Abstract:
One of the problems in the development of mathematical theory of the genetic code (summary is presented in [1], the detailed—to [2]) is the problem of the calculation of the genetic code. Similar problem in the world is unknown and could be delivered only in the 21st century. One approach to solving this problem is devoted to this work. For the first time a detailed description of the method of calculation of the genetic code was provided, the idea of which was first published earlier [3]), and the choice of one of the most important sets for the calculation was based on an article [4]. Such a set of amino acid corresponds to a complete set of representation of the plurality of overlapping triple gene belonging to the same DNA strand. A separate issue was the initial point, triggering an iterative search process all codes submitted by the initial data. Mathematical analysis has shown that the said set contains some ambiguities, which have been founded because of our proposed compressed representation of the set. As a result, the developed method of calculation was reduced to two main stages of research, where at the first stage only single-valued domains were used in the calculations. The proposed approach made it possible to significantly reduce the amount of computation at each step in this complex discrete structure.

Abstract:
The disclosure of many secrets of the genetic code was facilitated by the fact that it was carried out on the basis of mathematical analysis of experimental data: the diversity of genes, their structures and genetic codes. New properties of the genetic code are presented and its most important integral characteristics are established. Two groups of such characteristics were distinguished. The first group refers to the integral characteristics for the areas of DNA, where genes are broken down in pairs and all 5 cases of overlap, allowed by the structure of DNA, were investigated. The second group of characteristics refers to the most extended areas of DNA in which there is no genetic overlap. The interrelation of the established integral characteristics in these groups is shown. As a result, a number of previously unknown effects were discovered. It was possible to establish two functions in which all the over-understood codons in mitochondrial genetic codes (human and other organizations) participate, as well as a significant difference in the integral characteristics of such codes compared to the standard code. Other properties of the structure of the genetic code following from the obtained results are also established. The obtained results allowed us to set and solve one of the new breakthrough problems—the calculation of the genetic code. The full version of the solution to this problem was published in this journal in August 2017.

Abstract:
We introduce the notion of nonevasive reduction and show that for any monotone poset map ϕ:P→P, the simplicial complex Δ(P) NE-reduces to Δ(Q), for any Q⊇Fixϕ.

Abstract:
We give a very short self-contained combinatorial proof of the Babson-Kozlov conjecture, by presenting a cochain whose coboundary is the desired power of the characteristic class.

Abstract:
In this paper we study topology of moduli spaces of tropical curves of genus $g$ with $n$ marked points. We view the moduli spaces as being imbedded in a larger space, which we call the {\it moduli space of metric graphs with $n$ marked points.} We describe the shrinking bridges strong deformation retraction, which leads to a substantial simplification of all these moduli spaces. In the rest of the paper, that reduction is used to analyze the case of genus 1. The corresponding moduli space is presented as a quotient space of a torus with respect to the conjugation ${\mathbb Z}_2$-action; and furthermore, as a homotopy colimit over a simple diagram. The latter allows us to compute all Betti numbers of that moduli space with coefficients in ${\mathbb Z}_2$.

Abstract:
In this paper we study homotopy type of certain moduli spaces of metric graphs. More precisely, we show that the spaces $MG_{1,n}^v$, which parametrize the isometry classes of metric graphs of genus 1 with $n$ marks on vertices are homotopy equivalent to the spaces $TM_{1,n}$, which are the moduli spaces of tropical curves of genus 1 with $n$ marked points. Our proof proceeds by providing a sequence of explicit homotopies, with key role played by the so-called scanning homotopy. We conjecture that our result generalizes to the case of arbitrary genus.

Abstract:
The main characters of this paper are the moduli spaces $TM_{g,n}$ of rational tropical curves of genus $g$ with $n$ marked points, with $g\geq 2$. We reduce the study of the homotopy type of these spaces to the analysis of compact spaces $X_{g,n}$, which in turn possess natural representations as a homotopy colimits of diagrams of topological spaces over combinatorially defined generalized simplicial complexes $\Delta_g$, with the latter being interesting on their own right. We use these homotopy colimit representations to describe a CW complex decomposition for each $X_{g,n}$. Furthermore, we use these developments, coupled with some standard tools for working with homotopy colimits, to perform an in-depth analysis of special cases of genus 2 and 3, gaining a complete understanding of the moduli spaces $X_{2,0}$, $X_{2,1}$, $X_{2,2}$, and $X_{3,0}$, as well as a partial understanding of other cases, resulting in several open questions and in further conjectures.

Abstract:
This paper starts with an observation that two infinite series of simplicial complexes, which a priori do not seem to have anything to do with each other, have the same homotopy type. One series consists of the complexes of directed forests on a double directed string, while the other one consists of Shapiro-Welker models for the spaces of hyperbolic polynomials with a triple root. We explain this coincidence in the more general context by finding an explicit homotopy equivalence between complexes of directed forests on a double directed tree, and doubly disconnecting complexes of a tree.

Abstract:
In this paper we represent the Vassiliev model for the homotopy type of the one-point compactification of subspace arrangements as a homotopy colimit of an appropriate diagram over the nerve complex of the intersection semilattice of the arrangement. Furthermore, using a generalization of simplicial collapses to diagrams of topological spaces over simplicial complexes, we construct an explicit deformation retraction from the Vassiliev model to the Ziegler-Zivaljevic model.

Abstract:
We study rational homology groups of one-point compactifications of spaces of complex monic polynomials with multiple roots. These spaces are indexed by number partitions. A standard reformulation in terms of quotients of orbit arrangements reduces the problem to studying certain triangulated spaces $X_{\lambda,\mu}$. We present a combinatorial description of the cell structure of $X_{\lambda,\mu}$ using the language of marked forests. As applications we obtain a new proof of a theorem of Arnold and a counterexample to a conjecture of Sundaram and Welker, along with a few other smaller results.