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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 810 matches for " Muthiah PL "
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IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS
Muthiah PL
International Journal of Phytopharmacy , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijpp.v2i1.293
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta) had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.
In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon
Muthiah PL
International Journal of Phytopharmacy , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijpp.v2i3.434
Abstract: Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon. Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation. Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16 ±0.88 g/ml). This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50 ±2.05 g/ml), C.limon peel (IC50 64.90 ±1.24 g/ml), C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50 ±1.26 g/ml), C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83 ±2.42 g/ml), C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83 ±2.02 g/ml), C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16 ±0.60 g/ml) extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6 g/ml. Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects. An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.
Left Atrial Myxoma—A Case Report  [PDF]
Ramachandran Muthiah
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2016.51002
Abstract: Atrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors. More than 90% are solitary. A large myxoma occupying in the left atrium producing mitral stenosis and regurgitation was demonstrated by 2D echocardiographic images in this case. It remained asymptomatic for a long period with a survival up to the age of 75 years in an elderly female.
Apical Right Ventricular Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy—A Case Report  [PDF]
Ramachandran Muthiah
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2016.52010
Abstract: A relatively infrequent form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the isolated apical variant and it is more common in oriental people, especially in the Japanese. It contributes 25% of cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in Japan but only 1% to 2% in the non-Japanese population. It may occasionally present in the elderly and classically involve the apex of the left ventricle. An isolated apical right ventricular involvement had been detected in an elderly female by transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiographic imaging.
Right Atrial Myxoma—A Case Report  [PDF]
Ramachandran Muthiah
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2016.53013
Abstract: Myxomas comprise 6% to 10% of primary cardiac tumors in childhood. Less than 10% of patients with cardiac myxomas are under 15 years of age. A large myxoma occupying in the right atrium and prolapsing into the right ventricle, pulmonary artery and producing tricuspid and pulmonary valve obstructions was diagnosed by Transthoracic 2D echocardiographic imaging in a 12-year-old male child.
Left Ventricular Myxoma—A Case Report  [PDF]
Ramachandran Muthiah
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2016.53016
Abstract: Left ventricular myxomas are extremely rare and account for 2.5% of all cardiac myxoma cases. A left ventricular myxoma originating from the apical interventricular septum and projecting into the left ventricular cavity was diagnosed by Transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiographic imaging in a 29-year-old male. The presentation of myxoma with symptoms masquerading as infectious hepatitis and dilated cardiomyopathy with a measured ejection fraction of 20% has been described.
Left Ventricular “Horseshoe-Thrombus”—A Case Report  [PDF]
Ramachandran Muthiah
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2016.54026
Abstract: Thrombi represent the most frequently found intracardiac masses. Left ventricular thrombus (LVT) is an important complication in patients with ischemic heart diseases and in those with dilated cardiomyopathy and systolic heart failure. The diagnosis of left ventricular thrombus remains important since anticoagulation will reduce the risk of systemic embolization and stroke. Despite advances in other imaging modalities, echocardiography remains the most important tool for diagnosis and risk stratification in patients predisposed to develop left ventricular thrombi. Mural thrombi formed on the left ventricular endocardium and horseshoe-shaped in chronic dilated cardiomyopathy, masquerading as left ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis was diagnosed by transthoracic 2D echocardiographic imaging in a 38 years old middle aged man. Background of this case highlighted the pathophysiology, high risk echocardiographic features and the role of anticoagulant therapy in LV thrombus with dilated cardiomyopathy.
Right Ventricular Myxoma—A Case Report  [PDF]
Ramachandran Muthiah
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2016.54030
Abstract: From an epidemiologic perspective, cardiac myxomas are best divided into the following 2 categories: those that arise in isolation and those that arise in the setting of a syndrome (so called Carney Complex). The former account for about 90% - 95% of cases, while the later account for a minority of cases and those arise from the right or left ventricle constitute as 3% each. Real-time two-dimensional echocardiography has proved to be extremely useful in defining intracavitary masses. With two-dimensional echocardiography accurate visualization of the right ventricular body and outflow tract can be accomplished consistently. The acoustic nature and anterior location of the right ventricular myxomas make them appear as bright, mobile masses. The mobile nature of the tumor can easily be appreciated and its point of attachment, or stalk can be visualized accurately. Background of this case illustrates the transthoracic 2D echocardiographic pattern of right ventricular myxoma and its attachment by a pedicle to the anterior papillary muscle, masquerading as ball-valve thrombus and cardiac “stone” in tilted parasternal long axis-3 chamber views in a 15-year-old girl. Mahaim criteria to distinguish myxoma from organizing thrombus had been highlighted.
Endomyocardial Fibrosis: Echocardiographic Profile  [PDF]
Ramachandran Muthiah
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2016.55034
Abstract: Evolution of two-dimensional and color Doppler echocardiography identified the typical features of Endomyocardial Fibrosis (EMF) such as dense ventricular apical fibrosis, dysfunction of atrioventricular valve and sub-valvular apparatus and cavity dimensions. This is the tool used most for the diagnosis of EMF in areas where the disease is endemic in Africa. Today echocardiography is used as a screening tool to identify cases of EMF at the community level and it could be confirmed at the bed side. Background of these cases highlighted the echocardiographic features of EMF in different age groups and the oldest one reported at the age of 85 years in a female in advanced stage at this coastal district of Thoothukudi in India.
Right Ventricular Endomyocardial Fibrosis in Neonate—A Case Report  [PDF]
Ramachandran Muthiah
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2016.55032
Abstract: Endomyocardial fibrosis is characterized by the formation of fibrous tissue in the endocardium. Although the disease may affect both ventricles, isolated or not, the right ventricle is more frequently involved. Endocardial fibrosis may be present in the entire ventricular cavity, being usually more marked in the apical region and right ventricular inflow tract. Its etiology, however, still remains unknown. Background—Reports on endomyocardial fibrosis in pediatric patients are not common. It is more frequent from the fourth year of age on, with few reports in the first 2 years of life. This case aimed at reporting right ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis in 7 days old male neonate, in addition to discussing the etiopathogenesis and future perspective of the disease.
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