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In vitro Determination of Fusarium spp. Infection on Watermelon Seeds and their Localization
N. Boughalleb,M. El Mahjoub
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: In this study, we used direct incubation of watermelon dissected seeds on Komada`s selective medium for Fusarium spp. and incubation of entire seed on the same medium or on 2% agar medium. Identification of fungi was based on morphological criteria and also according to Koch`s postulate. Isolates from dissected seed were identified as F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae. These fungi were found to be externally and internally seed borne in watermelon. This is the first report of localization of Fusarium spp. transmitted by watermelon seeds in Tunisia.
Effet de la solarisation sur Phytophtora nicotianae Breda de Haan var. parasitica (Dastur) G.M. Waterhouse responsable d'un syndrome associant nécroses racinaires et flétrissement sur piment (Capsicum annuum L.) en Tunisie
Boughalleb, N.,El Mahjoub, M.
Tropicultura , 2005,
Abstract: The Effect of Soil Solarization on Phytophtora nicotianae Breda de Haan var. parasitica (Dastur) G.M. Waterhouse Responsable for Syndrome Associating Root Rots and Damping-off of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Tunisia. Mycological analysis of soil collected from solarized plot and non solarized plot showed that the inoculum of soil is composed mainly by Fusarium spp. The solarization permitted to reduce the density of this inoculum. Isolations done from peppers wilted plants have revealed the infestation by Phytophtora nicotianae Breda de Haan var. parasitica (Dastur) G.M. Waterhouse. This was on the basis of microscopic observation of different structures. It is assumed that the percentage of wilted plant showed a considerable reduction in solarized plot. In the same time, the impact of the solarization on the agronomic criteria showed an improvement of the vigour and also of the yield.
Variability in Pathogenicity among Tunisian Isolates of Phytophthora cactorum as Measured by Their Ability to Cause Crown Rot on Four Apple Cultivars and MM106 Roostock
N. Boughalleb,A. Moulahi,M. El Mahjoub
Journal of Agronomy , 2006,
Abstract: Studies on two isolates of Phytophthora cactorum recovered from apple plants identified the presence of diversity in pathogenicity. These isolates appeared pathogenic to tested apple trees. It revealed that Golden Delicious, Star Crimson and the rootstock MM106 were more susceptible than Richared and Red Delicious cultivars, but with variable levels of aggressiveness according to physiological stages of tested segments of apple plants. Necrosis caused by Phytophthora cactorum isolates was more important on shoot segments than on wood segments.
Evaluation de la résistance de certaines variétés de pomme de terre biologique au mildiou Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary)
Ferjaoui, S.,Boughalleb, N.,Khamassi, N.,M'Hamdi, M.
Tropicultura , 2010,
Abstract: Evaluation of the Resistance of some Varieties of Biological Potato to the Mildew Phytophthora infestans. To control the mildew, in particular in biological productions, the varietal resistance of potato could be an advantage to associate with other cultural measurements. For this purpose, sixteen varieties potentially interesting in conventional and biological production were tested with regard to the mildew. Eleven varieties were subscribed in the list A (Alaska, Arinda, Baraka, Fabula, Liseta, Mondial, Platina, Safrane, Santana, Spunta and Timate) and five are in the process of evaluation (Carréra, Cicéro, Derby, Vivaldi, and Voyager). It seemed that the mildew affected all the tested varieties. However, some of them appeared more tolerant than others. Indeed, the Derby and Voyager varieties revealed to be able to delay the starting of the disease of one month. Cicéro, Vivaldi and Timate could delay the development of mildew disease of twelve days, relatively to its appearance on susceptible varieties. Furthermore, the foliar level of destruction remained very limited compared to that on susceptible varieties and not exceed 10% for Timate. The varieties Fabula, Liséta, Carréra, Mondial, Spunta, Platina, Safrane, Arinda, Santana and Baraka showed an early and fast starting of the epidemy. In addition, the tolerance or varietal resistance could not resolve the problem when tubers are affected, since a relatively weak rate of leaves contamination is enough to cause a very important economic loss on the tubers.
Fungitoxicity of some fungicides against to pathogens responsible of olive trees decline in the Chebika’s area in Tunisia
Ben Salem I,N. Boughalleb,M. Souli,S. Selmi
Research in Plant Biology , 2011,
Abstract: The incidence of the disease seems very important on young trees and tends to bemoderate with the aging of the tree. In fact, olive trees have a shallow root system and arestill vulnerable to pathogens especially the irrigated varieties. Chemical and biologicalcontrol against Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Verticilliumdahliae have revealed that the application in vitro of Prodazim and of Methyl-thiophanatehave showed a very good efficacy up to 100%. Ridomil and Tachigaren have indicated aregular efficiency, while the two bio-fungicides Fungstop and the compost juice havedemonstrated a low efficiency. The two bio-control agents Trichoderma harzianum andGliocladium virens have showed a relatively high effectiveness in vitro. In vivo, obtainedresults have revealed that the nature of the product, the doses applied and the condition ofthe olive trees are highly correlated factors. The treatment doesn’t appear to have apositive effect on the beginning of stage 1 and on plots presented a good structured soil.Going beyond this stage, whatever the product and the doses used, the attack isirreversible.
Diversity of the Pythium community infecting crown and roots apple in Tunisia
Souli M,N. Boughalleb,P. Abad-Campos,L.A. álvarez
Research in Plant Biology , 2011,
Abstract: The genus Pythium is important in agriculture, since it contains many plantpathogenic species. Little is known about the diversity of Pythium species causing appledicline. Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterize 21 Pythium isolates collectedfrom root and collar rot apple trees in Tunisia from 2006 through to 2009. The isolateswere characterized morphologically as well as through sequence analyze of the internaltranscribed spacer region (ITS). Three Pythium species were identified in this study P.rostratifingens, P. undulatum and P. sterilum. In virulence assays on excised apple twigsand in the fields, representative isolates of the different Pythium species isolated werepathogenic on the Anna, Lorka and Meski varieties and the MM106 rootstock. Resultsobtained show the great susceptibility of the MM106 rootstock to the infections for thedifferent Pythium species tested.
Screening of fungi implicated in the dieback of olive trees (Olea europea) in Chebika’s area
Boughalleb-M’Hamdi N,Souli M,Ben Salem I.,Selmi S
Research in Plant Biology , 2011,
Abstract: Several surveys were conducted during spring 2008 in Chebika’s area in Tunisia.Samples were collected from infected plants showed different types of symptoms andthey have been the subject of mycological analysis. The morphological identification offungal colonies isolated from roots, crown and stems of two olive varieties Koroneiki andChemlali Sfax, revealed the presence of a fungi complex including Fusarium oxysporum,Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Verticillium dahliae, Cladosporium fulvum,Alternaria solani, Alternaria tenuis, Bispora punctata. and Cylindrocarpon.sp; Although,those fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Verticilliumdahliae are ubiquitous and the predominant one. Pathogenicity results revealed that thefungi isolated from olive trees exhibited typical symptoms on Koroneiki variety incontrolled conditions.
Morphological and Biological Characterization of Monosporascus cannonballus isolates, responsible of watermelon decline in Kairouan's area
Ben Salem I,Boughalleb-M’Hamdi N,Souli M,Cherif M
Research in Plant Biology , 2011,
Abstract: Watermelon grown in Kairouan's region is infected by vine decline disease causedby M. cannonballus. In vitro tests showed that this pathogen produces perithecia with adiameter of 495 μm releasing ascospores with a diameter of 44 μm. The mycelium is veryfine, rarely visible in the media KOMADA and TANAKA. The colony of different isolateson substrate culture such as Malt, MS and S, appears very dense. On PDA, the grayishbrown color characteristic of this ascomycete was observed. The perithecia production invitro test for this fungus requires relatively long period of incubation (45 days). Theeffect of culture media showed that the PDA, MS and Malt are the best for the myceliadevelopment of M. cannonballus. The most favorable culture media for fructification arein descending order MS, S, PDA, Malt. M. cannonballus isolates tested in this studyshowed an optimum temperature of mycelial growth and reproduction of 30°C. MT15 andMT12 isolates originated from Chebika (Kairouan government) showed a significantmycelial growth at all temperatures of incubation. MT7 and MT14 isolates from the sameregion were the most fertile. The results of pH effect on M. cannonballus developmenthave revealed that the maximum mycelial growth occurred at pH 6 for most of isolates andfor the fructification occurred at pH 4 and pH 8. For the osmotic pression with theaddition of NaCl and KCl, the optimal development for majority of isolates is registeredat -0.5 MPa and -2 MPa, with a minimum at -4MPa. The inhibition of the fructification ofthe M. cannonballus isolates occurred beyond -2MPa.
Ribosome Inactivating Protein of barley enhanced resistance to Rhizoctonia solani in transgenic potato cultivar 'Desirée' in greenhouse conditions
M'hamdi, M.,Chikh-Rouhou, H.,Boughalleb, N.,Ruiz de Galarreta, JI.
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 2013,
Abstract: In the present study, the potato cultivar 'Desirée' was transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing the plasmid pBIN19 which harbors the Ribosome Inactivating Protein (rip30). The potato leaf discs were used as an explant for transformation. The in vitro regeneration parameters (percentage of callus regenerated, number of shoots per callus, percentage of regenerated roots and percentage of the transgenic plants) were evaluated. The PCR technique was used for identification of transformed plants. Southern and Western blot analyses were applied for molecular characterization of the transgenic clones. A greenhouse assay was carried out to evaluate the resistance to Rhizoctonia solani pathogen of transgenic clones expressing the rip30 gene. The results revealed that not all the plants developed in selective medium were positive for the corresponding gene using the PCR technique. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the tested transgenic plants integrated three copies of rip30 gene into their genome. The expression of the RIP30 protein was confirmed in the leaf extracts of the transgenic clones by Western blot analysis. Resistance evaluation of the transgenic plants in greenhouse conditions showed that disease incidence and severity were reduced for R. solani.
Physiological and Biochemical Changes of Two Halophytes, Nitraria retusa (Forssk.) and Atriplex halimus (L.) Under Increasing Salinity
Faycal Boughalleb,Mounir Denden
Agricultural Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/aj.2011.327.339
Abstract: The effect of NaCl stress on the growth, nutriments contents and antioxidative activities were investigated in two xero-halophytes Nitraria retusa and Atriplex halimus. Plants were grown in 0-800 mM NaCl for 120 days under glasshouse conditions. Both xero-halophytic species showed positive plant growth for low levels of salinity. Increasing concentrations of salinity from 400-800 mM NaCl induced decrease in plant growth and chlorophyll content in the two species, especially in A. halimus. In addition both species were able to accumulate a large quantity of Na+ and to maintain a higher leaf water content which was probably associated with a greater capacity for osmotic adjustment whereas the contents of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ decreased significantly at diverse degree, resulting in an increase in the Na+/K+ ratio when NaCl concentrations increased. At higher salinity, it appears that salt excretion was involved in the strategies for salt tolerance in both xero-halophytic species, especially in N. retusa. A significant variability to the response to oxidative stress induced by salinity was found between both species. The relative better salt tolerance of N. retusa compared to A. halimus plants may be related to their higher polyphenols and carotenoids accumulation and antioxidant activity, associated with lower Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration. In A. halimus, the secondary metabolites contribution in the restriction of oxidative damages caused by salt stress was disputed. As a whole, the data suggest that both N. retusa and A. halimus salt stressed plants might represent potential sources of polyphenols for economical use. But there is distinction in the implication of non-enzymatic antioxidants to limit oxidative damage.
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