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A Heuristic Scheduling Algorithm for Minimizing Makespan and Idle Time in a Nagare Cell
M. Muthukumaran,S. Muthu
Advances in Mechanical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/895463
Abstract: Adopting a focused factory is a powerful approach for today manufacturing enterprise. This paper introduces the basic manufacturing concept for a struggling manufacturer with limited conventional resources, providing an alternative solution to cell scheduling by implementing the technique of Nagare cell. Nagare cell is a Japanese concept with more objectives than cellular manufacturing system. It is a combination of manual and semiautomatic machine layout as cells, which gives maximum output flexibility for all kind of low-to-medium- and medium-to-high- volume productions. The solution adopted is to create a dedicated group of conventional machines, all but one of which are already available on the shop floor. This paper focuses on the development of heuristic scheduling algorithm in step-by-step method. The algorithm states that the summation of processing time of all products on each machine is calculated first and then the sum of processing time is sorted by the shortest processing time rule to get the assignment schedule. Based on the assignment schedule Nagare cell layout is arranged for processing the product. In addition, this algorithm provides steps to determine the product ready time, machine idle time, and product idle time. And also the Gantt chart, the experimental analysis, and the comparative results are illustrated with five ( to ) scheduling problems. Finally, the objective of minimizing makespan and idle time with greater customer satisfaction is studied through. 1. Introduction In the present competitive business environment, many businesses focus their attention especially on the rapidity for responding to their customers’ needs. For this reason, continuous improvements are needed to increase response times to customer changes. One of the strategies followed are cellular manufacturing (CM). It is a manufacturing philosophy that has attracted a lot of attention because of its positive impact on the flow shop production. The design of this system has been viewed as an important manufacturing strategy that has contributed to improve productivity. Similar parts are grouped into families and associated machines into groups so that one or more part families can be processed within a cell. The process of determining the part families and machine groups is referred to as the cell formation (CF) problem [1]. CM has been considered as an alternative to conventional flow shop manufacturing where different parts are produced intermittently in small lot sizes. In a conventional flow shop group scheduling problem, each stage has only one machine.
Role of Certain Elicitors on the Chemical Induction of Resistance in Tomato against the Leaf Caterpillar Spodoptera litura Fab.
M. MELVIN JOE,N. MUTHUKUMARAN
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2008,
Abstract: Mill. The four presumptive defenses manipulated were protinase inhibitors, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and lipoxygenase. The elicitors used were jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and PGPR Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These elicitors were tested against growth and development of Spodoptera litura Fab. In order to asses the relative roles of proteins in induced resistance against S. litura. When activities of proteinase inhibitors and/or polyphenol oxidase in leaf tissue were high, growth rates of S. litura were low and vise versa. In contrast, high activities of peroxidase and lipoxygenase have no effect on growth and development of S. litura. The association of high levels of proteinase inhibitors and polyphenol oxidase strongly implies these proteins as causal agent inducing resistance against S. litura.
Cyclic Voltammetry and RRDE Studies on the Electrochemical Behavior of Azetidinone Ester
Kulandainathan,M. Anbu; Kulangiappar,K.; Raju,T.; Muthukumaran,A.;
Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta , 2005,
Abstract: azetidinone ester is the key intermediate during the synthesis of injectable cephalosporin compounds. this intermediate is undergoing electrochemical reaction during the process of conversion from penicillin to cephalosporin. the cv and rrde studies clearly indicate that electro-reduction of this compound is taking place in three steps under the condition. the first two peaks correspond to the two, one electron transfers and the third one is due to the proton addition from the non-aqueous solvent. and during the process, the cyclisation is also taking place in order to neutralise the charge. further cv and rrde studies with the addition of small amount of water to the above system clearly confirm the mechanism. this was very well confirmed by the ftir analysis of the product obtained from the bulk electrolysis.
6,8-Dichloro-N-methyl-3-nitro-4-nitromethyl-4H-chromen-2-amine
J. Muthukumaran,A. Parthiban,M. Kannan,H. Surya Prakash Rao
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811009366
Abstract: In the title compound, C11H9Cl2N3O5, the dihydropyran ring adopts a near-half-chair conformation. The benzene ring makes a torsion angle of 5.02 (5)° with the dihydropyran ring. Adjacent molecules are interlinked through intermolecular C—H...O, N—H...O and C—Cl...π [3.4743 (9) ] interactions. The intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond generates an R22(12) motif, which is observed to contribute to the crystal packing stability. Moreover, the molecular structure displays an S(6) motif formed by intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonding.
Bis(μ-phenyltellurido-κ2Te:Te)bis[tetracarbonylrhenium(I)]
J. Muthukumaran,M. Kannan,A. Vanitha,Bala Manimaran
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2010, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536810014297
Abstract: The title compound, [Re2(C6H5Te)2(CO)8], crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit, in which two Re atoms are coordinated in a slightly distorted octahedral environment and are bridged by two Te atoms, which show a distorted trigonal-pyramidal geometry. The torsion angles for the Te—Re—Te—Re sequence of atoms are 19.29 (18) and 16.54 (16)° in the two molecules. Thus, the Re—Te four-membered rings in the two molecules deviate significantly from planarity. Two intramolecular C—H...O interactions occur in one of the molecules. Te—Te [4.0551 (10) ] interactions between the two molecules and weak intermolecular C—H...O interactions stabilize the crystal packing.
3-(4-Methylphenyl)-1-phenyl-3-(4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1,2,3-benzoselenadiazol-4-yl)propan-1-one
J. Muthukumaran,M. Nishandhini,S. Chitra,P. Manisankar
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s160053681102174x
Abstract: In the title compound, C22H22N2OSe, the fused six-membered ring of the 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d][1,2,3] selenadiazole group adopts a near to envelope (E form) conformation and the five-membered 1,2,3-selenadiazole ring is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0059 ). In the crystal, adjacent molecules are interlinked through weak intermolecular C—H...π interactions.
4-{(4-Chlorophenyl)[4-(4-methylphenyl)-1,2,3-selenadiazol-5-yl]methyl}-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1,2,3-benzoselenadiazole
J. Muthukumaran,M. Nishandhini,S. Chitra,S. Muthusubramanian
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s160053681101751x
Abstract: In the title compound, C22H19ClN4Se2, the mean plane of the non-fused selenadiazole ring forms dihedral angles of 54.20 (16)° and 70.48 (11)°, respectively, with the essentially planar [maximum deviations of 0.025 (5) and 0.009 (2) , respectively] methylphenyl and chlorophenyl substituents. The tetrahydro-1,2,3-benzoselenadiazole group is disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.802 (5):0.198 (5). In the crystal, weak intermolecular C—H...N interactions are observed.
1-(2-Naphthyl)-3-phenyl-3-(4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1,2,3-benzoselenadiazol-4-yl)propan-1-one
J. Muthukumaran,M. Nachiappan,S. Chitra,P. Manisankar
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811027103
Abstract: In the title compound, C25H22N2OSe, the fused six-membered cyclohexene ring of the 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1,2,3-benzoselenadiazole group adopts a near half-chair conformation and the five-membered 1,2,3-selenadiazole ring is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.004 ). There are weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...π interactions in the crystal structure. Intermolecular π–π stacking is also observed between the naphthyl units, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.529 (15) .
Cyclic Voltammetry and RRDE Studies on the Electrochemical Behavior of Azetidinone Ester
M. Anbu Kulandainathan,K. Kulangiappar,T. Raju,A. Muthukumaran
Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta , 2005,
Abstract: Azetidinone ester is the key intermediate during the synthesis of injectable cephalosporin compounds. This intermediate is undergoing electrochemical reaction during the process of conversion from penicillin to cephalosporin. The CV and RRDE studies clearly indicate that electro-reduction of this compound is taking place in three steps under the condition. The first two peaks correspond to the two, one electron transfers and the third one is due to the proton addition from the non-aqueous solvent. And during the process, the cyclisation is also taking place in order to neutralise the charge. Further CV and RRDE studies with the addition of small amount of water to the above system clearly confirm the mechanism. This was very well confirmed by the FTIR analysis of the product obtained from the bulk electrolysis.
Formulation and evaluation of naproxen sodium orodispersible tablets - A sublimation technique
Jeevanandham S,Dhachinamoorthi D,Chandra Sekhar K,Muthukumaran M
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The rationale of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of naproxen sodium using camphor as a subliming agent. Orodispersible tablets of naproxen sodium were prepared by the wet granulation technique using camphor as a subliming agent and sodium starch glycolate together with crosscarmellose sodium as superdisintegrants. Camphor was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed into tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The formulations were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, wetting time, and in vitro dissolution. All the formulations showed low weight variation with dispersion time less than 55 s and rapid in vitro dissolution. Sublimation of camphor from tablets resulted in superior tablets as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The results revealed that the tablets containing the subliming agent had a good dissolution profile. The drug content of all the formulations was within the acceptable limits of the United States Pharmacopoeia XXVII. The optimized formulation showed good release profile with maximum drug being released at all time intervals. It was concluded that fast dissolving tablets with improved naproxen sodium dissolution could be prepared by sublimation of tablets containing a suitable subliming agent. This work helped in understanding the effect of formulation processing variables especially the subliming agent on the drug release profile.
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