizon, regardless of the chosen metric. For both these overall questions, value judgments are needed.
On the relationship between metrics to compare greenhouse gases – the case of IGTP, GWP and SGTP
C. Azar,D. J. A. Johansson
Earth System Dynamics Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/esdd-3-113-2012
Abstract: Metrics for comparing greenhouse gases are analyzed, with a particular focus on the Integrated Temperature Change Potential (IGTP) following a call from IPCC to investigate this metric. It is shown that GWP and IGTP are asymptotically equal when the time horizon approaches infinity. The difference between IGTP and GWP is estimated for different greenhouse gases using an upwelling diffusion energy balance model with different assumptions on the climate sensitivity and the parameterization governing the rate of ocean heat uptake. It is found that GWP and IGTP differ by some 10% for CH4 (for a time horizon of less than 500 years), and the relative difference between GWP and IGTP is less for gases with a longer atmospheric life time. Further, it is found that the relative difference between IGTP and GWP increases with increasing rates of ocean heat uptake and increasing climate sensitivity. Finally, it is shown that IGTP is equivalent to the Sustained Global Temperature change Potential (SGTP) under standard assumptions when estimating GWPs, i.e. a constant background temperature and a constant background concentration of greenhouse gases.
Waste Related Pollutions and Their Potential Effect on Cancer Incidences in Lebanon  [PDF]
Sahar K. Azar, Safa S. Azar
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.76070
Abstract:

Pollution represents an important threat to human health. Waste pollution with its adverse health risks, mainly cancer incidences, is one of the main issues present in Lebanon. Random disposal of wastes is instilling a complex and challenging situation that is affecting the entire population. Here, a comprehensive study is presented along with collected data addressing the correlation between long-term exposure to the different forms of pollution and the chances of being affected with cancer. Lebanon, a country currently facing an extensive garbage crisis, is undergoing alarming surges in pollution rates. Inevitably, these environmental factors become chief elements in influencing disease statistics. It is therefore of urgent importance to seek all solutions possible while raising awareness in order to reduce life threatening risks.

Detailed Performance and Waiting-Time Predictability Analysis of Scheduling Options in On-Demand Video Streaming
Mohammad A. Alsmirat,Nabil J. Sarhan
EURASIP Journal on Image and Video Processing , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/842697
Abstract: The number of on-demand video streams that can be supported concurrently is highly constrained by the stringent requirements of real-time playback and high transfer rates. To address this problem, stream merging techniques utilize the multicast facility to increase resource sharing. The achieved resource sharing depends greatly on how the waiting requests are scheduled for service. We investigate the effectiveness of the recently proposed cost-based scheduling in detail and analyze opportunities for further tunings and enhancements. In particular, we analyze alternative ways to compute the delivery cost. In addition, we propose a new scheduling policy, called Predictive Cost-Based Scheduling (PCS), which applies a prediction algorithm to predict future scheduling decisions and then uses the prediction results to potentially alter its current scheduling decisions. Moreover, we propose an enhancement technique, called Adaptive Regular Stream Triggering (ART), which significantly enhances stream merging behavior by selectively delaying the initiation of full-length video streams. We analyze the effectiveness of the proposed strategies in terms of their performance effectiveness and impacts on waiting-time predictability through extensive simulation. The results show that significant performance benefits as well as better waiting-time predictability can be attained.
Sedimentary Environments Can Be Changed by Geotechnology (Case Study: A Morphotectonic Idea for Design of Extensive Artificial Bay on the Iranian Plateau)  [PDF]
Mehran Arian, Azar Khodabakhshnezhad
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2015.65039
Abstract: Iranian Plateau between the Lesser Caucasus-Alborz Mountains on the north and Zagros-Makran Ranges on the south has several inter-mountainous depressions which were filled by Quaternary deposits. Geologic evidence implied that, the last marine conditions in some depressions such as the Dasht-e Kavir, Dasht-e Lut and Jazmourian basins, had been changed to land conditions in middle Miocene. Based on shape and elevation of the Dasht-e Kavir, Dasht-e Lut and Jazmourian plains related to sea level and geomorphology of Iranian plateau, three semi-connective artificial lakes can be constructed upon the mentioned plains by consideration of many geologic and geotechnical parameters. These artificial lakes can feed by pumping of water from Oman Sea and form a triple artificial bay which they must be connected together by two gated straits. Therefore, a possible morphotectonic idea with many advantages has suggested that it can be present as an international geotechnologic design. This design has the important environmental impacts which can be changed desert to lake sedimentary basins.
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