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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6595 matches for " NI Jiu-Pai "
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Cultivated land carrying capacity and population migration in ecological barrier zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir

YANG Xin-Yue,WEI Chao-Fu,NI Jiu-Pai,

中国生态农业学报 , 2012,
Abstract: An ecological barrier zone project in the Three Gorges Reservoir is an important follow-up of the Three Gorges Project for protecting water quality and ecological environment, reducing population pressure on the Three Gorges Reservoir environment. Nonetheless, numerous project building difficulties have been caused by excessive human activity and sharp contradictions between population and available land. It was imperative to transfer congested residential in the region in order to relieve ecological pressure. Relevant consideration was the ecological carrying capacities of current and post-aforestation of cultivated lands. Based on "status-quo" state analysis, this study calculated the existing carrying capacities of cultivated lands (CLCC) in 15 districts in Chongqing. The study area is along the Three Gorges Reservoir and both the area and yield of cultivated lands were analyzed through calculation of per cap. demand for cultivated land and grain. The study also forecasted the CLCC after afforestation construction. The result showed that population carrying capacity of cultivated lands in the study area was severely inadequate. Deficit in the "status-quo" carrying capacity of cultivated lands for area (CLCCa) was 117.01 million people and that in the carrying capacity of cultivated land for production (CLCCp) was 94.93 million people. Moreover, regional deficit in terms of the CLCCa in 2020 was 127.39 million people. It was necessary to enhance an ecological migration of people in the region based on congestion trend in CLCC. Rural population migration was required with the key emigration and immigration areas being the northeast and southeast regions, respectively, according to distributions of CLCC and population in the study area. Added to migration implementation, it was the enhancement of CLCC to maintain dynamic balance of the area, and enhance the quantity of cultivated land. This was good for economic development, social stability and ecological security in the study area.
Strategies for poverty reduction and eco-environmental sustainability in old reservoir regions: A case study of Linshui Reservoir in Sichuan Province
老库区反贫困与生态环境的可持续性 ——以四川省大洪河水库邻水县库区为例

QU Ming,NI Jiu-Pai,PEN Jing-Yun,WEI Chao-Fu,XIE De-Ti,

生态学报 , 2006,
Abstract: Reservoirs built and financed by the Government in(1950's1970's) contributed enormously to the national macroeconomic development and local people's livelihood during that period.However,the construction of those reservoirs has deteriorated the natural environment and resource supply,leading to massive poverty in associated regions that occurs today.Furthermore,the insufficient migrant aftercare and governmental subsidies have made it difficult for locals to rebuild their lives.Therefore,to reduce the poverty in those regions we need to develop integrated strategies to transform the current social,economical and ecological structures to a manageable and sustainable establishment.As a case study,we analyzed the problems related to the poverty and eco-environmental sustainability in the Linshui Reservoir Region of Sichuan Province and established a sustainable development model using the uncertainty multi-objective planning framework.The results showed that to achieve the objective for the poverty reduction and eco-environmental improvement it was necessary to emigrate 8711 people,and establish 3188.24 hm~2 terrace,85.47hm~2 artificial grassland and 1413.07hm~2 economic forests and orchards.The prediction provides an optimal land use structure at the regional level that could not only improve the eco-environment,but also allow locals to have sustainable economical gain.We believe that these strategies can be the key measures for poverty reduction and environmental improvement in all 'old reservoir' regions.
Spatial Approaches for Ecological Regulation of Torrent in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area:A Case Study in Shi-wan-xi torrent, Kaixian county, Chongqing Municipality
三峡库区小流域生态调控的空间途径 ——以重庆市开县石碗溪小流域为例

Ni Jiu-pai,LI Rui-xue,GAO Ming,WEI Chao-fu,XIE De-ti,
,李瑞雪,高 明,魏朝富,谢德体

资源科学 , 2005,
Abstract: The torrents, distributed widely in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, have heavily threatened water environment and ecological safety of the Three Gorges Reservoir because of their loss of soil and water, and are pivotal to resuming of eco-environments in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Therefore, ecological regulation of these torrents must be reasonably carried out and the resources of these torrents must be aptly configured. For analysis of the traits of ecological system of torrent,spatial approaches applied for ecological regulation of torrent in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area was discussed by means of the ARCGIS and ARCVIEW software based on the method and theory of landscape ecology. The spatial distribution of landscape in Shiwanxi torrent,Kaixian county,Chongqing municipality was investigated with an analysis of ecological suitability and sensitivity based on analysis of the nine ecological factors:average temperature,soil,vegetation,land use,elevation,gradient,slope aspect,profile curvature and Plane curvature. According to spatial approaches for ecological regulation of torrent, the Shiwanxi torrent was divided into three regions:functional region of agricultural landscape,ecologically resuming and harmonious region,and ecologically controlling region. The inlaid combination of landscape was set up among and within three regions and development direction of industry in the three regions was put forward accordingly. The reasonable steady ecosystem could be set up with the holistic optimizing of the landscape structure of torrent. The spatial approaches for ecological regulation based on the method and theory of landscape ecology has a great significance for ecological regulation of torrent in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.
An Empirical Analysis of the Influencing Factors for Farmers' Cognition of the Negative Effects of Excessive Fertilization in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

NONG Jin-hua
,LIANG Zeng-fang,XIAO Xin-cheng,NI Jiu-pai

- , 2017, DOI: 10.13718/j.cnki.xdzk.2017.05.025
Abstract: 近年来,农业生产中过量施肥问题越来越严重,研究农户对过量施肥负效应的认知对控制化肥施用量具有重要意义.本文采用结构方程模型(SEM),基于三峡库区南沱镇的调查问卷数据,实证分析了农户对过量施肥负效应认知的影响因素.结果表明:当地农户文化程度普遍不高,基本处于初中文化水平;农户比较关心先进农业信息技术,但是当地政府和农技部门对先进农业信息技术的宣传和推广力度不够.家庭特征和环境意识对过量施肥负面效应的认知有一定影响,但是影响不是很大,农技培训对过量施肥负面效应的认知的影响分析具有统计学意义.因此,加强农业技术培训,定期开展农业技术信息宣传对控制农户施肥量具有积极作用.
In recent years, excessive application of fertilizer in agricultural production is becoming increasingly serious. Farmers’ cognition of the negative effects of excessive fertilization is of great significance to controlling chemical fertilizer consumption. In a study reported in this paper, based on the questionnaire data of Nantuo town in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, the structural equation model (SEM) was used to make an empirical analysis of the influencing factors for farmers’ cognition of the negative effects of excessive fertilization. The results showed that the local farmers’ education background was, on the whole, not good enough, basically being at a junior high school level. Farmers appeared interested in the advanced agricultural information technology, but the local government and agricultural technology department failed to do a good job in its dissemination and promotion. Family characteristics and environmental consciousness of excessive fertilization of the farmers had but insignificant effects on their cognition of the negative effects of excessive fertilization, while agricultural technology training had a great influence on it. It is, therefore, concluded that agricultural technology training should be strengthened and publicity and dissemination of agricultural technical information should be made on a regular basis, so that the farmer households may control their chemical fertilizer consumption
A PSR Model-Based Evaluation for Intensive Cultivated Land Use and Its Driving Force in a Typical Mountainous Area——A Case Study of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province

LIAO Shi-mei
,LIU Wei-ping,WEI Chao-fu,XIE De-ti,NI Jiu-pai

- , 2018, DOI: 10.13718/j.cnki.xdzk.2018.05.023
Abstract: 耕地集约利用对地区特别是民族山区的粮食安全和社会稳定具有重要的现实意义.本文以凉山彝族自治州(以下简称为凉山州)为例,构建基于PSR模型的耕地集约利用评价体系对耕地集约利用进行评价,并通过SPSS 20.0软件采用主成分分析法探讨耕地集约利用水平变化的驱动因素.结果表明:1)凉山州2005-2014年间的耕地集约利用水平变化较大,2011年后增幅逐渐增强,状态、响应、压力子系统依次对耕地集约利用产生不同程度影响,三大子系统也相互影响. 2)耕地集约利用水平变化的驱动因素为:自然条件、工程政策措施、经济水平、人口与投入等因素.研究得出:凉山州耕地集约利用变化与PSR模型的三大子系统存在不同程度的相关性.所选指标较好体现凉山州耕地集约利用水平,耕地集约利用的驱动因素符合凉山州实际,证实PSR模型的普适性的同时体现出凉山州耕地集约利用的独特性与差异性.
Intensive cultivated land use is of important practical significance for the food security and social stability in a region, especially in minority areas. In a study reported in this paper, Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province was taken as the research object, and an evaluation index system for intensive cultivated land use was constructed based on the PSR (pressure-state-response) model to calculate the intensive degree of cultivated land use in Liangshan from 2005 to 2014. Principal component analysis was made of the driving factors for the change in cultivated land intensive use level with the help of the SPSS 20.0 software. The results showed that intensive use of cultivated land of Liangshan markedly changed in 2004-2013 and it increased gradually after 2011. The three subsystems of state, response and pressure (PSR) influenced the intensive utilization of cultivated land in different extents and they interacted with one another as well. The driving factors for change in cultivated land intensive use level included natural conditions, engineering policy measures, economic level, population and investment factors. The study concluded that the cultivated land use intensity in Liangshan was correlated, in different degrees, with the three subsystems, and that the indicators selected can well reflect its actual level. The driving factors accord with the actual situation of Liangshan. It also confirms the general adaptability of the PSR model and unique characteristics and differences of cultivated land intensive use in Liangshan
Impact of Spatial Distribution Pattern of Paddy Fields on Runoff Nitrogen Export from a Small Agricultural Watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

LIN Xiao
,SHI Shu,MU Zhi-jian,LIU Yuan-yuan,NI Jiu-pai,XIE De-ti,WU Bo

- , 2017, DOI: 10.13718/j.cnki.xdzk.2017.06.005
Abstract: 对三峡库区涪陵段两个毗邻集水域的汇水口径流进行了持续1年的高频(每日)采样监测,以对比分析稻田空间分布格局对径流氮素质量浓度和输出强度的影响.所选择的两个集水域稻田面积比例相近,但其中一个(记为A)的稻田分布零散,破碎度高,另一个(记为B)的稻田则连片分布在其末(底)端,破碎度低.结果表明两集水域不同作物生长季径流氮素的输出均以硝态氮为主(占总氮的60%~81%).对比两个集水域,A在全年和不同作物生长季的径流氮素平均质量浓度都相应地高于B.同样,集水域A的年径流量(1 431 m3/hm2)显著高于集水域B(840 m3/hm2),因而前者径流总氮的年输出通量(16.1 kg/hm2)远大于后者(5.21 kg/hm2).鉴于两个集水域的气候、土壤类型、地形地貌和农田耕作管理方式相同,单位土地面积的施肥量以及稻田面积比例也相近,只是稻田空间分布格局迥异,汇水口径流氮素的质量浓度和输出通量的差异显然是由于集水域末端连片分布的人工湿地—稻田比零散分布的稻田对集水域内的径流及随其迁移的氮素有更佳的拦截和净化作用所致.
A high frequency (daily) monitoring was carried out in two adjacent catchments in Fuling of the Three Gorges Reservoir for a year with the aim of analyzing comparatively the impact of spatial distribution pattern of paddy fields on nitrogen concentration and export fluxes in the runoff. The rice paddy fields of a catchment (marked as A) were scatteringly distributed with a high fragmentation index, while the paddy fields of the other catchment (marked as B) were continuously distributed at the bottom of the catchment, with a low fragmentation index. The results showed that the form of the exported nitrogen was dominated by nitrate nitrogen (accounting for 60%-81% of the total nitrogen) in different crop growing seasons in both catchments. But the average concentration of nitrogen in the runoff of A was higher than that of B throughout the year and in different crop growing seasons. Similarly, the amount of runoff in A (1 431 m3/hm2) was significantly higher than in B (840 m3/hm2), and the total nitrogen export fluxes of A (16.1 kg/hm2) was much higher than of B (5.21 kg/hm2). In view of the fact that the two catchments shared the same climate, soil type, topography and tillage management and similar fertilization rate per unit of land and area proportion of rice paddy fields, but had strikingly different spatial distribution patterns of rice paddy fields, the differences in nitrogen concentration and export fluxes in the runoff of the two catchments were obviously caused by the better N interception and purification in runoff of B than of A
The Construction of a Circular Agriculture Ecosystem in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and a Verifying Experiment about the Nitrogen and Phosphorus Reduction Effect

,KONG Wen-bin,FENG Yang,YANG Can-fang,WANG Fi,CHENG Yu,WANG Bo,Ni Jiu-pai,XIE De-ti

- , 2017, DOI: 10.13718/j.cnki.xdzk.2017.06.003
Abstract: 三峡工程建设对农业持续发展、移民安稳致富、生态环境保护等带来了重大影响.为减轻和避免三峡工程对库区生态环境、农业生产和国家战略性淡水资源产生的负面影响,将三峡环库屏障区、消落区和水域区作为整体,实施以屏障区柑橘、消落区耐淹牧草、水域区天然鱼场为重点的环库特色产业带建设工程,构建三峡库区循环农业生态系统,依托特色生态农业带阻控面源污染.实证证明,应用柑橘营养诊断配方施肥技术,果园营养元素利用率显著提高,果园出口端径流可达到地表Ⅱ-Ⅲ类水质标准;消落区耐淹草场底端的入库径流NH4+-N未检出,NO3--N较果园径流降低1.5%,可溶性总磷减少48.6%;水域区实施鱼类增殖放流工程,觅食绿藻浮萍等,固定富集水域中的氮磷.项目通过农业生产-产品销售途径,将富集的氮磷大量移出库区.扭转了三峡库区生态环境退化、农业萎缩和环境污染加剧的势头,保护了国家淡水资源库安全,可为同类地区修复退化生态系统、发展循环生态农业提供借鉴.
The construction of the Three Gorges Project has seriously influenced the sustainable development of agriculture, the prosperity and stability of migrants and environment protection in the reservoir area. Therefore, in order to reduce these negative effects brought by the Three Gorges Project on the ecological environment, agricultural production and the national strategic freshwater resources, this research considered the barrier area, the riparian zone and the water area around the Three Gorges Reservoir as an entirety, established an agricultural industry belt with the citrus orchards on the reservoir bank as the barrier belt of sediment and livestock waste carried by the surface runoff, the submergence tolerant forage grass meadow on the riparian zone as the absorption and fixation area of soluble nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and the natural fish farm for restocked fish resources in the water area as the removal method of the N and P concentrated on fish. (According to these three functional parts, we built 4 recyclable chains, i.e. livestock-biogas slurry-citrus-citrus meal-feed, livestock-biogas slurry-citrus-forage grass, and citrus-citrus meal-organic fertilizer, to make recycling of the agricultural waste and reduce the water pollution in the reservoir area.) The main results of our research were as follows: The nutrition diagnosis-based formula fertilization technique obviously increased the utilization rate of N and P from the fertilizer: in 2014, calculated with the fertilizer dosage and the fruit absorption, the N and P utilization rate of citrus orchards in Wushan and Changshou were 83.27% and 93.33%, respectively, and due to the high fertilizer utilization rate with the cut off ditches, sand stabilizing trenches and rainwater runoff buffering ponds, the exiting water quality could satisfy the Chinese Surface Water Quality Standard, LevelⅡ or Ⅲ. The submergence tolerant forage grass planted on the riparian area absorbed the soluble N and P efficiently: The result of water quality test of the exiting water runoff at the bottom of the
Effect of Long-Term Differentiated Fertilization on N2O Emission from a Rice-Wheat Rotated Purple Soil During Wheat Growing Seasons

,ZHANG Dan-qi,MU Zhi-jian,NI Jiu-pai,WANG Qiang,SHI Xiao-jun,GUO Tao,ZHANG Yao-qiang,LEI Yu-chun

- , 2017, DOI: 10.13718/j.cnki.xdzk.2017.05.004
Abstract: 依据位于重庆北碚始于1991年的国家紫色土肥力与肥效监测基地上长期不同施肥定位试验,选取其中不施肥+秸秆不还田、不施肥+秸秆还田、施PK肥+秸秆不还田、施N肥+秸秆不还田、NPK正常施肥量+秸秆不还田、NPK正常施肥量+秸秆还田和1.5倍NPK施肥量+秸秆还田等7个处理,采用静态箱法对土壤N2O排放开展了连续2a小麦生长期的田间原位观测.结果表明:两麦季4个施氮处理N2O排放波动幅度均较大,且基肥和追肥后出现较强排放,3个未施氮处理N2O排放波动较平缓,并均明显低于施氮处理. N2O排放第二季较第一季要弱,年际差异较大,其原因主要是土壤WFPS第二季要明显低于第一季,而同一麦季不同处理下N2O排放差异主要是由土壤NO3--N质量分数不同造成的.秸秆还田增加了N2O排放,单施氮肥对N2O增排效果相比之下则更明显,而秸秆还田与化学氮肥协同作用同样促进了N2O生成与排放.平衡施肥较偏施氮肥N2O排放量低,实际生产中考虑N2O减排应尽量选择平衡施肥.两麦季化肥或秸秆N来源下农田N2O排放系数均值分别为0.85%,0.61%,综合考虑外源输入N时均值为0.69%,均低于IPCC推荐值(1%),可见估算N2O排放量时针对不同N素源农田应选用相对应N素N2O排放系数.
The changes of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of different fertilization level treatments from the National Purple Soil Fertility Monitored Base (Beibei, Chongqing, China) were investigated in situ, using the static chamber-based method during two wheat growing seasons from 2008 to 2010. Seven treatments were made as follows: no fertilization + no crop residue (no straw incorporation into the field), no fertilization + crop residue, PK fertilization + no crop residue, N fertilization + no crop residue, NPK normal fertilization + no crop residue, NPK normal fertilization + crop residue and NPK high fertilization + crop residue. The N2O transient emission fluxes of nitrogen treatments showed a large fluctuations during the first half of the growing season, and strong emissions following basal fertilization and topdressing were also observed, while the N2O transient emission fluxes of no nitrogen treatments basically remained the same during the two wheat seasons, and were significantly lower than those of the nitrogen treatments. The N2O emission fluxes and the annual variable rules of soil moisture (water filled pore space, WFPS) in the second wheat season were lower in general than those in the first wheat season, which were responsible for the suppression of N2O emission. Moreover, N2O emission differences among different treatments during the same wheat growing season were mainly caused by the difference in NO3--N content in the soil. Straw returning was in
Role of GLP-1 in the Hypoglycemic Effects of Wild Bitter Gourd
Ting-ni Huang,Kan-Ni Lu,Yi-Ping Pai,Chin Hsu
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/625892
Associations between interleukin-1 polymorphisms and gastric cancers among three ethnicities
Jiu-Da Zhao,Pai-Li Geng,Zhan-Quan Li,Sen Cui
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i47.7093
Abstract: AIM: To investigate the associations between interleukin (IL)-1B and IL-1RN polymorphisms and gastric cancers among the Tibet, Hui and Han ethnicities. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 210, 205, and 202 healthy volunteers and from 155, 158, and 197 gastric cancer patients from the Tibet, Hui, and Han populations, respectively. Polymorphisms in IL-1B and IL-1RN were analyzed by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Carriers of the IL-1B-31 CC genotype had an increased risk of intestinal type gastric cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 2.17, P = 0.037] in the Tibet ethnicity. Carriers of the IL-1B 2/L genotype had an increased risk of both intestinal and diffuse types of gastric cancer (OR = 2.08, 2.31, P = 0.007, 0.016, respectively) in the Hui ethnicity. In the Han population, carriers of the IL-1B-31 CC, IL-1B-511CT, TT genotypes had increased risk of intestinal type gastric cancer (OR = 2.51, 2.74, 5.66, P = 0.005, 0.002, 0.000, respectively). CONCLUSION: IL-1B and IL-RN genotypes may differentially contribute to gastric cancer among the Tibet, Hui, and Han ethnicities in the Qinghai area of China.
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