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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 590298 matches for " N. J. C. Spooner "
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The DRIFT Directional Dark Matter Detector and First Studies of the Head-Tail Effect
N. J. C. Spooner,P. Majewski
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: Measurement of the direction of the elastic nuclear recoil track and ionization charge distribution along it, gives unique possibility for unambiguous detection of the dark matter WIMP particle. Within current radiation detection technologies only Time Projection Chambers filled with low pressure gas are capable of such measurement. Due to the character of the electronic and nuclear stopping powers of low energy nuclear recoils in the gas, an asymmetric ionization charge distribution along their tracks may be expected. Preliminary study of this effect, called Head-Tail, has been carried out here using the SRIM simulation program for Carbon and Sulfur in 40 Torr carbon disulfide, as relevant to the DRIFT detector. Investigations were focused on ion tracks projected onto the axis of the initial direction of motion in the energy range between 10 and 400 keV. Results indicate the likely existence of an asymmetry influenced by two competing effects: the nature of the stopping power and range straggling. The former tends to result in the Tail being greater than the Head and the latter the reverse. It has been found that for projected tracks the mean position of the ionization charge flows from 'head' to 'tail' with the magnitude depending on the ion type and its energy.
Limits on WIMP Dark Matter
N. J. C. Spooner,V. A. Kudryavtsev
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: The current state searches for dark matter in the form of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) using both direct and indirect techniques is reviewed. Advances in recent years by various direct search experiments, utilising technology able to record the nuclear recoil events expected from elastic scattering by WIMPs, have allowed progress towards lower limits to be made. In particular, the Edelweiss and CDMS collaborations are achieving sensitiviy able to challenge data from DAMA interpreted as evidence for WIMPs of mass in the region of 60 GeV. Meanwhile, indirect searches, based on observing the annihilation products of neutralino-neutralino interactions in the Earth, Sun and Galaxy, have produced intriguing results. For instance, analysis by Superkamiokande now suggests limits comparable with the best direct search results.
Simulations of muon-induced neutron flux at large depths underground
V. A. Kudryavtsev,N. J. C. Spooner,J. E. McMillan
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(03)00983-5
Abstract: The production of neutrons by cosmic-ray muons at large depths underground is discussed. The most recent versions of the muon propagation code MUSIC, and particle transport code FLUKA are used to evaluate muon and neutron fluxes. The results of simulations are compared with experimental data.
The expected background spectrum in NaI dark matter detectors and the DAMA result
V. A. Kudryavtsev,M. Robinson,N. J. C. Spooner
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.12.003
Abstract: Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the expected radioactive background rates and spectra in NaI crystals are presented. The obtained spectra are then compared to those measured in the DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA experiments. The simulations can be made consistent with the measured DAMA spectrum only by assuming higher than reported concentrations of some isotopes and even so leave very little room for the dark matter signal. We conclude that any interpretation of the annual modulation of the event rate observed by DAMA as a dark matter signal, should include full consideration of the background spectrum. This would significantly restrict the range of dark matter models capable of explaining the modulation effect.
Narrow muon bundles from muon pair production in rock
V. A. Kudryavtsev,E. V. Korolkova,N. J. C. Spooner
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(99)01378-7
Abstract: We revise the process of muon pair production by high-energy muons in rock using the recently published cross-section. The three-dimensional Monte Carlo code MUSIC has been used to obtain the characteristics of the muon bundles initiated via this process. We have compared them with those of conventional muon bundles initiated in the atmosphere and shown that large underground detectors, capable of collecting hundreds of thousands of multiple muon events, can discriminate statistically muon induced bundles from conventional ones. However, we find that the enhancement of the measured muon decoherence function over that predicted at small distances, recently reported by the MACRO experiment, cannot be explained by the effect of muon pair production alone, unless its cross-section is underestimated by a factor of 3.
Measurement of the Scintillation Efficiency of Na Recoils in NaI(Tl) down to 10 keV Nuclear Recoil Energy relevant to Dark Matter Searches
H. Chagani,P. Majewski,E. J. Daw,V. A. Kudryavtsev,N. J. C. Spooner
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: We present preliminary results of measurements of the quenching factor for Na recoils in NaI(Tl) at room temperature, made at a dedicated neutron facility at the University of Sheffield. Measurements have been performed with a 2.45 MeV mono-energetic neutron generator in the energy range from 10 keV to 100 keV nuclear recoil energy. A BC501A liquid scintillator detector was used to tag neutrons. Cuts on pulse-shape discrimination from the BC501A liquid scintillator detector and neutron time-of-flight were performed on pulses recorded by a digitizer with a 2 ns sampling time. Measured quenching factors range from 19% to 26%, in agreement with other experiments. From pulse-shape analysis, a mean time of pulses from electron and nuclear recoils are compared down to 2 keV electron equivalent energy.
Optical readout tracking detector concept using secondary scintillation from liquid argon generated by a thick gas electron multiplier
P. K. Lightfoot,G. J. Barker,K. Mavrokoridis,Y. A. Ramachers,N. J. C. Spooner
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/4/04/P04002
Abstract: For the first time secondary scintillation, generated within the holes of a thick gas electron multiplier (TGEM) immersed in liquid argon, has been observed and measured using a silicon photomultiplier device (SiPM). 250 electron-ion pairs, generated in liquid argon via the interaction of a 5.9KeV Fe-55 gamma source, were drifted under the influence of a 2.5KV/cm field towards a 1.5mm thickness TGEM, the local field sufficiently high to generate secondary scintillation light within the liquid as the charge traversed the central region of the TGEM hole. The resulting VUV light was incident on an immersed SiPM device coated in the waveshifter tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB), the emission spectrum peaked at 460nm in the high quantum efficiency region of the device. For a SiPM over-voltage of 1V, a TGEM voltage of 9.91KV, and a drift field of 2.5KV/cm, a total of 62 photoelectrons were produced at the SiPM device per Fe-55 event, corresponding to an estimated gain of 150 photoelectrons per drifted electron.
Characterisation of a silicon photomultiplier device for applications in liquid argon based neutrino physics and dark matter searches
P. K. Lightfoot,G. J. Barker,K. Mavrokoridis,Y. A. Ramachers,N. J. C. Spooner
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/3/10/P10001
Abstract: The performance of a silicon photomultiplier has been assessed at low temperature in order to evaluate its suitability as a scintillation readout device in liquid argon particle physics detectors. The gain, measured as 2.1E6 for a constant over-voltage of 4V was measured between 25degC and -196degC and found to be invariant with temperature, the corresponding single photoelectron dark count rate reducing from 1MHz to 40Hz respectively. Following multiple thermal cycles no deterioration in the device performance was observed. The photon detection efficiency (PDE) was assessed as a function of photon wavelength and temperature. For an over-voltage of 4V, the PDE, found again to be invariant with temperature, was measured as 25% for 460nm photons and 11% for 680nm photons. Device saturation due to high photon flux rate, observed both at room temperature and -196degC, was again found to be independent of temperature. Although the output signal remained proportional to the input signal so long as the saturation limit was not exceeded, the photoelectron pulse resolution and decay time increased slightly at -196degC.
Measurement of the quenching factor of Na recoils in NaI(Tl)
H. Chagani,P. Majewski,E. J. Daw,V. A. Kudryavtsev,N. J. C. Spooner
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/3/06/P06003
Abstract: Measurements of the quenching factor for sodium recoils in a 5 cm diameter NaI(Tl) crystal at room temperature have been made at a dedicated neutron facility at the University of Sheffield. The crystal has been exposed to 2.45 MeV mono-energetic neutrons generated by a Sodern GENIE 16 neutron generator, yielding nuclear recoils of energies between 10 and 100 keVnr. A cylindrical BC501A detector has been used to tag neutrons that scatter off sodium nuclei in the crystal. Cuts on pulse shape and time of flight have been performed on pulses recorded by an Acqiris DC265 digitiser with a 2 ns sampling time. Measured quenching factors of Na nuclei range from 19% to 26% in good agreement with other experiments, and a value of 25.2 \pm 6.4% has been determined for 10 keV sodium recoils. From pulse shape analysis, the mean times of pulses from electron and nuclear recoils have been compared down to 2 keVee. The experimental results are compared to those predicted by Lindhard theory, simulated by the SRIM Monte Carlo code, and a preliminary curve calculated by Prof. Akira Hitachi.
Muon-induced neutron production and detection with GEANT4 and FLUKA
H. M. Araujo,V. A. Kudryavtsev,N. J. C. Spooner,T. J. Sumner
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2005.02.004
Abstract: We report on a comparison study of the Monte Carlo packages GEANT4 and FLUKA for simulating neutron production by muons penetrating deep underground. GEANT4 is found to generate fewer neutrons at muon energies above ~100 GeV, by at most a factor of 2 in some materials, which we attribute mainly to lower neutron production in hadronic cascades. As a practical case study, the muon-induced neutron background expected in a 250 kg liquid-xenon WIMP dark matter detector was calculated and good agreement was found for the recoil event rates. The detailed model of neutron elastic scattering in GEANT4 was also shown to influence the nuclear recoil spectrum observed in the target, which is presently a shortcoming of FLUKA. We conclude that both packages are suited for this type of simulation, although further improvements are desirable in both cases.
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