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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 198101 matches for " N. Pinardi "
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Preface "Operational oceanography in the Mediterranean Sea: the second stage of development"
N. Pinardi,G. Coppini
Ocean Science (OS) & Discussions (OSD) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/os-6-263-2010
Abstract: No abstract available.
The Adriatic Sea modelling system: a nested approach
M. Zavatarelli,N. Pinardi
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: A modelling system for the Adriatic Sea has been built within the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project. The modelling system consists of a hierarchy of three numerical models (whole Mediterranean Sea, whole Adriatic Sea, Northern Adriatic Basin) coupled among each other by simple one-way, off-line nesting techniques, to downscale the larger scale flow field to highly resolved coastal scale fields. Numerical simulations have been carried out under climatological surface forcing. Simulations were aimed to assess the effectiveness of the nesting techniques and the skill of the system to reproduce known features of the Adriatic Sea circulation phenomenology (main circulation features, dense water formation,flow at the Otranto Strait and coastal circulation characteristics over the northern Adriatic shelf), in view of the pre-operational use of the modelling system. This paper describes the modelling system setup, and discusses the simulation results for the whole Adriatic Sea and its northern basin, comparing the simulations with the observed climatological circulation characteristics. Results obtained with the northern Adriatic model are also compared with the corresponding simulations obtained with the coarser resolution Adriatic model. Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes; numerical modelling) – Oceanography: physical (general circulation)
MEDSLIK-II, a Lagrangian marine oil spill model for short-term forecasting – Part 1: Theory
M. De Dominicis,N. Pinardi,G. Zodiatis
Geoscientific Model Development Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/gmdd-6-1949-2013
Abstract: The processes of transport, diffusion and transformation of surface oil in seawater can be simulated using a Lagrangian model formalism coupled with Eulerian circulation models. This paper describes the formalism and the conceptual assumptions of a Lagrangian marine oil slick numerical model and re-writes the constitutive equations in a modern mathematical framework. The Lagrangian numerical representation of the oil slick requires three different state variables: the slick, the particle and the structural state variables. Transformation processes (evaporation, spreading, dispersion and coastal adhesion) act on the slick state variables, while particles variables are used to model the transport and diffusion processes. The slick and particle variables are recombined together to compute the oil concentration in water, a structural state variable. The mathematical and numerical formulation of oil transport, diffusion and transformation processes described in this paper, together with the many simplifying hypothesis and parameterizations, form the basis of a new, open source Lagrangian surface oil spill model, so-called MEDSLIK-II. Part 2 of this paper describes the applications of MEDSLIK-II to oil spill simulations that allow the validation of the model results and the study of the sensitivity of the simulated oil slick to different model numerical parameterizations.
Multivariate Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis of the upper thermocline structure of the Mediterranean Sea from observations and model simulations
S. Sparnocchia,N. Pinardi,E. Demirov
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: Multivariate vertical Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) are calculated for the entire Mediterranean Sea both from observations and model simulations, in order to find the optimal number of vertical modes to represent the upper thermocline vertical structure. For the first time, we show that the large-scale Mediterranean thermohaline vertical structure can be represented by a limited number of vertical multivariate EOFs, and that the "optimal set" can be selected on the basis of general principles. In particular, the EOFs are calculated for the combined temperature and salinity statistics, dividing the Mediterranean Sea into 9 regions and grouping the data seasonally. The criterion used to establish whether a reduced set of EOFs is optimal is based on the analysis of the root mean square residual error between the original data and the profiles reconstructed by the reduced set of EOFs. It was found that the number of EOFs needed to capture the variability contained in the original data changes with geographical region and seasons. In particular, winter data require a smaller number of modes (4–8, depending on the region) than the other seasons (8–9 in summer). Moreover, western Mediterranean regions require more modes than the eastern Mediterranean ones, but this result may depend on the data scarcity in the latter regions. The EOFs computed from the in situ data set are compared to those calculated using data obtained from a model simulation. The main results of this exercise are that the two groups of modes are not strictly comparable but their ability to reproduce observations is the same. Thus, they may be thought of as equivalent sets of basis functions, upon which to project the thermohaline variability of the basin. Key words. Oceanography: general (water masses) – Oceanography: physical (hydrography; instruments and techniques)
Particle fluxes in the deep Eastern Mediterranean basins: the role of ocean vertical velocities
L. Patara,N. Pinardi,C. Corselli,E. Malinverno
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: This paper analyzes the relationship between deep sedimentary fluxes and ocean current vertical velocities in an offshore area of the Ionian Sea, the deepest basin of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Sediment trap data are collected at 500 m and 2800 m depth in two successive moorings covering the period September 1999–May 2001. A tight coupling is observed between the upper and deep traps and the estimated particle sinking rates are higher than 200 m day 1. The current vertical velocity field is computed from a high resolution Ocean General Circulation Model simulation and from the wind stress curl. Current vertical velocities are larger and more variable than Ekman vertical velocities, yet the general patterns are alike. Current vertical velocities are generally smaller than 1 m day 1: we therefore exclude a direct effect of downward velocities in determining high sedimentation rates. However, we find that upward velocities in the subsurface layers of the water column are positively correlated with deep particle fluxes. We thus hypothesize that upwelling would produce an increase in upper ocean nutrient levels – thus stimulating primary production and grazing – a few weeks before an enhanced vertical flux is found in the sediment traps. By analyzing the delayed effects of ocean vertical velocities on deep particle fluxes we envisage a spectrum of particle sinking speeds ranging from about 100 m day 1 to more than 200 m day 1. High particle sedimentation rates may be attained by means of rapidly sinking fecal pellets produced by gelatinous macro-zooplankton. Other sedimentation mechanisms, such as dust deposition, are also considered in explaining large pulses of deep particle fluxes. The fast sinking rates estimated in this study might be an evidence of the efficiency of the biological pump in sequestering organic carbon from the surface layers of the deep Eastern Mediterranean basins.
MEDSLIK-II, a Lagrangian marine oil spill model for short-term forecasting – Part 2: Numerical simulations and validations
M. De Dominicis,N. Pinardi,G. Zodiatis,R. Archetti
Geoscientific Model Development Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/gmdd-6-1999-2013
Abstract: In this paper we use MEDSLIK-II, a Lagrangian marine oil spill model described in Part 1 of this paper (De Dominicis et al., 2013), to simulate oil slick transport and transformation processes for realistic oceanic cases where satellite or drifting buoys data are available for verification. The model is coupled with operational oceanographic currents, atmospheric analyses winds and remote-sensing data for initialization. The sensitivity of the oil spill simulations to several model parameterizations is analyzed and the results are validated using surface drifters and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images in different regions of the Mediterranean Sea. It is found that the forecast skill of Lagrangian trajectories largely depends on the accuracy of the Eulerian ocean currents: the operational models give useful estimates of currents, but high-frequency (hourly) and high spatial resolution is required, and the Stokes drift velocity has to be often added, especially in coastal areas. From a numerical point of view, it is found that a realistic oil concentration reconstruction is obtained using an oil tracer grid resolution of about 100 m, with at least 100 000 Lagrangian particles. Moreover, sensitivity experiments to uncertain model parameters show that the knowledge of oil type and slick thickness are, among all the others, key model parameters affecting the simulation results. Considering acceptable for the simulated trajectories a maximum spatial error of the order of three times the horizontal resolution of the Eulerian ocean currents, the predictability skill for particle trajectories is from 1 to 2.5 days depending on the specific current regime. This suggests that re-initialization of the simulations is required every day.
Assimilation scheme of the Mediterranean Forecasting System: operational implementation
E. Demirov,N. Pinardi,C. Fratianni,M. Tonani
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: This paper describes the operational implementation of the data assimilation scheme for the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project (MFSPP). The assimilation scheme, System for Ocean Forecast and Analysis (SOFA), is a reduced order Optimal Interpolation (OI) scheme. The order reduction is achieved by projection of the state vector into vertical Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF). The data assimilated are Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) and temperature profiles from Expandable Bathy Termographs (XBT). The data collection, quality control, assimilation and forecast procedures are all done in Near Real Time (NRT). The OI is used intermittently with an assimilation cycle of one week so that an analysis is produced once a week. The forecast is then done for ten days following the analysis day. The root mean square (RMS) between the model forecast and the analysis (the forecast RMS) is below 0.7°C in the surface layers and below 0.2°C in the layers deeper than 200 m for all the ten forecast days. The RMS between forecast and initial condition (persistence RMS) is higher than forecast RMS after the first day. This means that the model improves forecast with respect to persistence. The calculation of the misfit between the forecast and the satellite data suggests that the model solution represents well the main space and time variability of the SLA except for a relatively short period of three – four weeks during the summer when the data show a fast transition between the cyclonic winter and anti-cyclonic summer regimes. This occurs in the surface layers that are not corrected by our assimilation scheme hypothesis. On the basis of the forecast skill scores analysis, conclusions are drawn about future improvements. Key words. Oceanography; general (marginal and semi-enclosed seas; numerical modeling; ocean prediction)
The Mediterranean ocean forecasting system: first phase of implementation (1998–2001)
N. Pinardi,I. Allen,E. Demirov,P. De Mey
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: The Mediterranean Forecasting system Pilot Project has concluded its activities in 2001, achieving the following goals: 1. Realization of the first high-frequency (twice a month) Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) system for the Mediterranean Sea with XBT profiles for the upper thermocline (0–700 m) and 12 n.m. along track nominal resolution; 2. Realization of the first Mediterranean Multidisciplinary Moored Array (M3A) system for the Near-Real-Time (NRT) acquisition of physical and biochemical observations. The actual observations consists of: air-sea interaction parameters, upper thermocline (0–500 m) temperature, salinity, oxygen and currents, euphotic zone (0–100 m) chlorophyll, nutrients, Photosinthetically Available Radiation (PAR) and turbidity; 3. Analysis and NRT dissemination of high quality along track Sea Level Anomaly (SLA), Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data from satellite sensors to be assimilated into the forecasting model; 4. Assembly and implementation of a multivariate Reduced Order Optimal Interpolation scheme (ROOI) for assimilation in NRT of all available data, in particular, SLA and VOS-XBT profiles; 5. Demonstration of the practical feasibility of NRT ten day forecasts at the Mediterranean basin scale with resolution of 0.125° in latitude and longitude. The analysis or nowcast is done once a week; 6. Development and implementation of nested regional (5 km) and shelf (2–3 km) models to simulate the seasonal variability. Four regional and nine shelf models were implemented successfully, nested within the forecasting model. The implementation exercise was carried out in different region/shelf dynamical regimes and it was demonstrated that one-way nesting is practical and accurate; 7. Validation and calibration of a complex ecosystem model in data reach shelf areas, to prepare for forecasting in a future phase. The same ecosystem model is capable of reproducing the major features of the primary producers’ carbon cycle in different regions and shelf areas. The model simulations were compared with the multidisciplinary M3A buoy observations and assimilation techniques were developed for the biochemical data. This paper overviews the methodological aspects of the research done, from the NRT observing system to the forecasting/modelling components and to the extensive validation/calibration experiments carried out with regional/shelf and ecosystem models. Key words. Oceanography: general (ocean prediction; instruments and techniques) Oceanography: physical (currents)
Improved near real-time data management procedures for the Mediterranean ocean Forecasting System-Voluntary Observing Ship program
G. M. R. Manzella,E. Scoccimarro,N. Pinardi,M. Tonani
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: A "ship of opportunity" program was launched as part of the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project. During the operational period (September 1999 to May 2000), six tracks covered the Mediterranean from the northern to southern boundaries approximately every 15 days, while a long eastwest track from Haifa to Gibraltar was covered approximately every month. XBT data were collected, sub-sampled at 15 inflection points and transmitted through a satellite communication system to a regional data centre. It was found that this data transmission system has limitations in terms of quality of the temperature profiles and quantity of data successfully transmitted. At the end of the MFSPP operational period, a new strategy for data transmission and management was developed. First of all, VOS-XBT data are transmitted with full resolution. Secondly, a new data management system, called Near Real Time Quality Control for XBT (NRT.QC.XBT), was defined to produce a parallel stream of high quality XBT data for further scientific analysis. The procedure includes: (1) Position control; (2) Elimination of spikes; (3) Re-sampling at a 1 metre vertical interval; (4) Filtering; (5) General malfunctioning check; (6) Comparison with climatology (and distance from this in terms of standard deviations); (7) Visual check; and (8) Data consistency check. The first six steps of the new procedure are completely automated; they are also performed using a new climatology developed as part of the project. The visual checks are finally done with a free-market software that allows NRT final data assessment. Key words. Oceanography: physical (instruments and techniques; general circulation; hydrography)
Influencia del sistema nitridérgico en la respuesta contráctil a fenilefrina de anillos de vasos usados en revascularización coronaria Modification of phenylephrine induced contraction of human vessel rings by L-arginine and L-arginine methyl ester
Juan C Prieto,Gianni Pinardi,Jaime Zamorano,Ernesto Larraín
Revista médica de Chile , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Endothelial dysfunction is associated to a lower production of nitric oxide and a reduction of endothelium mediated vasodilation. Aim: To study the effects of pharmacological agents that modify nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) activity on tension changes induced by phenylephrine in rings of internal mammary and radial arteries and saphenous vein. Material and methods: Vessel rings of 7 to 10 mm length were obtained from 32 patients subjected to coronary vascular surgery Fourteen samples of radial artery, 12 samples of internal mammary artery and 15 samples of saphenous vein were obtained. A maximal contraction was induced with KC1 and dose response curves for phenylephrine (FE) in the absence or presence of L-arginine and L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), were constructed. Results: The tension induced by FE in internal mammary artery and saphenous vein reached a maximum, near 90% of 80 mM KCl-induced contraction, but in the radial artery, it reached a maximum of 63% (p <0.05). In all vessels, the dose response curves were significantly shifted to the right by L-arginine and to the eft by L-NAME. Conclusions: Pre-incubation of human rings with L-ARG or L-NAME, changed the response to FE induced contraction, which may be related to different degrees of endothelial nitric oxide production or NO sensitivity. The basal NO production in radial artery seems to be larger than the other vessels
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