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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4291 matches for " Muto Tanaka "
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Relationship between Cariogenic Bacteria and pH of Dental Plaque at Margin of Fixed Prostheses
Junko Tanaka,Norio Mukai,Muto Tanaka,Masahiro Tanaka
International Journal of Dentistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/452108
Abstract: Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether teeth that have undergone prosthetic restoration are under conditions that promote caries recurrence. Methods. The subjects were 20 dentate adults with both a healthy tooth and an affected tooth entirely covered with a complete cast crown in the molar regions of the same arch. The pH was measured in plaque adhering to the margin of the tooth covered with a complete cast crown and adhering to the cervicobuccal area of the natural tooth. In addition, the numbers of cariogenic bacteria (mutans streptococci and lactobacilli) were measured employing the saliva test. The relationships between the number of cariogenic bacteria and plaque pH of the natural tooth and between the number of cariogenic bacteria and plaque pH of the tooth covered with a complete cast crown were investigated. Results. The plaque pH of the tooth covered with a complete cast crown decreased as the numbers of SM and LB increased. The natural tooth were also influenced by the number of SM. Conclusion. Secondary caries are likely to develop from the marginal region of the crown in the oral cavity with a high caries risk unless a preventive program is prepared and the oral environment is improved following the program.
Identification and Functional Analysis of Delta-9 Desaturase, a Key Enzyme in PUFA Synthesis, Isolated from the Oleaginous Diatom Fistulifera
Masaki Muto, Chihiro Kubota, Masayoshi Tanaka, Akira Satoh, Mitsufumi Matsumoto, Tomoko Yoshino, Tsuyoshi Tanaka
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073507
Abstract: Oleaginous microalgae are one of the promising resource of nonedible biodiesel fuel (BDF) feed stock alternatives. Now a challenge task is the decrease of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content affecting on the BDF oxidative stability by using gene manipulation techniques. However, only the limited knowledge has been available concerning the fatty acid and PUFA synthesis pathways in microalgae. Especially, the function of Δ9 desaturase, which is a key enzyme in PUFA synthesis pathway, has not been determined in diatom. In this study, 4 Δ9 desaturase genes (fD9desA, fD9desB, fD9desC and fD9desD) from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera were newly isolated and functionally characterized. The putative Δ9 acyl-CoA desaturases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed 3 histidine clusters that are well-conserved motifs in the typical Δ9 desaturase. Furthermore, the function of these Δ9 desaturases was confirmed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ole1 gene deletion mutant (Δole1). All the putative Δ9 acyl-CoA desaturases showed Δ9 desaturation activity for C16:0 fatty acids; fD9desA and fD9desB also showed desaturation activity for C18:0 fatty acids. This study represents the first functional analysis of Δ9 desaturases from oleaginous microalgae and from diatoms as the first enzyme to introduce a double bond in saturated fatty acids during PUFA synthesis. The findings will provide beneficial insights into applying metabolic engineering processes to suppressing PUFA synthesis in this oleaginous microalgal strain.
Identification of two metallothionein isoforms by molecular cloning of their cDNAs in fresh-water fish, crucian carp (Carassius-cuvieri)
Hongwei Ren,Muto Norio,Itoh Norio,Meimin Yu,Binggeng Ru,Tanaka Keiichi
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2001, DOI: 10.1007/BF03183209
Abstract: Generally, there are two major isoforms of metallothionein (MT) in mammals. In this study two cDNAs of metallothionein, MT-A and MT-B, in a fresh-water fish, crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri), were cloned by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The homology of their reading frame is about 92.3%. The sequence analysis of both cDNAs gave the structures of coding regions corresponding to 60 amino acid residues, and the structures of complete 3′-untranslated regions in which a significant difference in the size of their 3′-untranslated regions (130 bp for MT-A and 280 bp for MT-B) exists. The results of amino acid sequencing of both MT-1 and MT-2 purified by HPLC are identical to those deduced from MT cDNA genes, indicating that MT-1 is from MT-A gene and MT-2 is from MT-B gene respectively. No blocking in the N-terminal of MT-2 isoform was the first case found in vertebrates, most of which were blocked by acetylation. These results suggest that there were differential controls at the transcription level and after translation of these two MT isoforms. And this gives a clue to understand the diversities of their functions.
Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Oleaginous Marine Diatom Fistulifera sp. Strain JPCC DA0580
Yue Liang,Yoshiaki Maeda,Yoshihiko Sunaga,Masaki Muto,Mitsufumi Matsumoto,Tomoko Yoshino,Tsuyoshi Tanaka
Marine Drugs , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/md11125008
Abstract: Studies of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in microalgae are of great importance for many reasons, including the production of biofuel and variable omega 3-long chain PUFAs. The elucidation of the PUFA biosynthesis pathway is necessary for bioengineering to increase or decrease PUFA content in certain microalgae. In this study, we identified the PUFA synthesis pathway in the oleaginous marine diatom, Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580, a promising candidate for biodiesel production. The data revealed not only the presence of the desaturases and elongases involved in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) synthesis, but also the unexpected localization of ω3-desaturase expression in the chloroplast. This suggests that this microalga might perform the final step of EPA synthesis in the chloroplast and not in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) like other diatoms. The detailed fatty acid profile suggests that the EPA was synthesized only through the ω6-pathway in this strain, which was also different from other diatoms. Finally, the transcriptome analysis demonstrated an overall down-regulation of desaturases and elongases over incubation time. These genetic features might explain the decrease of PUFA percentage over incubation time in this strain. The important insights into metabolite synthesis acquired here will be useful for future metabolic engineering to control PUFA content in this diatom.
Formation of a disc gap induced by a planet: Effect of the deviation from Keplerian disc rotation
Kazuhiro D. Kanagawa,Hidekazu Tanaka,Takayuki Muto,Takayuki Tanigawa,Taku Takeuchi
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv025
Abstract: The gap formation induced by a giant planet is important in the evolution of the planet and the protoplanetary disc. We examine the gap formation by a planet with a new formulation of one-dimensional viscous discs which takes into account the deviation from Keplerian disc rotation due to the steep gradient of the surface density. This formulation enables us to naturally include the Rayleigh stable condition for the disc rotation. It is found that the derivation from Keplerian disc rotation promotes the radial angular momentum transfer and makes the gap shallower than in the Keplerian case. For deep gaps, this shallowing effect becomes significant due to the Rayleigh condition. In our model, we also take into account the propagation of the density waves excited by the planet, which widens the range of the angular momentum deposition to the disc. The effect of the wave propagation makes the gap wider and shallower than the case with instantaneous wave damping. With these shallowing effects, our one-dimensional gap model is consistent with the recent hydrodynamic simulations.
Mass Estimates of a Giant Planet in a Protoplanetary Disk from the Gap Structures
Kazuhiro D. Kanagawa,Takayuki Muto,Hidekazu Tanaka,Takayuki Tanigawa,Taku Takeuchi,Takashi Tsukagoshi,Munetake Momose
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/806/1/L15
Abstract: A giant planet embedded in a protoplanetary disk forms a gap. An analytic relationship among the gap depth, planet mass $M_{p}$, disk aspect ratio $h_p$, and viscosity $\alpha$ has been found recently, and the gap depth can be written in terms of a single parameter $K= (M_{p}/M_{\ast})^2 h_p^{-5} \alpha^{-1}$. We discuss how observed gap features can be used to constrain the disk and/or planet parameters based on the analytic formula for the gap depth. The constraint on the disk aspect ratio is critical in determining the planet mass so the combination of the observations of the temperature and the image can provide a constraint on the planet mass. We apply the formula for the gap depth to observations of HL~Tau and HD~169142. In the case of HL~Tau, we propose that a planet with $\gtrsim 0.3$ is responsible for the observed gap at $30$~AU from the central star based on the estimate that the gap depth is $\lesssim 1/3$. In the case of HD~169142, the planet mass that causes the gap structure recently found by VLA is $\gtrsim 0.4 M_J$. We also argue that the spiral structure, if observed, can be used to estimate the lower limit of the disk aspect ratio and the planet mass.
科学通报 , 2000,
Abstract: 应用阻抑性RACE方法克隆得到白鲫鱼的两个MT全长cDNA(MT-A和MT-B),它们可读框间的同源性为92.3%.用封闭式充氮层析系统得到高纯度的两个白鲫鱼肝MT蛋白,并用Edman法测定了N-端氨基酸序列.据此证明了MT-B是表达MT-2蛋白的基因,MT-A是表达MT-1蛋白的基因.此外测序过程中发现MT-1的N-端被封闭,而MT-2则是非封闭的,这提示它们在转录及翻译后调控机制的不同.白鲫鱼MT两基因的核酸序列和尾部非翻译区长度的差异(MT-A约150bp,MT-B约360bp),以及两MT蛋白亚型的N-端封闭情况的不同,都为解释它们在组织中分布及其功能的差异性提供了线索.
Axial-Vector Duality as a Mirror Symmetry
Tomomi Muto
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1016/0370-2693(94)01463-M
Abstract: We study $N=2$ supersymmetric $SU(2)/U(1)$ and $SL(2,R)/U(1)$ gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten models. It is shown that the vector gauged model is transformed to the axial gauged model by a mirror transformation. Therefore the vector gauged model and the axial gauged model are equivalent as $N=(2,2)$ superconformal field theories. In the $SL(2,R)/U(1)$ model, it is known that axial-vector duality relates a background with a singularity to that without a singularity. Implications of the equivalence of these two models to space-time singularities are discussed.
Interplay between kaon condensation and hyperons in highly dense matter
Takumi Muto
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.77.015810
Abstract: Possible coexistence and/or competition of kaon condensation with hyperons are investigated in hyperonic matter, where hyperons are mixed in the ground state of neutron-star matter. The formulation is based on the effective chiral Lagrangian for the kaon-baryon interaction and the nonrelativistic baryon-baryon interaction model. First, the onset condition of the s-wave kaon condensation realized from hyperonic matter is reexamined. It is shown that the usual assumption of the continuous phase transition is not always kept valid in the presence of the negatively charged hyperons. Second, the equation of state (EOS) of the kaon-condensed phase in hyperonic matter is discussed. In the case of the stronger kaon-baryon attractive interaction, it is shown that a local energy minimum with respect to the baryon number density appears as a result of considerable softening of the EOS due to both kaon condensation and hyperon-mixing and recovering of the stiffness of the EOS at very high densities. This result implies a possible existence of self-bound objects with kaon condensates on any scale from an atomic nucleus to a neutron star.
On thermodynamics of black p-branes
Tomomi Muto
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(96)01472-4
Abstract: Thermodynamic properties of a class of black $p$-branes in $D$-dimensions considered by Duff and Lu are investigated semi-classically. For black $(d-1)$-brane, thermodynamic quantities depend on $D$ and $d$ only through the combination $\tilde d \equiv D-d-2$. The behavior of the Hawking temperature and the lifetime vary with $\tilde d$, with a critical value $\tilde d=2$. For $\tilde d>2$, there remains a remnant, in which non-zero entropy is stored. Implications of the fact that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black $(d-1)$-brane depend only on $\tilde d=D-d-2$ is discussed from the point of view of duality.
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