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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1227 matches for " Mwaniki Grace Nyambura "
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Knowledge and Utilisation of Emergency Contraception Pills among Female Undergraduate Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya  [PDF]
Mwaniki Grace Nyambura, James N. Kiarie, Omenge Orang’o, Okubatsion Tekeste Okube
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.79100
Abstract: Background: Emergency Contraception (EC) is used after unprotected sexual intercourse, following sexual abuse, misuse of regular contraception or non-use of contraception. Seventeen percent of pregnancies in Kenya are unintended, potentially leading to unsafe abortion that contributes to the high maternal mortality rate in Country. According to 2016 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS), the maternal mortality ratio was 362 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Female students in University or College are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and illegal abortions resulting in mortality, morbidity and psychosocial problems. Knowledge on EC is very important for students as they are not in stable relationships and not using regular contraception. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and use of Emergency Contraception among female undergraduate students in the University of Nairobi. Materials and Methods: We used an institution-based cross sectional, quantitative study to sample was employed among 383 female undergraduate students at the University of Nairobi. The University of Nairobi has six colleges and systematic random sampling was used to select study participants from each college. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and analysed using SPSS Version 16. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were used to determine sample characteristics significantly associated with knowledge and utilisation of Emergency Contraception. Results: Most (53%) of the respondents were sexually active, and only 20% of the sexually active female students had ever used Emergency Contraception. Emergency Contraception awareness was high at 86.4%. However, based on a predefined criterion, accurate knowledge of Emergency Contraception was low at 42.6%.The majority (82.5%) of the
Synthesis of Quaternary Heterocyclic Salts
Angela J. Winstead,Grace Nyambura,Rachael Matthews,Deveine Toney,Stanley Oyaghire
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules181114306
Abstract: The microwave synthesis of twenty quaternary ammonium salts is described. The syntheses feature comparable yields to conventional synthetic methods reported in the current literature with reduced reaction times and the absence of solvent or minimal solvent.
Modeling Returns and Unconditional Variance in Risk Neutral World for Liquid and Illiquid Market  [PDF]
Ivivi Joseph Mwaniki
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2015.51002
Abstract: This article seeks to model daily asset returns using log-ARCH-Lévy type model which is expected to reproduce most of the stylized features of financial time series data (such as volatility clustering, leptokurtic nature of log returns, joint covariance structure and aggregational Gaussianity) that are empirically found in different types of market. In addition, unconditional variance of daily log returns in risk neutral world of different conditional heteroscedastic models is derived. A key observation is that liquid markets and illiquid market may not have the same underlying dynamics. For instance empirical analysis based on S&P500 index log returns as a liquid market do not have autoregressive part in their first moments while in Nairobi Securities Exchange NSE20 index there is strong presence of autoregressive dynamics of order three, i.e. AR(3). Higher moments of both markets are serially correlated.
Consistent Condom Use among HIV Positive Women Attending Comprehensive Care Centre of Thika Level 5 Hospital, Kenya  [PDF]
Anne G. Macharia, Yeri Kombe, Peter Mwaniki
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2015.53017
Abstract: Background: Condoms offer protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission when used correctly and consistently. Many HIV infected people do not use condom regularly, thus leading to new HIV infections and reinfections. In Kenya, condom use is considered to be low and HIV prevalence is high among women aged 15 - 49 years where utilization of condoms among HIV positive women has not been studied. Objectives: The study aimed at determining the prevalence of consistent condom use among HIV positive women aged 18 - 49 years and to investigate the variables associated with it. Methods: A mixed method of study design (qualitative and quantitative approaches) was employed. A total of 422 participants were selected randomly and interviewed using a pretested structured questionnaire. Three (3) focus group discussions with 8 participants in each group were conducted. Chi-square test (p < 0.05) and odds ratio with corresponding 95% confidence interval were computed to establish the association between consistent condom use and independent variables. Binary logistic regression model was used to identify variables independently associated with consistent condom use. Qualitative data were transcribed and coded and then analysed thematically. Results: Consistent condom use among sexually active HIV positive women was found to be 57.4% (95%CI: 52.7% - 62.1%). The stepwise logistic regression revealed that attending tertiary education [aOR = 2.54; 95%CI = 1.30 - 4.95; P = 0.006], disclosing HIV status [aOR = 2.27; 95%CI = 1.27 - 4.06; P = 0.005], having an HIV negative partner [aOR = 4.23; 95%CI = 1.99 - 8.98; P < 0.001], not taking alcohol [aOR = 1.72; 95%CI = 1.10 - 2.69; P = 0.017], never encountered resistance to use condom by partners [aOR = 1.87; 95%CI = 1.15 - 3.03; P = 0.011] and perceived risk of contracting STIs [aOR = 2.11; 95%CI = 1.12 - 3.97; P = 0.021] as factors independently associated with consistent condom use. Conclusion: This study shows that there is still low prevalence of consistent condom use among HIV positive women. More education, campaigning and sensitization should be tailored among HIV positive women during counseling so as to avoid re-infection and transmission of infections.
The multifarious interlinked causes of conflict in Somalia and the way forward
Catherine Wanjiku Nyambura
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2011,
Abstract: This article has identified the factors influencing achievement of sustainable peace in former Italian Somaliland (currently known as Somalia) since 1960. The study was conducted with the objective of establishing the internal and external factors influencing sustainable peace in Somalia. The factors studied are clanism, religion, politics, economy, piracy, and peace agreements, United Nations, United States, Italy, African Union, Al-Qaeda and the Arab League. It also explored possible solutions that could be implemented to achieve sustainable peace in Somalia. The study found that the internal factors of clanism and religion can be positively influenced to bring back peace in Somalia while piracy, politics and the economy were seen to be hindering efforts for sustainable peace. On the external factors the study confirmed that the United Nations has not given enough assistance to Somalis to enable them end the continuous conflict and bring sustainable peace. The study also explored solutions that could lead to sustainable peace; some of the suggested solutions include disarming the outlawed groups and the civilians, unified international support on peace initiatives and strengthening local institutions that could be used as vehicles to peace. In the efforts to achieve sustainable peace the report of this study has recommended that Somalia army should be strengthened to be able to protect its people instead of having foreign armies such as Ethiopian troops and AMISOM. The locals should own the peace processes and the agreements should be made in Somalia instead of holding them in other countries.
Modeling the Frequency and Severity of Auto Insurance Claims Using Statistical Distributions  [PDF]
Cyprian Ondieki Omari, Shalyne Gathoni Nyambura, Joan Martha Wairimu Mwangi
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2018.81012
Abstract: Claims experience in non-life insurance is contingent on random eventualities of claim frequency and claim severity. By design, a single policy may possibly incur more than one claim such that the total number of claims as well as the total size of claims due on any given portfolio is unpredictable. For insurers to be able to settle claims that may occur from existing portfolios of policies at some future time periods, it is imperative that they adequately model historical and current data on claims experience; this can be used to project the expected future claims experience and setting sufficient reserves. Non-life insurance companies are often faced with two challenges when modeling claims data; selecting appropriate statistical distributions for claims data and establishing how well the selected statistical distributions fit the claims data. Accurate evaluation of claim frequency and claim severity plays a critical role in determining: An adequate premium loading factor, required reserve levels, product profitability and the impact of policy modifications. Whilst the assessment of insurers’ actuarial risks in respect of their solvency status is a complex process, the first step toward the solution is the modeling of individual claims frequency and severity. This paper presents a methodical framework for choosing a suitable probability model that best describes automobile claim frequency and loss severity as well as their application in risk management. Selected statistical distributions are fitted to historical automobile claims data and parameters estimated using the maximum likelihood method. The Chi-square test is used to check the goodness-of-fit for claim frequency distributions whereas the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests are applied to claim severity distributions. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) is used to choose between competing distributions. Empirical results indicate that claim severity data is better modeled using heavy-tailed and skewed distributions. The lognormal distribution is selected as the best distribution to model the claim size while negative binomial and geometric distributions are selected as the best distributions for fitting the claim frequency data in comparison to other standard distributions.
Philosophy of Education as an accidental trickle
Patrick Mbogo Mwaniki
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2010,
Abstract: This paper recalls a Thomistic dictum quidquid recipitur ad modum recipietis recipitur to the effect that, somewhat, everything is received in the manner of the recipient, and which, for the purposes of the paper shall be rendered to signify that the operations of any thing - en, entis - cannot exceed its nature, and at the level of particulars would mean that the capabilities of any thing cannot exceed those of its essence. Thus, the dictum only served as a reminder to the fact that we know as much of reality as our predispositions allow, and once we have had our "fill," its effect cannot possibly exceed it as cause. Based on an Aristotelean-Thomistic-Gilsonean philosophical framework, and employing an anecdotic, hypothetical quasi scenario-building methodology to visit learning and teaching of philosophy of education and the career-building in the field at our universities, it attempts, through again, a quasi Socratic method, to intimate that the effects cannot possibly exceed their causes, and so, in Africa and in the world at large, philosophy of education will yield as much progress as that of its teachers as its causes and principles.
Determinants of Persistent Sputum Smear Positivity after Intensive Phase Chemotherapy among Patients with Tuberculosis at Rhodes Chest Clinic, Nairobi, Kenya  [PDF]
D. Maingi, M. Mutugi, P. Wanzala, J. Mutai, P. Mwaniki
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.615237
Abstract: The prevalence of TB in sub-Sahara Africa has been reported as 511 per 100,000 populations and a mortality of 74 per 100,000 in year 2009. In the same period, incidence was estimated at 350 cases per 100,000. In this regard, the health system requires strengthening to respond to the rising cases of infection, drug resistance and quality of life lost while continuing to seek interventions that improve adherence to medication and case detection among those infected. Methods: This study sought to determine factors that are associated with sputum positivity after intensive phase of chemotherapy in people with tuberculosis. It was a retrospective case-control study conducted in Rhodes chest clinic, a City Council health unit in Nairobi that specializes in treatment of chest infections. The participants were sampled from clinic attendants who had completed two months of intensive phase TB chemotherapy and met inclusion criteria. Results: Seventy participants of whom 25 (36%) were sputum positive at the end of two (2) months intensive phase were included in the study. Skipping medication doses was significantly associated with sputum positivity (p = 0.01). Patients who were sputum positive at the end of the two-month period were more likely to have taken longer time before seeking treatment compared to those who were sputum negative by median (IQR) 8 (3 - 12) and 4 (3 - 8) weeks respectively although this difference was not significant (p = 0.09). Patients who had not disclosed their infection status had a two-fold possibility of remaining sputum positive at the end of intensive phase. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment of TB, and adherence to medication were important factors that affect sputum conversion during intensive phase of TB treatment. Therefore, public health practitioners should advise patients to seek prompt diagnosis and treatment of signs and symptoms of tuberculosis.
Financial Time Series Modelling of Trends and Patterns in the Energy Markets  [PDF]
Jane Aduda, Patrick Weke, Philip Ngare, Joseph Mwaniki
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2016.62027
Abstract: Precise recognition of a time series path is important to policy makers, statisticians, economists, traders, hedgers and speculators alike. The correct time series path is also a key ingredient in pricing models. This study uses daily futures prices of crude oil and other distillate fuels. This paper considers the statistical properties of energy futures and spot prices and investigates the trends that underlie the price dynamics in order to gain further insights into possible nuances of price discovery and energy market dynamics. The family of ARMA-GARCH models was explored. The trends depict time varying variability and persistence of oil price shocks. The return series conform to a constant mean model with GARCH variance.
Ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological profile of genus Toddalia
Hellen Nyambura Kariuki, John King’ori Mwonjoria
Phytopharmacology , 2013,
Abstract: Plants have been used by mankind to alleviate various ailments for several millennia. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 80 percent of the people especially in the developing countries use herbal medicine for their primary health care (WHO, 2002). Interest and research into the pharmacological effects of the various plant extracts has risen after the realization of their therapeutic potential. Toddalia asiatica is a monotypic genus which has been used as folklore remedy for malaria, pain, fever and respiratory problems especially in Africa. Several phytochemicals isolated from this species includes coumarins, quinolines, triterpenoids, phenanthridine and alkaloids. Extract from T. asiatica were shown to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, larvicidal, spasmolytic, cardiovascular and antitumor activity. Traditional herbs and knowledge when tested scientifically can provide new and effective pharmacological agents.
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