Abstract:
We experimentally investigate the escape from a metastable state over a fluctuating barrier of a physical system. The system is switching between two states under electronic control of a dichotomous noise. We measure the escape time and its probability density function as a function of the correlation rate of the dichotomous noise in a frequency interval spanning more than 4 frequency decades. We observe resonant activation, namely a minimum of the average escape time as a function of the correlation rate. We detect two regimes in the study of the shape of the escape time probability distribution: (i) a regime of exponential and (ii) a regime of non-exponential probability distribution.

Abstract:
We study the effect of noise-enhanced stability of periodically driven metastable states in a system described by piecewise linear potential. We find that the growing of the average escape time with the intensity of the noise is depending on the initial condition of the system. We analytically obtain the condition for the noise enhanced stability effect and verify it by numerical simulations.

Abstract:
We show that the quantum states generated by universal optimal quantum cloning of a single photon represent an universal set of quantum superpositions resilient to decoherence. We adopt Bures distance as a tool to investigate the persistence ofquantum coherence of these quantum states. According to this analysis, the process of universal cloning realizes a class of quantum superpositions that exhibits a covariance property in lossy configuration over the complete set of polarization states in the Bloch sphere.

Abstract:
The study of the noise induced effects on the dynamics of a chain molecule crossing a potential barrier, in the presence of a metastable state, is presented. A two-dimensional stochastic version of the Rouse model for a flexible polymer has been adopted to mimic the molecular dynamics and to take into account the interactions between adjacent monomers. We obtain a nonmonotonic behavior of the mean first passage time and its standard deviation, of the polymer centre of inertia, with the noise intensity. These findings reveal a noise induced effect on the mean crossing time. The role of the polymer length is also investigated.

Abstract:
We investigate the modification of the intrinsic carrier noise spectral density induced in low-doped semiconductor materials by an external correlated noise source added to the driving high-frequency periodic electric field. A Monte Carlo approach is adopted to numerically solve the transport equation by considering all the possible scattering phenomena of the hot electrons in the medium. We show that the noise spectra are strongly affected by the intensity and the correlation time of the external random electric field. Moreover this random field can cause a suppression of the total noise power.

Abstract:
We investigate the stochastic resonance phenomenon in a physical system based on a tunnel diode. The experimental control parameters are set to allow the control of the frequency and amplitude of the deterministic modulating signal over an interval of values spanning several orders of magnitude. We observe both a regime described by the linear response theory and the nonlinear deviation from it. In the nonlinear regime we detect saturation of the power spectral density of the output signal detected at the frequency of the modulating signal and a dip in the noise level of the same spectral density. When these effects are observed we detect a phase and frequency synchronization between the stochastic output and the deterministic input.

Abstract:
Studies about the constructive aspects of noise and fluctuations in different non-linear systems have shown that the addition of external noise to systems with an intrinsic noise may result in a less noisy response. Recently, the possibility to reduce the diffusion noise in semiconductor bulk materials by adding a random fluctuating contribution to the driving static electric field has been tested. The present work extends the previous theories by considering the noise-induced effects on the electron transport dynamics in low-doped n-type GaAs samples driven by a high-frequency periodic electric field (cyclostationary conditions). By means of Monte Carlo simulations, we calculate the changes in the spectral density of the electron velocity fluctuations caused by the addition of an external correlated noise source. The results reported in this paper confirm that, under specific conditions, the presence of a fluctuating component added to an oscillating electric field can reduce the total noise power. Furthermore, we find a nonlinear behaviour of the spectral density with the noise intensity. Our study reveals that, critically depending on the external noise correlation time, the dynamical response of electrons driven by a periodic electric field receives a benefit by the constructive interplay between the fluctuating field and the intrinsic noise of the system.

Abstract:
In this work we study the noise induced effects on the dynamics of short polymers crossing a potential barrier, in the presence of a metastable state. An improved version of the Rouse model for a flexible polymer has been adopted to mimic the molecular dynamics by taking into account both the interactions between adjacent monomers and introducing a Lennard-Jones potential between all beads. A bending recoil torque has also been included in our model. The polymer dynamics is simulated in a two-dimensional domain by numerically solving the Langevin equations of motion with a Gaussian uncorrelated noise. We find a nonmonotonic behaviour of the mean first passage time and the most probable translocation time, of the polymer centre of inertia, as a function of the polymer length at low noise intensity. We show how thermal fluctuations influence the motion of short polymers, by inducing two different regimes of translocation in the molecule transport dynamics. In this context, the role played by the length of the molecule in the translocation time is investigated.

Abstract:
We study the noise delayed decay of unstable nonequilibrium states in nonlinear dynamical systems within the framework of the overdamped Brownian motion model. We give the exact expressions for the decay times of unstable states for polynomial potential profiles and obtain nonmonotonic behavior of the decay times as a function of the noise intensity for the unstable nonequilibrium states. The analytical results are compared with numerical simulations.

Abstract:
The exact formulae for spectra of equilibrium diffusion in a fixed bistable piecewise linear potential and in a randomly flipping monostable potential are derived. Our results are valid for arbitrary intensity of driving white Gaussian noise and arbitrary parameters of potential profiles. We find: (i) an exponentially rapid narrowing of the spectrum with increasing height of the potential barrier, for fixed bistable potential; (ii) a nonlinear phenomenon, which manifests in the narrowing of the spectrum with increasing mean rate of flippings, and (iii) a nonmonotonic behaviour of the spectrum at zero frequency, as a function of the mean rate of switchings, for randomly switching potential. The last feature is a new characterization of resonant activation phenomenon.