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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 198196 matches for " N Mpofu "
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Cultural Aspects in the Shona Monolingual Dictionary "Duramazwi Guru reChiShona"
N Mpofu
Lexikos , 2003,
Abstract: In the compilation of dictionaries, lexicographers also take cognisance of the culture which is inherent in a language. This article will look at the way the cultural aspect is interwoven in the practice of dictionary making. Language is at the core of culture and it is the major vehicle for the transmission of a people's beliefs and values. Language is also an expression of social struc-tures and attitudes. No culture can exist which does not have a natural language at its centre. A language thus reflects a particular culture. Culture in this article will be taken to mean whatever a person must know in order to function in a particular society (Wardhaugh 1998: 215). The article will look at two aspects: (1) the interrelationship between language and culture and its bearing on lexicography; and (2) the treatment of cultural aspects in Duramazwi Guru reChiShona (2001). Exam-ples used in this article are drawn from the advanced Shona monolingual dictionary Duramazwi Guru reChiShona, and other Shona dictionaries, both monolingual and bilingual.
The User Perspective in Lexicography: The Lemmatisation of Fixed Expressions in "Duramazwi Guru reChiShona"
N Mpofu
Lexikos , 2007,
Abstract: The article discusses the user perspective and information retrieval in relation to the lemmatisation of specific multi-word lexical units, namely fixed expressions, in the Shona mono-lingual dictionary, Duramazwi Guru reChiShona. It shows that the decisions arrived at in lemma-tising fixed expressions were influenced by a user-driven approach. The article gives a comparative analysis of how fixed expressions were treated in previous Shona dictionaries and how they were subsequently dealt with in Duramazwi Guru reChiShona. Previous dictionaries have grappled with the problem of giving fixed expressions as run-on entries. Against the background of the user per-spective, it will be argued that the lemmatisation of fixed expressions in monolingual dictionaries has certain advantages over previously used strategies.
Problems of Equivalence in Shona- English Bilingual Dictionaries
N Mpofu
Lexikos , 2001,
Abstract: In compiling bilingual dictionaries, lexicographers are mostly concerned with semantic equivalence. As a result, the practice of bilingual dictionary compilers is usually that of giving one-word equivalents. However, this equivalence is at times difficult to arrive at because of the disparities and incommensurability between languages and cultures. According to Sapir (1921) and Whorf (1956), one cannot expect an exact match between two languages that express different cultural realities. Given this scenario, compilers of bilingual dictionaries end up bridging the gap between languages by giving translational equivalents rather than relying solely on one-word equivalents. The Shona-English bilingual dictionaries, namely Hannan (1974) and Dale (1981), like other bilingual dictionaries, also display this characteristic. This article will discuss the problems of translation equivalents in Shona-English dictionaries where lexicographers will be dealing with divergent languages and cultures, traditional practices of lexicography and the absence of reliable corpora.
The compilation of the Shona–English biomedical dictionary: problems and challenges
N Mpofu, E Mangoya
Lexikos , 2005,
Abstract: The bilingual Shona–English dictionary of biomedical terms, Duramazwi reUrapi neUtano, was compiled with the aim of improving the efficiency of communication between doctor and patient. The dictionary is composed of terms from both modern and traditional medicinal practices. The article seeks to look at the methods of production of the dictionary, the presentation of entries in the dictionary and the problems and challenges encountered in the compilation proc-ess, namely, developing Shona medical terminology in the cultural context and especially the as-pect of equivalence between English and Shona biomedical terms.
Toddler (1-5 years)
P Mpofu
Continuing Medical Education , 2004,
Abstract:
An assessment of the impact of tourism globalization in Africa
TPZ Mpofu
Journal of Business and Administrative Studies , 2009,
Abstract: The tourism sector is one of one of the exemplars of the phenomenon of globalization. This is due to the geographical scale of the industry, increased spatial linkages between places and people from different locations. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the extent to which tourism globalization had impacted on African countries. The paper submits that some African countries have indeed increased their revenues and foreign currency earnings, created employment, brought new technology, and improved their tourism facilities and services to meet international standards. Globalization has created respect for African cultures and contributed to the protection of historical monuments and natural environments. The paper notes the role of technological improvements in transportation and telecommunications in making global travel shrink in terms of time and distance. However, the paper notes that globalization has also brought negative impacts to Africa. These include financial leakages, price increases, and a change in some African cultural values. The paper concludes that the world is in the era of globalization and that the phenomenon is here to stay. Therefore, the paper recommends that Africa should closely monitor the negative impacts of globalization while continuing to reap the benefits that accrue from tourism globalization.
The User Perspective in Lexicography: The Lemmatisation of Fixed Expressions in Duramazwi Guru reChiShona
Nomalanga Mpofu
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/17--530
Abstract: : The article discusses the user perspective and information retrieval in relation to the lemmatisation of specific multi-word lexical units, namely fixed expressions, in the Shona monolingual dictionary, Duramazwi Guru reChiShona. It shows that the decisions arrived at in lemmatising fixed expressions were influenced by a user-driven approach. The article gives a comparative analysis of how fixed expressions were treated in previous Shona dictionaries and how they were subsequently dealt with in Duramazwi Guru reChiShona. Previous dictionaries have grappled with the problem of giving fixed expressions as run-on entries. Against the background of the user perspective, it will be argued that the lemmatisation of fixed expressions in monolingual dictionaries has certain advantages over previously used strategies. Keywords: FIXED EXPRESSION, HEADWORD, IDIOM, INTENDED USER, LEMMA, LEMMATISATION, MACROSTRUCTURE, MICROSTRUCTURE, MULTI-WORD LEXICAL UNIT, PITHY SAYING, PROVERB, RUN-ON ENTRY, USER, USER-FRIENDLY, USER PERSPECTIVE Opsomming: Die gebruikersperspektief in die leksikografie: Die lemma-tisering van vaste uitdrukkings in Duramazwi Guru reChiShona. Die artikel bespreek die gebruikersperspektief en inligtingsherwinning met betrekking tot die lemmatisering van spesifieke meerwoordige leksikale eenhede, naamlik vaste uitdrukkings, in die Sjona- eentalige woordeboek Duramazwi Guru reChiShona. Dit toon dat die besluite waartoe gekom is by die lem-matisering van vaste uitdrukkings be nvloed is deur 'n gebruikersgedrewe benadering. Die artikel gee 'n vergelykende ontleding van hoe vaste uitdrukkings in vorige Sjonawoordeboeke bewerk is en hoe hulle vervolgens in Duramazwi Guru reChiShona behandel is. Vorige woordeboeke het met die probleem geworstel om vaste uitdrukkings as deurloopinskrywings te gee. Teen die agtergrond van die gebruikersperspektief word aangevoer dat die lemmatisering van vaste uitdrukkings in eentalige woordeboeke sekere voordele het bo vroe r gebruikte stategie . Sleutelwoorde: VASTE UITDRUKKING, BEDOELDE GEBRUIKER, DEURLOOPINSKRY-WING, GEBRUIKER, GEBRUIKERSPERSPEKTIEF, GEBRUIKERSVRIENDELIK, IDIOOM, LEMMA, LEMMATISERING, MAKROSTRUKTUUR, MEERWOORDIGE LEKSIKALE EENHEID, MIKRO-STRUKTUUR, PITTIGE GESEGDE, SPREEKWOORD, TREFWOORD
Problems of Equivalence in Shona-English Bilingual Dictionaries
Nomalanga Mpofu
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/11--851
Abstract: : In compiling bilingual dictionaries, lexicographers are mostly concerned with semantic equivalence. As a result, the practice of bilingual dictionary compilers is usually that of giving one-word equivalents. However, this equivalence is at times difficult to arrive at because of the disparities and incommensurability between languages and cultures. According to Sapir (1921) and Whorf (1956), one cannot expect an exact match between two languages that express different cultural realities. Given this scenario, compilers of bilingual dictionaries end up bridging the gap between languages by giving translational equivalents rather than relying solely on one-word equivalents. The Shona-English bilingual dictionaries, namely Hannan (1974) and Dale (1981), like other bilingual dictionaries, also display this characteristic. This article will discuss the problems of translation equivalents in Shona-English dictionaries where lexicographers will be dealing with divergent languages and cultures, traditional practices of lexicography and the absence of reliable corpora. Keywords: BILINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY, CORPUS, CULTURE, CULTURE-BOUND, CULTURAL GAP, DICTIONARY, EQUIVALENCE, INCOMMENSURABILITY, LEXEME, LEXICOGRAPHY, SHONA, SOURCE LANGUAGE, TARGET LANGUAGE, TRANSLATION, UNTRANSLATABILITY Opsomming: Ekwivalensieprobleme in Shona-Engelse tweetalige woordeboeke.By die opstel van tweetalige woordeboeke, is leksikograwe meesal bedag op semantieseekwivalensie. Gevolglik is die gebruik by opstellers van tweetalige woordeboeke gewoonlik omenkelwoordekwivalente te gee. Soms is hierdie ekwivalensie egter moeilik om te bereik vanwe dieongelykheid en nieooreenstemming tussen tale en kulture. Volgens Sapir (1921) en Whorf (1956)kan 'n mens nie 'n presiese ooreenstemming verwag tussen twee tale wat verskillende kulturelewerklikhede uitdruk nie. Gegee hierdie scenario, oorbrug die opstellers van tweetalige woordeboekedie gaping tussen tale uiteindelik deur vertalende ekwivalente aan te gee eerder as om uitsluitlikop enkelwoordekwivalente staat te maak. Die Shona-Engelse tweetalige woordeboeke,naamlik Hannan (1974) en Dale (1981), soos ander tweetalige woordeboeke, vertoon ook hierdiekenmerk. Hierdie artikel bespreek die probleme van vertalende ekwivalente in Shona-Engelsewoordeboeke waar leksikograwe te doen het met uiteenlopende tale en kulture, tradisionele leksikografiesegebruike en die afwesigheid van betroubare korpusse. Sleutelwoorde: BRONTAAL, EKWIVALENSIE, KORPUS, KULTURELE GAPING, KULTUUR,KULTUURGEBONDE, LEKSEEM, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, NIEOOREENSTEMMING, ONVERTAALBAARHE
Perpetual ‘Outcasts’?: Squatters in peri-urban Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
Mpofu, Busani
Afrika Focus , 2012,
Abstract: After independence in 1980 Zimbabwe’s cities experienced a proliferation in the number of squatter camps. This was because of the failure of the urban economy to offer adequate housing and jobs, leaving peri-urban space as the only sanctuary for the urban poor to live in and eke out a living informally. The promotion of rural ‘growth points’ by the national government to promote rural development to discourage migration to urban areas failed. Yet, a poor policy response by the state to this negative outcome of rapid urbanisation that aims to reverse this rural-urban migration has led to unending confrontations between its various arms and squatters who continue to be regarded as encroachers. Focussing on Bulawayo, the second largest city in Zimbabwe, and based on interviews, archival research, Council minutes and newspapers, this article critiques the state’s urban development policy vis-à-vis squatters and informality. It is argued that the persistence of a salient perception by government officials that all Africans belong to rural areas and have access to land they can fall back on in hard times serves as a vital lubricant to the state’s action of forcibly sending squatters to rural areas. This ignores the historical pattern of rapid urbanisation and the growth of informal economies supporting the livelihoods of thousands of people. I seek to add to the literature on low-cost housing shortages, urban squatters and peri-urbanism in Zimbabwe and on studies of informality in Third World cities in general.
Cultural Capital and the Sustainability of NGOs’ Development Programs in Zimbabwe: An Integrative Approach
Phillip Mpofu
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v5n10p89
Abstract: This paper examines the compatibility of the development programs which are implemented by the Non-Governmental Organizations’ (NGOs) in the Midlands, Matabeleland and Masvingo provinces of Zimbabwe with the cultural sustainability and sustainable development in these cultural communities. This paper argues for the integration of cultural capital in the developmental projects which are implemented by the NGOs in the provinces of Zimbabwe. This paper is based on the data which was collected from five NGOs and six cultural communities which are the beneficiaries of the NGOs’ development programs. The theoretical underpinnings of this paper are situated in cultural conservatism, a philosophy which valorises the traditional cultural institutions and the organic change of these cultural communities. This study establishes that, the programs implemented by the NGOs in Zimbabwe are predetermined and are detached from the cultures of the communities in which they are implemented. In view of the argument that culture is an important component in development, both as cultural capital and in defining development, this paper concludes that the prescriptive NGOs’ development programs are detrimental to cultural sustainability and sustainable development in Zimbabwe. Therefore, this paper argues that there is need to integrate the cultural capital of the communities in the designing and implementation of the NGOs development programs in Zimbabwe.
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