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A series of mobile and stationary meteorological measurements were performed in the city of Mendoza, Argentina to study the local influence of green areas on the urban canopy layer heat island effect at the micro scale, during the Austral summer of 2003-2005. These results were associated in representative local climate zones (LCZ), which helped to identify different thermal conditions within the city. The physiologically equivalent temperature index was used to determine the thermal comfort in each LCZ, showing that during daylight, trees and parks improve thermal comfort through shading and evapotranspiration; but at the same time, urban tree corridors delay night cooling by retaining warm air beneath their canopies. Also irrigation showed to positively influence on the extension and intensity of the cooling effect of rural areas and parks. The cooling influence of an urban park spreads out through the neighborhoods for 800 - 1000 m, with an average temperature decrease of 1.3°C during daytime and >4.0°C at nighttime.
We recently reported two novel breeding lines of rats known as Carioca
High- and Low-conditioned Freezing (CHF and CLF), based on defensive freezing
responses to contextual cues previously associated with electric footshock. The
present study used animals of the 8th generation of our selective
breeding program to investigate both contextual fear extinction and
re-extinction. The results consistently showed that CHF animals froze more than
CLF animals. Long extinction training was able to extinguish phenotypic
differences between lines, but the divergence was restored after just one fear
reacquisition training session. These differences disappeared again during
re-extinction training. The possible neural mechanisms involved in these two
types of learning are discussed.