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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2815 matches for " Mutsuo Kobayashi "
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Comparative Study of 5-Day and 10-Day Cefditoren Pivoxil Treatments for Recurrent Group A-Hemolytic Streptococcus pharyngitis in Children
Hideaki Kikuta,Mutsuo Shibata,Shuji Nakata,Tatsuru Yamanaka,Hiroshi Sakata,Kouji Akizawa,Kunihiko Kobayashi
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/863608
Abstract: Efficacy of short-course therapy with cephalosporins for treatment of group A -hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) pharyngitis is still controversial. Subjects were 226 children with a history of at least one episode of GABHS pharyngitis. Recurrence within the follow-up period (3 weeks after initiation of therapy) occurred in 7 of the 77 children in the 5-day treatment group and in 1 of the 149 children in the 10-day treatment group; the incidence of recurrence being significantly higher in the 5-day treatment group. Bacteriologic treatment failure (GABHS isolation without overt pharyngitis) at follow-up culture was observed in 7 of the 77 children in the 5-day treatment group and 17 of the 149 children in the 10-day treatment group. There was no statistical difference between the two groups. A 5-day course of oral cephalosporins is not always recommended for treatment of GABHS pharyngitis in children who have repeated episodes of pharyngitis.
Mechanisms of Pyrethroid Resistance in the Dengue Mosquito Vector, Aedes aegypti: Target Site Insensitivity, Penetration, and Metabolism
Shinji Kasai ,Osamu Komagata,Kentaro Itokawa,Toshio Shono,Lee Ching Ng,Mutsuo Kobayashi,Takashi Tomita
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002948
Abstract: Aedes aegypti is the major vector of yellow and dengue fevers. After 10 generations of adult selection, an A. aegypti strain (SP) developed 1650-fold resistance to permethrin, which is one of the most widely used pyrethroid insecticides for mosquito control. SP larvae also developed 8790-fold resistance following selection of the adults. Prior to the selections, the frequencies of V1016G and F1534C mutations in domains II and III, respectively, of voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc, the target site of pyrethroid insecticide) were 0.44 and 0.56, respectively. In contrast, only G1016 alleles were present after two permethrin selections, indicating that G1016 can more contribute to the insensitivity of Vssc than C1534. In vivo metabolism studies showed that the SP strain excreted permethrin metabolites more rapidly than a susceptible SMK strain. Pretreatment with piperonyl butoxide caused strong inhibition of excretion of permethrin metabolites, suggesting that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) play an important role in resistance development. In vitro metabolism studies also indicated an association of P450s with resistance. Microarray analysis showed that multiple P450 genes were over expressed during the larval and adult stages in the SP strain. Following quantitative real time PCR, we focused on two P450 isoforms, CYP9M6 and CYP6BB2. Transcription levels of these P450s were well correlated with the rate of permethrin excretion and they were certainly capable of detoxifying permethrin to 4′-HO-permethrin. Over expression of CYP9M6 was partially due to gene amplification. There was no significant difference in the rate of permethrin reduction from cuticle between SP and SMK strains.
Blow Flies Were One of the Possible Candidates for Transmission of Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus during the 2004 Outbreaks in Japan
Kyoko Sawabe,Keita Hoshino,Haruhiko Isawa,Toshinori Sasaki,Kyeong Soon Kim,Toshihiko Hayashi,Yoshio Tsuda,Hiromu Kurahashi,Mutsuo Kobayashi
Influenza Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/652652
Abstract: The 2003-2004 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in Japan were the first such outbreaks in 79 years in Japan. Epidemic outbreaks have been occurring in Southeast Asia, with the most recent in 2010. Knowledge of the transmission route responsible for the HPAI outbreaks in these countries remains elusive. Our studies strongly suggested that field and laboratory studies focusing on mechanical transmission by blow flies should be considered to control H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks, in particular in epidemic areas, where there are high densities of different fly species throughout the year. In this paper, we review these field and laboratory entomological studies and discuss the possibility of blow flies transmitting H5N1 viruses. 1. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Japan The H5N1 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus has frequently infected wild and domestic ducks in Asia, causing huge economic damage to both poultry farms and governments in the affected countries. Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans, but the 1997 outbreak of the H5N1 virus in Hong Kong [1, 2] alerted the medical community that some subtypes of avian influenza viruses include highly pathogenic strains that can affect humans. In this influenza virus outbreak, there were 6 deaths in the 18 human cases caused by the H5N1 subtype [3]. As of August 2, 2010, WHO has identified 502 human cases of H5N1 influenza around the world, and 298 of these were fatal [4]. In particular, H5N1 outbreaks have occurred recently in Egypt, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Therefore, H5N1 influenza virus can cause serious public health problems in birds and humans and is one of the most infectious avian diseases transmissible to humans. From January 2004 to March 2004, there were outbreaks of acute, highly transmissible, lethal diseases in chickens at four poultry farms in Japan: one in Oita, one in Yamaguchi, and two in Kyoto Prefecture (Figure 1). Virus isolates from infected chickens were all identified as influenza A virus of the H5N1 subtype [5]. Such highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemics had not been reported in Japan for 79 years. Two avian influenza outbreaks at poultry farms in Tamba Town, Kyoto Prefecture, were the last two outbreaks of the 2004 avian epidemics in Japan. Since then, there were outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza in Okayama and Miyazaki Prefectures in 2007. The H5N1 virus was also isolated from dead Whooper swans, Cygnus cygnus, in 2008 in Towada Lake, Akita Prefecture [6]. In addition, outbreaks of other subtypes of avian influenza
Virus Infection-Induced Bronchial Asthma Exacerbation
Mutsuo Yamaya
Pulmonary Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/834826
Abstract: Infection with respiratory viruses, including rhinoviruses, influenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus, exacerbates asthma, which is associated with processes such as airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and mucus hypersecretion. In patients with viral infections and with infection-induced asthma exacerbation, inflammatory mediators and substances, including interleukins (ILs), leukotrienes and histamine, have been identified in the airway secretions, serum, plasma, and urine. Viral infections induce an accumulation of inflammatory cells in the airway mucosa and submucosa, including neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. Viral infections also enhance the production of inflammatory mediators and substances in airway epithelial cells, mast cells, and other inflammatory cells, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, RANTES, histamine, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Viral infections affect the barrier function of the airway epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. Recent reports have demonstrated augmented viral production mediated by an impaired interferon response in the airway epithelial cells of asthma patients. Several drugs used for the treatment of bronchial asthma reduce viral and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from airway epithelial cells infected with viruses. Here, I review the literature on the pathogenesis of the viral infection-induced exacerbation of asthma and on the modulation of viral infection-induced airway inflammation.
Echo
Mutsuo Takahashi
Studi Irlandesi : a Journal of Irish Studies , 2011,
Abstract:
Topology of polar weighted homogeneous hypersurfaces
Mutsuo Oka
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: Polar weighted homogeneous polynomials are the class of special polynomials of real variables $x_i,y_i, i=1,..., n$ with $z_i=x_i+\sqrt{-1} y_i$, which enjoys a "polar action". In many aspects, their behavior looks like that of complex weighted homogeneous polynomials. We study basic properties of hypersurfaces which are defined by polar weighted homogeneous polynomials.
Elliptic Curves from Sextics
Mutsuo Oka
Mathematics , 1999,
Abstract: Let $\mathcal N$ be the moduli space of sextics with 3 (3,4)-cusps. The quotient moduli space ${\mathcal N}/G$ is one-dimensional and consists of two components, ${\mathcal N}_{torus}/G$ and ${\mathcal N}_{gen}/G$. By quadratic transformations, they are transformed into one-parameter families $C_s$ and $D_s$ of cubic curves respectively. We study the Mordell-Weil torsion groups of cubic curves $C_s$ over $\bfQ$ and $D_s$ over $\bfQ(\sqrt{-3})$ respectively. We show that $C_{s}$ has the torsion group $\bf Z/3\bf Z$ for a generic $s\in \bf Q$ and it also contains subfamilies which coincide with the universal families given by Kubert with the torsion groups $\bf Z/6\bf Z$, $\bf Z/6\bf Z+\bf Z/2\bf Z$, $\bf Z/9\bf Z$ or $\bf Z/12\bf Z$. The cubic curves $D_s$ has torsion $\bf Z/3\bf Z+\bf Z/3\bf Z$ generically but also $\bf Z/3\bf Z+\bf Z/6\bf Z$ for a subfamily which is parametrized by $ \bf Q(\sqrt{-3}) $.
Zariski Pairs on sextics II
Mutsuo Oka
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: The complete list of reducible sextics of torus type with simple singularities is known in our previous paper. In this paper, we give a complete list of existence and non-existence of Zariski partner sextics of non-torus type corresponding to the list of sextics of torus type.
Zariski pairs on sextics I
Mutsuo Oka
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: We show the existence of sextics of non-torus type which is a Zariski partner of the tame sextics of torus type with simple singularities.
Non-degenerate mixed functions
Mutsuo Oka
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: Mixed functions are analytic functions in variables $z_1,..., z_n$ and their conjugates $\bar z_1,..., \bar z_n$. We introduce the notion of Newton non-degeneracy for mixed functions and develop a basic tool for the study of mixed hypersurface singularities. We show the existence of a canonical resolution of the singularity, and the existence of the Milnor fibration under the strong non-degeneracy condition.
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